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Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In 2013, the BPRI launched a long-term study to analyze the behavior of Canadians crossing the border to shop in Northwest Washington by counting the percentage of Canadian license plates in specified shopping locations along the Interstate 5 corridor. Our “license plate survey” includes data collected over the course of 6 weeks (3 days per week), for a total of 18 survey days in 2013 and 2016. This Border Policy Brief is a comparative analysis of the data collected in 2013, when the loonie averaged $0.97 USD, and data collected in 2016 in the same locations, when the loonie ...


Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In February of 2017, Western Washington University (WWU) and Northwest Indian College (NWIC) hosted a two-day symposium titled, “The Changing Environment and the Columbia River Treaty.” The purpose of the symposium was to develop public awareness and inform treaty negotiators from the U.S. and diplomats from Canada on key issues to address when modernizing the Treaty. This event brought together tribal and First Nations leaders, representatives from government and private industry, non-governmental organizations and academics to discuss the modernization of the Columbia River Treaty (CRT).


Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

One year ago, BPRI published a Border Brief analyzing the relationship between the Canada – U.S. exchange rate and crossing volumes in the Cascade Gateway (see Winter 2015 Border Brief). At that time, the decline in the value of the Canadian Dollar (CAD), which began significantly in mid-2013, had already influenced the volume of cross-border travel in the region and has continued to do so since. This Border Brief updates our previous analysis, and goes beyond crossing volumes to consider the economic impacts associated with the continued drop in Canadian cross-border travelers.


Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This Brief provides an overview of the flow of goods between the U.S. and its two NAFTA neighbors, Canada and Mexico. For the U.S., the value and composition of freight that flows between its northern and southern borders varies significantly by port and region, and this variety inevitably has implications for border management policies and infrastructure investment needs. By providing an overview of the economic geography of the U.S.’s land-based trade with its NAFTA partners, this Brief seeks to inform decisions about border management and infrastructure investment, while also illustrating the value of cross-border trade to ...


Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman Jan 2015

Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Economic ties have spanned the contemporary border between Washington State and Canada for as long as the Pacific Northwest has been inhabited. The native peoples of North America interacted across the border for centuries prior to the arrival of European explorers. In the early 19th century, the major regional European economic entity was the Hudson’s Bay Company. The fur-trading operations of this British-chartered corporation took place throughout its “Columbia Department” (a region that straddled the modern Canada – U.S. border), with outposts at locations such as Fort Vancouver and Fort Nisqually. The contemporary border dates from 1846, when the ...


The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe Jan 2015

The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This border brief, authored by two Arctic scholars, takes a special look at how borders are changing in the Arctic. The fast-changing Arctic is increasingly defined by boundaries drawn at a regional scale, rather than traditional borders that are based on national lines. This has major implications for the national and foreign policies of both Arctic and non-Arctic actors. The Pacific Northwest, which has an Arctic foothold through the northern subnational units of Alaska, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories (NWT), has been playing an active role in this regionalization process for several years, and seeks to expand its presence ...


Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There has been recent speculation about the influence of the declining Canadian dollar on the volume of cross-border travel. This article explores that relationship in the context of the Cascade Gateway, which is the group of border crossings (Peace Arch, Pacific Highway, Lynden/Aldergrove, and Sumas/Abbotsford) that serve the Interstate 5 corridor, connecting Whatcom County, WA, to the Lower Mainland of B.C.


Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel Jan 2015

Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are many benefits of the NEXUS program, ranging from personal time savings to improved security. While monetizing those benefits is challenging, it is important to assess the value of NEXUS and provide information that can support further expansion of the program. This Border Brief quantifies certain individual economic benefits of membership in the NEXUS program using data from 2012 to 2014. We focus on the Peace Arch/Douglas crossing, where the traffic volume is high and a large percentage of travelers are enrolled in NEXUS.


Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On May 15, 2014, the BPRI hosted a conference titled “Beyond NAFTA: Streamlining the Border to Strengthen North American Competitiveness.” With two decades of NAFTA behind us, and with the U.S.-Canada “Beyond the Border” (BtB) agenda near the end of its phase-one timeline, speakers were asked to produce ideas about what should next be done in order to foster crossborder mobility


2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

For the IMTC passenger vehicle survey, the notion of a "cross-border trip" is not as rigid a definition of "trip" as typically used in traffic modeling. While basic origin and destination data was collected here, our purpose was not to obtain a trip diary from our respondents that would account for intermediary stops. Our interests were in the primary destination a traveler had when they left their residence and headed across the border.


The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain Jan 2014

The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Columbia River watershed comprises 258,500 square miles (about the size of Texas), with 15 percent of the watershed located in Canada. Tributaries in the upper watershed drain a substantial portion of the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains; precipitation and snowmelt from the Rockies are main flow components. The river then crosses the arid Columbia Plateau and reaches the Pacific via the Columbia River Gorge. In an average year, the river disgorges 198 million acre-feet (MAF) of water, with 25 percent of the runoff (a disproportionately large amount) originating in Canada. With snowmelt a large component of runoff, the ...


Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The transportation and inspection agencies that build and operate border infrastructure are engaged in a constant process of facility planning, wrestling with decisions about where to invest limited resources. The existing situation at a facility is obviously influential—e.g., traffic volumes in excess of a facility’s capacity; subpar workplace conditions; excessive maintenance costs for a decrepit facility. But equally important is the need to consider future conditions, such as the traffic forecast. This article discusses the volume of trade forecasted to occur at eight major ports-of-entry (POEs) along the Canada – U.S. border.


An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer Jan 2014

An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are frequent calls for investment in border infrastructure given security-related delays and transportation bottlenecks associated with physical infrastructure described as outdated and inadequate. Given the potentially large investment expenditures needed to expand inspection and transportation infrastructure at border crossing sites, as well as the irreversibility of many of the investments that might need to be made, it is important that government decision-makers base spending choices on highly-informed forward-looking projections of capacity demands on traffic corridors through which bilateral commercial shipments are likely to travel.


2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Report Of Interim Findings, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Report Of Interim Findings, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The 2013/14 passenger vehicle survey consists of a questionnaire administered to cross-border personal vehicles at five land border ports-of-entry between Western Washington State and Lower Mainland British Columbia – commonly referred to as the Cascade Gateway. The project is advanced by the International Mobility and Trade Corridor Program (IMTC) and is the third such survey undertaken by this regional cross-border planning coalition since 2000. This report outlines the organization of the project and summarizes high level findings from the summer and winter interviews conducted in July 2013 and February 2014, respectively.


Canadian Shoppers In Northwest Washington State, Ian Faulds, Jaymes Mcclain, Irena Booth, Cynthia Jurado, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2013

Canadian Shoppers In Northwest Washington State, Ian Faulds, Jaymes Mcclain, Irena Booth, Cynthia Jurado, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The purpose of this project was to record the proportion of Canadian vehicles in prominent retail destination parking lots along the I-5 corridor in northwest Washington State. These destinations were located in Blaine, Lynden, Ferndale, Bellingham, Burlington and Marysville. Data collection was executed by dividing the locations into northern and southern zones, with each zone visited by a two-person team following a prescribed route. The teams collected data within specific mapped sections of parking lots by counting the number of cars with Canadian and U.S. license plates with the use of tally counter devices. Additionally, an I-5 overpass is ...


Washington Connecting To Canada: Flow Of Goods, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds Jan 2013

Washington Connecting To Canada: Flow Of Goods, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There is a dense web of connections between the state of Washington and its northern neighbor, Canada. This article catalogs the transportation modes that connect the two and then explores the way in which goods flow between Washington and Canada across and through those connections. As seen in the sidebar figure, Canada is the 3rd -ranked destination of Washington’s exports and the largest source (by far) of imports. The conveyance of goods between these trade partners is of vital interest to both, so the methods of conveyance deserve some attention. A future issue of the Border Policy Brief will ...


Canadians Shopping In Northwest Washington, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

Canadians Shopping In Northwest Washington, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In March 2013 the BPRI began a long-term study of the behavior of Canadian cross-border shoppers. The main goal of the study is to provide data with which to analyze the economic impacts of changes in factors that might influence cross-border shopping—changes such as a decline in the exchange rate, or a revision of sales taxes or duty-free limits.


The Nature Of Aggregate And Regional Canada-Us Trade (1990-2011), Steven Globerman, Paul Storer Jan 2013

The Nature Of Aggregate And Regional Canada-Us Trade (1990-2011), Steven Globerman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The impact of post-9/11 border security developments on Canada-U.S. trade has been the focus of much attention in recent years. The available evidence suggests that both U.S. exports and imports with Canada grew more slowly after 9/11 than would otherwise have been the case.


Us Dependence Upon Canadian Fossil Fuels, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Austin Rose Jan 2012

Us Dependence Upon Canadian Fossil Fuels, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Austin Rose

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The energy relationship between Canada and the U.S. is a much-discussed topic within business, government, and the media, prompted in part by the controversy surrounding the proposed Keystone XL cross-border oil pipeline. Having noticed differing statistics regarding the nature of the relationship, we here attempt to provide an accurate picture of the extent to which the U.S. depends upon Canada as a supplier of fossil fuels. Much data can be found online, both at agency websites [e.g., U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), National Energy Board of Canada (NEB), Statistics Canada] and at industry association sites (e ...


Metrics Of Policy Effects At The Canada-Us Border: The National Export Initiative And The Effort To 'Green The Border', David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds, Stephanie Messa Jan 2012

Metrics Of Policy Effects At The Canada-Us Border: The National Export Initiative And The Effort To 'Green The Border', David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds, Stephanie Messa

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Following the announcement of the Canada – U.S. ―"Beyond the Border" (BtB) vision, there has been increased emphasis upon measurement of various things associated with national borders. Many of the specific elements within the BtB plan include an associated metric, so that bureaucrats and the public are able to measure progress toward realization of the vision. Of course, BtB is not the only border-related policy goal adopted by governments—other goals have been established by Canada, the U.S., and states and provinces. This article focuses upon two such policy goals: the U.S. National Export Initiative (NEI), and the ...


Crossing Bridges: Observations And Strategies By Cross-Border Business Communities In An Evolving Regulatory Environment, Anneliese Vance Jan 2012

Crossing Bridges: Observations And Strategies By Cross-Border Business Communities In An Evolving Regulatory Environment, Anneliese Vance

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Until recently, the international border between Canada and the U.S. was frequently referred to as the world‘s longest 'unguarded' or 'friendly' border. While the border was never truly left unguarded, Canadian and U.S. citizens enjoyed relatively open borders, without the enforcement of passport requirements. On September 11, 2001, the porous border that had symbolized international cooperation, friendship and the world‘s largest bilateral trade relationship, was abruptly re-defined in the public eye as a potential liability in the U.S. national defense system.


Scholars' Views On Improving Border Policy, Donald K. Alper Jan 2011

Scholars' Views On Improving Border Policy, Donald K. Alper

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On April 29, the Center for Canadian-American Studies at Western Washington University hosted a conference, Bridging Distances: Past and Future Perspectives on Canada-US Relations, to mark the program’s 40th anniversary.* Participating scholars and practitioners were asked to comment on future trends, opportunities and challenges in the relationship. Plenary remarks were given by Ian Brodie, former chief of staff to Prime Minister Harper, and the luncheon address was delivered by David Emerson, chair of the Energy Policy Institute of Canada and former minister in two governments. Panelists were convened to discuss issues covering the following areas: • Both Sides Now: Parallel ...


Advancing Program Symmetry For Us-Canada Investment In Cross-Border Transportation, Hugh Conroy Jan 2011

Advancing Program Symmetry For Us-Canada Investment In Cross-Border Transportation, Hugh Conroy

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Reviewing the 17 years since the enactment of NAFTA, the U.S. and Canada have undertaken many initiatives to improve cross-border connections. While the range of issues that receive dedicated treatment is broad, this article focuses on crossborder transportation. Since NAFTA, both countries have set up multi-year federal investment programs for cross-border transportation – the U.S. Coordinated Border Infrastructure Program (CBI) in 1998 and the Canadian Border Infrastructure Fund (BIF) in 2002. In 2000, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) and Transport Canada (TC) signed a memorandum of cooperation (MOC) on transportation issues which led to the creation of ...


Border Barometer 2010, Border Policy Research Institute, University Of Buffalo Regional Institute Jan 2010

Border Barometer 2010, Border Policy Research Institute, University Of Buffalo Regional Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Developed through a partnership of the Border Policy Research Institute of Western Washington University and University at Buffalo Regional Institute, the Border Barometer is a tool that provides a U.S. perspective on northern border performance. It seeks to provide researchers, policymakers and other interested parties with a better understanding of economic conditions and trends along the entire border and at individual ports of entry.


How Dhs Might Address The Mission Of Trade Facilitation, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2010

How Dhs Might Address The Mission Of Trade Facilitation, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In the post-9/11 era, businesses engaged in cross-border commerce have persistently said that “security has trumped trade” to an extent that is damaging to our integrated North American economy. This refrain has grown louder in the aftermath of the deep economic recession that began two years ago. Recent reports from academia, think-tanks, and the private sector have urgently called for new efforts to facilitate crossborder trade in order to preserve our competitiveness within the global economy, and thus preserve our way of life.


Geographic And Temporal Variations In Freight Costs For U.S. Imports From Canada: Measurement And Analysis, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer Jan 2010

Geographic And Temporal Variations In Freight Costs For U.S. Imports From Canada: Measurement And Analysis, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In recent years, private sector managers in both Canada and the United States have expressed concerns about a “thickening” of the Canada-U.S. border with resulting adverse consequences for continued integration of the North American economy and, more specifically, for Canada-U.S. trade. Several factors have been identified as particularly relevant contributors to higher costs associated with bilateral trade. They include more frequent and closer inspection of goods crossing the border owing to stricter health and safety regulations and heightened security against acts of terrorism. The added delays and uncertainties imposed upon commercial shipments, particularly from Canada to the U ...


Streamlining Of Nafta Tariffs: Benefits For Washington State, Aaron Hayman, Paul Storer Jan 2009

Streamlining Of Nafta Tariffs: Benefits For Washington State, Aaron Hayman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP) is an initiative launched in 2005 by the leaders of Canada, Mexico, and the United States to promote security and prosperity through cooperation and sharing of information. One component of the prosperity agenda is a Working Group on the movement of goods which was created to pursue the following objectives: … lower the transaction costs of trade in goods by liberalizing the requirements for obtaining duty-free treatment under NAFTA, including through the reduction of “rules of origin” costs on goods traded between our countries. Each country should have in place procedures to ...


Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, University Of Buffalo Regional Institute Jan 2009

Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, University Of Buffalo Regional Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This inaugural Border Barometer provides a preliminary context for officials to consider when thinking about strengthening collaboration to enhance security and competitiveness, as well as the appropriate mechanism for accomplishing these goals. Data collected thus far tell a Northern-border-wide story of increased Canada-US economic interdependence amidst a decline in social interaction.


The Year-Over-Year Decline In Southbound Freight At The Canada-Us Border, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2009

The Year-Over-Year Decline In Southbound Freight At The Canada-Us Border, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This article examines truck- and rail-borne freight flows at five land ports-of-entry along the Canada – U.S. border: Blaine, WA; Sweetgrass, MT; Detroit, MI; Buffalo, NY; and Champlain, NY. The five ports were chosen to provide geographic diversity, as well as a range of sizes. Together, these five ports handled 53 percent of the truck-borne freight entering the U.S. from Canada in December 2007, so the trends found at these ports likely are representative of the situation along the entire border. A year-over-year methodology was used in order to account for background seasonal variations. Rather than examining the value ...


International Mobility & Trade Corridor Project (Imtc) 2008 Passenger Intercept Survey Final Report, Melissa Miller, Hugh Conroy, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2008

International Mobility & Trade Corridor Project (Imtc) 2008 Passenger Intercept Survey Final Report, Melissa Miller, Hugh Conroy, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The 2008 survey is intended to serve as a complement to the 2000 survey, supporting the investigation of changes in behavior over time.