Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard Dec 2018

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...


The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer Dec 2018

The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In contrast to prosecuting and punishing committed acts of genocide, the Genocide Convention is silent as to means of preventing future acts. Today it is generally accepted that the duty to prevent is legally binding, but there is still uncertainty in international law about its specific content. This article seeks to fill this gap in the light of the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention. It provides a minimum requirement approach, i.e. indispensable State actions to comply with their duty to prevent: naming and shaming situations of genocide as what they are. Even situations from times before the ...


Sensors Everywhere: Using Satellites And Mobile Phones To Reduce Information Uncertainty In Human Rights Crisis Research, Christoph Koettl May 2017

Sensors Everywhere: Using Satellites And Mobile Phones To Reduce Information Uncertainty In Human Rights Crisis Research, Christoph Koettl

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article critically reviews the use of ICTs for human rights crisis research. While focusing on two specific technologies—satellite imagery and mobile phone technology—it proposes a general framework for analyzing the added value of ICTs. The author suggests that their added value in mass atrocities research arises from their ability to reduce information uncertainty, a challenge that is exacerbated in the digital age. This is different from delivering “truth”, an inaccurate description that only leads to unfulfilled expectations and hopes. The article is written from a practitioner’s perspective, drawing from the work of a global human rights ...


Military Cyber Professionals Have An Important Part To Play In The Obama-Trump Transition, Michael V. Hayden Dec 2016

Military Cyber Professionals Have An Important Part To Play In The Obama-Trump Transition, Michael V. Hayden

Military Cyber Affairs

Over the course of decades in service, I have experienced multiple presidential transitions. Each new Commander in Chief updates policies, personnel, and priorities…especially when the transition involves a new political party. In this respect, the current transition from the Obama to the Trump administration is no different. While this periodic exercise of our democracy may seem disruptive to some, it is a true opportunity for military cyber professionals to help shape our future national security posture.


Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl Jun 2016

Editors' Introduction, Melanie O'Brien, Joann Digeorgio-Lutz, Lior Zylberman, Christian Gudehus, Douglas Irvin-Erickson, Randle Defalco, Hilary Earl

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Killing Them Softly: Forcible Transfers Of Indigenous Children, Ruth Amir Oct 2015

Killing Them Softly: Forcible Transfers Of Indigenous Children, Ruth Amir

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The forcible transfer of indigenous children in North America and Australia are part of a global phenomenon that consisted of the kidnapping, trafficking, removal, and identity changes of children of particular groups.

Article II(e) of the United Nation Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide prohibits the forcible transfer of children of a group to another group (FTC). The FTC echoes domestic and international legal norms and policies for the protection of children since early twentieth century. Its particular applicability to specific victims within a protected group – children –conveys a unique ethical position compared to the other acts ...


What Does Genocide Produce? The Semantic Field Of Genocide, Cultural Genocide, And Ethnocide In Indigenous Rights Discourse, Jeff Benvenuto Oct 2015

What Does Genocide Produce? The Semantic Field Of Genocide, Cultural Genocide, And Ethnocide In Indigenous Rights Discourse, Jeff Benvenuto

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The semantic field of genocide, cultural genocide, and ethnocide overlaps between Indigenous rights discourse and genocide studies. Since the 1970s, such language has been used to express grievances that have stimulated the construction of Indigenous rights in international law. These particular words signify general concerns with the integrity of Indigenous peoples, thereby undergirding a larger framework of normative beliefs, ethical arguments, and legal claims, especially the right to self-determination. Going back to the post-World War II era, this article traces the normative and institutional processes through which this overlapping discourse has emerged. Culminating with the adoption of the 2007 United ...


Key Ingredients In The Rule Of Law Recipe: The Role Of Judicial Independence In The Effective Establishment Of The Rule Of Law, Lauren A. Shumate Mar 2014

Key Ingredients In The Rule Of Law Recipe: The Role Of Judicial Independence In The Effective Establishment Of The Rule Of Law, Lauren A. Shumate

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, countries around the globe have engaged in rule of law and judicial reform initiatives, with such efforts being most prominent in transitional democracies, post-conflict and post-communist countries. Despite the fact that the concepts of judicial independence and the rule of law continue to be contested among political and legal scholars, popular wisdom and belief in the international community suggests that an independent judiciary is the cornerstone of a democratic, market-based society based on the rule of law. However, the disagreement over the extent to which an independent judiciary effects the establishment of the rule of law has ...


The Dialectics Of Citizenship: Exploring Privilege, Exclusion, And Racialization, Bernd Reiter May 2013

The Dialectics Of Citizenship: Exploring Privilege, Exclusion, And Racialization, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

What does it mean to be a citizen? What impact does an active democracy have on its citizenry and why does it fail or succeed in fulfilling its promises? Most modern democracies seem unable to deliver the goods that citizens expect; many politicians seem to have given up on representing the wants and needs of those who elected them and are keener on representing themselves and their financial backers. What will it take to bring democracy back to its original promise of rule by the people? Bernd Reiter’s timely analysis reaches back to ancient Greece and the Roman Republic ...


The Epistemology And Methodology Of Exploratory Social Science Research: Crossing Popper With Marcuse, Bernd Reiter Apr 2013

The Epistemology And Methodology Of Exploratory Social Science Research: Crossing Popper With Marcuse, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

This article seeks to propose a rationale for exploratory research in the social sciences. Inspired by the recent debates around qualitative methods (Gerring, 2001; George and Bennett, 2005; Brady and Collier, 2004; Mahoney and Rueschemeyer, 2003; Ragin, 2008; to name just a few), I seek to demonstrate that exploratory research also has a rightful place within the social sciences. In order to live up to its potential, exploratory research needs to be conducted in a transparent, honest, and selfreflexive way – and follow a set of guidelines that ensure its reliability. Exploratory research, if conducted in such a way, can achieve ...


Overcoming Coloniality: The Potential Of South-South Dialogue About Citizenship, Participatory Democracy, And Development Between Brazil And India, Bernd Reiter Jan 2013

Overcoming Coloniality: The Potential Of South-South Dialogue About Citizenship, Participatory Democracy, And Development Between Brazil And India, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

This chapter argues that North-South dialogue is heavily influenced by the colonial past and burdened by extreme power inequalities. Former colonizing nations control many of the agendas of such dialogue, exposing it to the risks of paternalism, post-colonialism, and tutelage. As a result, coloniality is a condition difficult to escape in north-south dialogue. South-south dialogue, on the other hand, is less implicated by this burden, thus offering a platform for a potentially free - and freeing – critical interchange of ideas and empirical examples that reflect subaltern experiences and provide opportunities for mutual learning. One area where this dialogue is particularly promising ...


Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter Aug 2012

Learning From Brazil And India: The Difference That Inclusion Policies Can Make, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter Jan 2012

Framing Non-Whites And Producing Second-Class Citizens In France And Portugal, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

The quality of contemporary democracies hinges on the breadth and depth of the citizenship regimes on which democracy ultimately rests. This article argues that, to assess citizenship, two important dimensions are of crucial interest, namely to what extent formal citizens are able to live and practice substantive citizenship roles and, secondly, how access to citizenship rights is used by different societal groups in order to defend privilege. Having conducted a comparative case study of Portugal and France, I now argue that political elites are contributing to a framing of non-whites as foreigners and immigrants because it serves their purpose and ...


Cyberwar And International Law: An English School Perspective, Anthony F. Sinopoli Jan 2012

Cyberwar And International Law: An English School Perspective, Anthony F. Sinopoli

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cyberwar challenges future endeavors of state security. As technological capability has improved, and access to information has become more widespread the importance of the issue in today's ever-globalizing world grows each day. A primary objective is to evaluate the place of cyber-warfare against nation-states and any repercussions under an international law paradigm. Utilizing an English School perspective, emphasis will be applied to the argument that disruptive circumstances could come to fruition if international conventions are not created to bring consensus and order among nation-states on this subject. This study hypothesizes that a future application could be an agreement under ...


Whiteness As Capital: Constructing Inclusion And Defending Privilege, Bernd Reiter Jan 2009

Whiteness As Capital: Constructing Inclusion And Defending Privilege, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Negotiating Democracy In Brazil: The Politics Of Exclusion, Bernd Reiter Oct 2008

Negotiating Democracy In Brazil: The Politics Of Exclusion, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

Do societal inequalities limit the effectiveness of democratic regimes? And if so, why? And how? Addressing this question, Bernd Reiter focuses on the role of societal dynamics in undermining democracy in Brazil. Reiter explores the ways in which race, class, and gender in Brazil structure a society that is deeply divided between the included and the excluded—and where much of the population falls into the latter category. Tracing the mechanisms of the profound cultural resistance to genuine democratization that he finds dominant among the elite, his theoretically and empirically rich analysis offers an alternative way of understanding both the ...


Continuidade E Mudança No Brasil: Os Legados Do Bacharelismo, João Batista De Castro Júnior, Bernd Reiter Sep 2007

Continuidade E Mudança No Brasil: Os Legados Do Bacharelismo, João Batista De Castro Júnior, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

In this article, we discuss some of the literature on the development of the Portuguese colonial legacy called "bacharelismo and seek to provide an answer to the question why clientelism and patronage are still such pervasive forces in Brazilian politics and indeed in broader society. By tracing back the ways how certain groups have conquered, maintained, and defended privilege vis-`a-vis popular sectors of Brazilian society and by following this process of defending inherited privilege all the way to contemporary times, we seek to support our main argument, which is that Brazilian society has never been sufficiently re-structured in order ...


Defendendo Privilégio: Os Limites Da Participação Popular Em Salvador, Bahia, Bernd Reiter Jan 2007

Defendendo Privilégio: Os Limites Da Participação Popular Em Salvador, Bahia, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

Este estudo enfoca as mudanças das relações Estadosociedade no estado da Bahia, e os fatores que condicionam uma participação democrática. A partir de trabalho de campo realizado durante várias viagens entre 2001 e 2006 à Salvador, BA, coletei dados sobre a qualidade da participação comunitária na gestão de escolas públicas, no processo de planejamento urbano (PDDU) e no orçamento participativo, iniciado em janeiro de 2005 naquela cidade.

Comparei três áreas de interação entre o governo local e a sociedade em geral, sociedade civil especificamente. Este artigo é enfocado nas duas últimas áreas da política, mas, em todos os casos observados ...


The Hermeneutic Foundations Of Qualitative Research, Bernd Reiter Oct 2006

The Hermeneutic Foundations Of Qualitative Research, Bernd Reiter

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

This article is the result of reflection that emerged while conducting qualitative field research on nationalism and exclusion in Portugal. The problem I confronted was when to stop interviewing. Stated more precisely, I was seeking an answer to the question of when one has collected enough empirical data to support or reject one’s hypotheses. This initial problem led me to a rather old discussion on the difference between natural and human sciences that has characterized German academic life for many years–in fact, since the early 19th century–producing some more heated phases of academic dispute, known as the ...


Contra, Crack And The Company, Harry E. Vanden Nov 1996

Contra, Crack And The Company, Harry E. Vanden

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Democracy And Socialism In Sandinista Nicaragua, Gary Prevost, Harry E. Vanden Jan 1993

Democracy And Socialism In Sandinista Nicaragua, Gary Prevost, Harry E. Vanden

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

Moving beyond Cold War rhetoric and stereotypical views of Third World Marxism, the authors convincingly argue that the democratic tradition and practice that was emerging in socialist Nicaragua could well serve as a model for other Third World states. They analyze concepts of democracy and the ideology of the FSLN and show that the Sandinista movement is not in any way stock Marxist-Leninism. Instead, this nationalist variant of Third World Marxism is—like most others—a function of indigenous realities.Vanden and Prevost demonstrate that Nicaragua has seen the establishment of at least three different forms of democracy: popular, participatory ...


The Peasants As A Revolutionary Class: An Early Latin American View, Harry E. Vanden May 1978

The Peasants As A Revolutionary Class: An Early Latin American View, Harry E. Vanden

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

We do not regard Marx's theory as something completed and inviolable; on the contrary, we are convinced that it has only laid the foundation stone of the science which socialists must develop in all directions if they wish to keep pace with life.