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Articles 1 - 30 of 317

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Mindful Justice: The Search For Gandhi’S Sympathetic State After Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel Sep 2015

Mindful Justice: The Search For Gandhi’S Sympathetic State After Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel

Nehal A. Patel

One of the most startling examples of unmitigated disaster occurred in Bhopal, India, in 1984, when a Union Carbide pesticide plant exploded tons of methyl isocyanate into the air, killing 3800 people overnight. 30 years later, the plant site has not been remediated, and the estimated death toll from the explosion now has reached over 20,000. Disaster victims repeatedly have sought relief directly from the government. Yet, the Indian and US governments and Union Carbide have refused to provide the necessary resources for proper remediation. In this Article, I examine the state’s response to the Bhopal disaster using ...


En El Juego De La Designación De Ministros, El Presidente Siempre Gana, Javier Martín Reyes Apr 2015

En El Juego De La Designación De Ministros, El Presidente Siempre Gana, Javier Martín Reyes

Javier Martín Reyes

In the Supreme Court Appointment Game, the President Always Wins


Roli I Parlamentit Në Procesin E Anëtarësimit Në Be, Kuvendi I Kosovës, Safet Beqiri Apr 2015

Roli I Parlamentit Në Procesin E Anëtarësimit Në Be, Kuvendi I Kosovës, Safet Beqiri

Safet Beqiri

Abstrakti Ky artikull paraqet një kornizë përmbledhëse analitike e legjislativit si një degë e rëndësishme e pushtetit në procesin e anëtarësimit të shtetit në Bashkimin Evropian, me theks të veçantë rastin e Kuvendit të Kosovë. Ky punim analizon rolin e parlamentit në marrjen e vendimeve dhe politikave në kuadër të procesit të integrimit në Bashkimin Evropian, i cili padyshim se paraqet peshën e tij si institucion i rëndësishëm për faktin se vendit i jep formë dhe drejtim të duhur si në anëtarësimin në institucione dhe organizata ndërkombëtare ndër-shtetërore dhe mbi-nacionale. Po ashtu dhe për faktin se parlamenti është e pushtetit ...


Dog Whistling, The Color-Blind Jurisprudential Regime And The Constitutional Politics Of Race, Calvin J. Terbeek Jan 2015

Dog Whistling, The Color-Blind Jurisprudential Regime And The Constitutional Politics Of Race, Calvin J. Terbeek

Calvin J TerBeek

Ian Haney Lopez’s new book, "Dog Whistle Politics: How Coded Racial Appeals Have Reinvented Racism and Wrecked the Middle Class", has a provocative thesis. Lopez contends that dog-whistling, that is, coded racial rhetoric, “explains how politicians backed by concentrated wealth manipulate racial appeals to win elections and also to win support for regressive policies that help corporations and the super-rich, and in the process wreck the middle class." Though this may seem plausible enough, the thesis cannot stand up to scrutiny; the relevant political science literature provides no support for this. What is more, Lopez's treatment of the ...


Estimating The Cost Of An Article V Convention: State Constitutional Conventions In The 1960s And 1970s, Geoffrey M. Hersch Jan 2015

Estimating The Cost Of An Article V Convention: State Constitutional Conventions In The 1960s And 1970s, Geoffrey M. Hersch

Geoffrey M Hersch

This paper provides available information regarding the cost and organization of state constitutional conventions during the 1960s and 1970s. Further, this paper uses that data to estimate the cost of different approaches to an Article V convention for proposing amendments.


The Death Penalty’S “Finely Tuned Depravity Calibrators” Fairness Follies Of Fairness Phonies Fixated On Criminals Instead Of Crimes, Lester Jackson Oct 2014

The Death Penalty’S “Finely Tuned Depravity Calibrators” Fairness Follies Of Fairness Phonies Fixated On Criminals Instead Of Crimes, Lester Jackson

LESTER JACKSON

It has been loudly and repeatedly proclaimed by opponents that capital punishment is “unfair.” In their view, it is unfair because (1) only some murderers receive the ultimate sentence and (2) they are not the most deserving. Underlying this view is the remarkable assumption that fairness is subject to “fine tuning” and “moral accuracy.” It is argued here that this assumption is indefensible both in theory and in practice. As a theoretical matter, it is insupportable to suggest that matters of conscience, right and wrong, are subject to calibration or “accuracy.” Right and wrong are not determined in the same ...


Trends In Fdi, Home Country Measures And Competitive Neutrality, Karl P. Sauvant, Persephone Economou, Ksenia Gal, Shawn Lim, Witold P. Wilinski Oct 2014

Trends In Fdi, Home Country Measures And Competitive Neutrality, Karl P. Sauvant, Persephone Economou, Ksenia Gal, Shawn Lim, Witold P. Wilinski

Karl P. Sauvant

This chapter focusses on measures that home countries have in place to facilitate and encourage outward FDI, the conditions under which these are available and implications for competitive neutrality.


The Problem Of Sovereignty, International Law, And Intellectual Conscience, Richard L. Lara Jul 2014

The Problem Of Sovereignty, International Law, And Intellectual Conscience, Richard L. Lara

Richard Louis Lara

The concept of sovereignty is a recurring and controversial theme in international law, and it has a long history in western philosophy. The traditionally favored concept of sovereignty proves problematic in the context of international law. International law’s own claims to sovereignty, which are premised on traditional concept of sovereignty, undermine individual nations’ claims to sovereignty. These problems are attributable to deep-seated flaws in the traditional concept of sovereignty. A viable alternative concept of sovereignty can be derived from key concepts in Friedrich Nietzsche’s views on human reason and epistemology. The essay begins by considering the problem of ...


Reconciling Liberalism And Judaism? Human Rights In Israel, Raphael Cohen-Almagor Jun 2014

Reconciling Liberalism And Judaism? Human Rights In Israel, Raphael Cohen-Almagor

raphael cohen-almagor

This essay argues that mixing religion in politics is problematic. It becomes destructive when the religion is unyielding and coercive. Whenever religious powers are on the rise, the foundations of liberal democracy are shaken and its protective mechanisms are regressing. Indeed, in Israel egalitarianism is still in the making. Orthodox Judaism and liberal democracy are in conflict. The rise of one comes at the expense of the other in a situation where religion does not encompass the concept of freedom from religion. This essay further argues that Palestinians and Israelis are entitled to the same rights and liberties. Accommodations and ...


Global War, Biopower And The Rise Of Drone Warfare In The 21st Century, Durante Barringer Apr 2014

Global War, Biopower And The Rise Of Drone Warfare In The 21st Century, Durante Barringer

duranteb@ymail.com

In this senior project I assert that 9/11 was a turning point for the U.S. that changed the way it views warfare and security, which consequently allowed for the abuse of law and power around the globe, specifically in countries such as Yemen, Pakistan and Somalia. This abuse will be explained using three frameworks: constitutional and international law as defined in the Office of Legal Counsel white paper; philosophically through the lens of biopower and other concepts from Michel Foucault, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri; and lastly I will discuss the issues of the drone campaign using case ...


U.S. Supreme Court Justices And Public Mood, Isaac Unah Mar 2014

U.S. Supreme Court Justices And Public Mood, Isaac Unah

Isaac Unah

Does public mood influence the decisions of U.S. Supreme Court Justices? Under what conditions might Justices vote against their typical ideological leanings and in favor of public opinion? We employ both quantitative and qualitative methods to address these questions. For the quantitative portion, logistic regression analysis indicates a strong relationship between public mood and Supreme Court Justices’ votes both in the aggregate and for a number of liberal and conservative Justices individually during the 1946 to 2011 Court terms. Justices respond less strongly to public opinion when the Court is highly polarized and when legal issues to be decided ...


"Authoritarian Constitution Making: The Role Of The Military In Latin America", Gabriel L. Negretto Feb 2014

"Authoritarian Constitution Making: The Role Of The Military In Latin America", Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

During the twentieth century, military dictatorships produced the largest number of authoritarian constitutions in Latin America. Why would military rulers invest time and resources in drafting constitutions? I argue that military leaders engage in constitution making to introduce more effective transformations of the political order during their rule and to have influence over the functioning of democracy after leaving power. However, in order to achieve all these goals, military dictators must be able to mobilize popular and partisan support for the authoritarian regime. Since this condition is rarely met, military rulers often fail in their constitution making strategy. I provide ...


Help From Above: The Role Of International Law In Facilitating The Use Of Outer Space For Disaster Management, Brian R. Israel Jan 2014

Help From Above: The Role Of International Law In Facilitating The Use Of Outer Space For Disaster Management, Brian R. Israel

Brian R Israel

This chapter explores the role of international law as well as non-legal mechanisms in enabling the use of outer space for valuable new disaster management applications. This overall challenge is addressed in three phases, ranging from the collective action problems arising from the use of space in general, to sovereignty-based objections to observing the Earth from space, to the complex coordination challenges of harnessing existing space systems for disaster applications. One mechanism in particular, the legally non-binding International Charter for Space and Major Disasters, serves as a remarkable case study in international cooperation because of the speed with which it ...


Public Reason As Higher Law, Gordon D. Ballingrud Jan 2014

Public Reason As Higher Law, Gordon D. Ballingrud

Gordon D Ballingrud

This paper presents a model of higher-law formation by employing a modified version of John Rawls’ idea of public reason. The model specifies a theory of public reason that combines the procedural and substantive aspects of public reason, and extends the concept over a third dimension, time. This concept, by virtue of its multi-generational democratic pedigree, forms a repository of political and legal concepts of justice that conform to the duty of civility, and the broad consensus on political and legal norms required of the content of public reason, which forms the overlapping consensus. Thus, public reason as higher law ...


Between Politics And Science: The Dilemma Of Reason, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker, Zoran S. Nikolić Jan 2014

Between Politics And Science: The Dilemma Of Reason, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker, Zoran S. Nikolić

Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker

Curiosity, our deepest inner intellectual need and concern brought about what we today call science. This Article will try to address the problem of the interrelation between politics and science. There is no need to discuss which of the two came first, but rather the real question is to what extent can science influence the political process? Can it help proper decision-making and, if it can, to what extent? Decision-making is most often prefixed with the term political. Can the intellectual class representing the world of science have an influence on political decision-making? As C. Wright Mills rightly noticed, if ...


We The Peoples: The Global Origins Of Constitutional Preambles, Tom Ginsburg, Daniel Rockmore, Nick Foti Jan 2014

We The Peoples: The Global Origins Of Constitutional Preambles, Tom Ginsburg, Daniel Rockmore, Nick Foti

Tom Ginsburg

We like to think that constitutions are expressions of distinctly national values, speaking for “We the People.” This is especially true of constitutional preambles, which often recount distinct events from national history and speak to national values. This article challenges this popular view by demonstrating the global influences on constitutional preambles. It does so using a new set of tools in linguistic and textual analysis, applied to a database of most constitutional preambles written since 1789. Arguing that legal language can be analogized to memes or genetic material, we analyze “horizontal” transfer of language across countries and “vertical” transfers within ...


Legitimation, Mark C. Modak-Truran Jan 2014

Legitimation, Mark C. Modak-Truran

Mark C Modak-Truran

This article identifies three different conceptions of legitimation - pre-modern, modern, and post-secular - that compete both within and across national boundaries for the coveted prize of informing the social imaginary regarding how the government and the law should be legitimated in constitutional democracies. Pre-modern conceptions of legitimation consider governments and rulers legitimate if they are ordained by God or if the political system is ordered in accordance with the normative cosmic order. Contemporary proponents of the pre-modern conception range from those in the United States who maintain that the government has been legitimated by the “Judeo-Christian tradition” to those in predominantly ...


Beyond The National Resource Privilege: Towards An International Court Of The Environment, Fabian Schuppert Jan 2014

Beyond The National Resource Privilege: Towards An International Court Of The Environment, Fabian Schuppert

Fabian Schuppert

No abstract provided.


International Arbitration Culture And Global Governance, Joshua Karton Jan 2014

International Arbitration Culture And Global Governance, Joshua Karton

Joshua Karton

Academics increasingly characterize international commercial arbitration (ICA) as a form of global governance. However, this literature rarely discusses why ICA should come to provide truly global governance, as opposed to being simply an atomized form of governance derivative of national court litigation — more neutral, more widely enforceable, perhaps faster and cheaper, but essentially the same adjudicative exercise in a different venue. For ICA to constitute global governance, as opposed to merely disconnected resolutions of individual cross-border disputes according to national laws, there are at least two prerequisites. First, legal rules must be formulated at the global level and apply regardless ...


Supermayorías A Nivel Legislativo. Los Problemas Del Debate Y Una Propuesta Metodológica, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl Jan 2014

Supermayorías A Nivel Legislativo. Los Problemas Del Debate Y Una Propuesta Metodológica, Sergio Verdugo Sverdugor@Udd.Cl

Sergio Verdugo R.

Se analiza el debate institucional relativo a si deben o no permanecer los quórums legislativos súper-mayoritarios (esto es, aquellos mayores a la mayoría simple) en la Constitución. El autor critica la manera en que la discusión ha tenido lugar desde la perspectiva académica. Luego, revisa los alcances y límites de los argumentos favorables a las supermayorías, defendiendo la idea de que ellas pueden servir de forma instrumental algunos fines legítimos que son compatibles con la democracia. Las implicancias de este trabajo alcanzan a algunas leyes orgánicas constitucionales y, también, a las leyes de quórum calificado, a las que se les ...


The Killer Idea: How Some Gunslinging Anarchists Held Freedom Of Speech At Gunpoint, Gert A. Van Vugt Msc Nov 2013

The Killer Idea: How Some Gunslinging Anarchists Held Freedom Of Speech At Gunpoint, Gert A. Van Vugt Msc

Gert A van Vugt MSc

In May 2013, the first all-plastic, 3D printed gun was fired. This paper offers a detailed description of the origins and development of the printable gun. It elucidates the transformation of the principal narrative in the increasing media coverage from circumventing arms regulation to defending free speech, highlighting the role of Defense Distributed and their strategic framing of the printable gun. Finally, the uptake of the latter narrative by early popular and scholarly contributions is discussed. The paper highlights the political impact of narrative formation in debates about regulating 3D printing and the communication of printable designs, and suggests an ...


Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz Aug 2013

Voice Without Say: Why Capital-Managed Firms Aren’T (Genuinely) Participatory, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Why are most capitalist enterprises of any size organized as authoritarian bureaucracies rather than incorporating genuine employee participation that would give the workers real authority? Even firms with employee participation programs leave virtually all decision-making power in the hands of management. The standard answer is that hierarchy is more economically efficient than any sort of genuine participation, so that participatory firms would be less productive and lose out to more traditional competitors. This answer is indefensible. After surveying the history, legal status, and varieties of employee participation, I examine and reject as question-begging the argument that the rarity of genuine ...


Evolving Christian Attitudes Towards Personal And National Self-Defense, David B. Kopel Jul 2013

Evolving Christian Attitudes Towards Personal And National Self-Defense, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

This Article analyzes the changes in orthodox Christian attitudes towards defensive violence. While the Article begins in the 19th century and ends in the 21st, most of the Article is about the 20th century. The Article focuses on American Catholicism and on the Vatican, although there is some discussion of American Protestantism.

In the nineteenth and early in the twentieth centuries, the traditional Christian concepts of Just War and of the individual's duty to use force to defend himself and his family remained uncontroversial, as they had been for centuries.

Disillusionment over World War I turned many Catholics and ...


A Theory Without A Movement, A Hope Without A Name: The Future Of Marxism In A Post-Marxist World, Justin Schwartz Jun 2013

A Theory Without A Movement, A Hope Without A Name: The Future Of Marxism In A Post-Marxist World, Justin Schwartz

Justin Schwartz

Just as Marx's insights into capitalism have been most strikingly vindicated by the rise of neoliberalism and the near-collapse of the world economy, Marxism as social movement has become bereft of support. Is there any point in people who find Marx's analysis useful in clinging to the term "Marxism" - which Marx himself rejected -- at time when self-identified Marxist organizations and societies have collapsed or renounced the identification, and Marxism own working class constituency rejects the term? I set aside bad reasons to give on "Marxism," such as that the theory is purportedly refuted, that its adoption leads necessarily ...


Escaping Earth’S Orbit But Not Earthly Regulations: A Discussion Of The Implications Of Itar, Ear, Fcc Regulations And Title Vii On Interplanetary Cubesats And Cubesat Programs, Jeremy Straub, Joe Vacekescaping Earth’S Orbit But Not Earthly Regulations: A Discussion Of The Implications Of Itar, Ear, Fcc Regulations And Title Vii On Interplanetary Cubesats And Cubesat Programs May 2013

Escaping Earth’S Orbit But Not Earthly Regulations: A Discussion Of The Implications Of Itar, Ear, Fcc Regulations And Title Vii On Interplanetary Cubesats And Cubesat Programs, Jeremy Straub, Joe Vacekescaping Earth’S Orbit But Not Earthly Regulations: A Discussion Of The Implications Of Itar, Ear, Fcc Regulations And Title Vii On Interplanetary Cubesats And Cubesat Programs

Jeremy Straub

As a small satellite moves further from Earth a lot of mission elements change. More power and/or a larger antenna is needed for communications, fuel requirements increase and mission operations become more complex. What doesn’t change significantly is the set of laws and regulations that the program and spacecraft must operate under. This paper reviews, principally, the impact of the International Trafficking in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 on the development, discrimination of information about and operations of small satellite programs. It reviews the duties imposed by ITAR, the exemptions ...


Do We Have An Itar Problem: A Review Of The Implications Of Itar And Title Vii On Small Satellite Programs, Jeremy Straub, Joe Vacek Apr 2013

Do We Have An Itar Problem: A Review Of The Implications Of Itar And Title Vii On Small Satellite Programs, Jeremy Straub, Joe Vacek

Jeremy Straub

The small satellite space certainly falls within the realm of ITAR considerations. Some programs operate under the (perhaps mistaken) belief that ITAR doesn’t apply to them (or that they will never be caught). Others may assert that they are working under the basic research exemption. Still others have implemented ITAR information and facility access controls. At best, ITAR introduces a level of uncertainty regarding small satellite programs; at worst, it may be a predator lurking in the proverbial ‘tall grass’ waiting to pounce. This paper reviews the current state of ITAR legislation (including efforts to reform and revise the ...


The Hit: Why The Nfl's Age Requirement Is Anticompetitive, Chris Green Apr 2013

The Hit: Why The Nfl's Age Requirement Is Anticompetitive, Chris Green

Chris Green

To be eligible for the NFL Draft, a player is required to be three full seasons removed from his high school graduation. This age requirement has been challenged before, most notably in 2004 Clarett v. National Football League but was struck down due to the non-statutory labor exemption which frees the age requirement from antitrust law and scrutiny. This rule has been put in place because the NFL is considered one of the most violent sporting leagues in the world and only the most physically and mentally mature players should be allowed to compete. The rule was collectively bargained for ...


When The Claim Hits: Bilateral Investment Treaties And Bounded Rational Learning, Lauge N. Skovgaard Poulsen, Emma Aisbett Apr 2013

When The Claim Hits: Bilateral Investment Treaties And Bounded Rational Learning, Lauge N. Skovgaard Poulsen, Emma Aisbett

Lauge N. Skovgaard Poulsen

Using the international investment regime as its point of departure, the paper introduces notions of bounded rationality to the study of economic diplomacy. Through a multi-method approach, it shows that developing countries often ignored the risks of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) until they themselves became subject to an investment treaty claim. Thus the behavior of developing country governments with regard to the international investment regime is consistent with that observed for individuals in experiments and field studies: they tend to ignore high-impact, low-probability risks if they cannot bring specific ‘vivid’ instances to mind.


¿Acatar O No Acatar El Fallo De La Corte Internacional De Justicia En El Caso Nicaragua V. Colombia?, Andres Barreto Mar 2013

¿Acatar O No Acatar El Fallo De La Corte Internacional De Justicia En El Caso Nicaragua V. Colombia?, Andres Barreto

Andres Barreto

Han corrido verdaderos ríos de tinta sobre las implicaciones del fallo proferido por la Corte Internacional de Justicia (CIJ) en el Caso Nicaragua v. Colombia, sin embargo, más allá de los análisis, unos jurídicos y otros políticos, es preciso preguntarse que sigue en el panorama internacional tras la sentencia.


The Dangers Of Diversity: Ethnic Fractionalization And The Rule Of Law, Michael Touchton Mar 2013

The Dangers Of Diversity: Ethnic Fractionalization And The Rule Of Law, Michael Touchton

Michael Touchton

Research linking ethnic cleavages to economic underdevelopment is a hallmark of recent efforts to explain economic growth. Similarly, the rule of law as a credible commitment to property rights and contract enforcement is also identified with economic development. Rather than treating these factors as rival explanations for economic development around the world, I propose the rule of law as the causal mechanism through which ethnic fractionalization (EF) influences growth in many countries. I argue ethnic diversity negatively impacts the rule of law due to the prevalence of ethnically-based patronage networks in developing countries. Public officials, I argue, face greater incentives ...