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International and Area Studies

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 239

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this special issue of the Journal of Public Deliberation, multiple faces of Participatory Budgeting programs are revealed. The articles demonstrate that there is no standardized set of “best practices” that governments are adopting, but there are a broader set of principles that are adapted by local governments to meet local circumstances. Adopt and adapt appears to be the logic behind many PB programs.


Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler

Journal of Public Deliberation

This essay is a reflection piece. I identify key principles at the core of how PB functions and to discuss the scope of change we might expect to see generated by these institutions. I move beyond the idea that there is a specific model or set of “best practices” that define PB. Rather, it is most fruitful to conceptualize PB as a set of principles that can generate social change. The weaker the adherence to these principles, the less social change generated. The second purpose of the essay is to reflect on the impacts generated by PB. How do these ...


The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank Dec 2012

The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article addresses the long-standing controversy over the World Bank’s role in the promotion of participatory budgeting (PB). Some on the left have celebrated the Bank’s funding and advocacy for PB as signifying the legitimacy or mainstream success of the process, while others see the Bank’s endorsement of PB as a sign that participatory budgeting is becoming watered down and losing its transformative potential, if it ever had such potential. This debate has mostly been an ideological one, and little research has been done to provide evidence to either side. The article is the first to address ...


International Terrorism And Television Channels:Operation And Regulation Of Tv News Channel During Coverage Of Terrorism, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr Dec 2012

International Terrorism And Television Channels:Operation And Regulation Of Tv News Channel During Coverage Of Terrorism, Ratnesh Dwivedi Mr

Ratnesh Dwivedi

The concept of globalization or internationalization of certain wars, which were result of terrorist activities worldwide , as well as the high attention of terrorism coverage broadcast worldwide might open up better opportunities to journalists – particularly to those who work in democratic countries like U.S.A and India – to improve their coverage. The context is the key: the context of the operation methodology, follow of guidelines of regulatory bodies,and of the journalistic culture and of the global environment. It is very important how media presents consequences of terrorist acts, how information is transmitted to public. Television and press have ...


Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Dec 2012

Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

No abstract provided.


The Next Hu, Zheng Wang Dec 2012

The Next Hu, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Superpowers: Nigeria And China Relations, Faouziatou Aboudou Kabassi Dec 2012

A Tale Of Two Superpowers: Nigeria And China Relations, Faouziatou Aboudou Kabassi

Master's Theses

The study discusses the historical development of the Sino-Nigerian bilateral relations. The paper provides a detailed view of china's FDI in Nigeria and the diverse challenges faced by the oil rich country to develop its own economy through NEEDS as a result of china's economic power. China’s partnership with Nigeria is ideally for economic growth but practically poisonous to Nigeria’s development goals as China is solely pursuing its own interest and diverting its partner from working toward its NEEDS goal. A deep investigation of the relations should be reviewed for both countries. This will be needed ...


Arizona’S Senate Bill 1070: A Case Study On State-Sponsored Immigration Policy, Ryan Murphy Dec 2012

Arizona’S Senate Bill 1070: A Case Study On State-Sponsored Immigration Policy, Ryan Murphy

Master's Theses

This study assesses the origins of Arizona’s state-sponsored immigration policy. It attempts to identify the social dynamics within Arizona that contributed to the overwhelming public support for SB 1070. Since it has been two years after the law was passed, this analysis determines what impact the law has had thus far within the state. Finally, it postulates the future of Arizona’s immigration policy.


Oil, Power, And Discourse: How Chevron Evaded Its Dues To The Indigenous Communities Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Kine Norland Dec 2012

Oil, Power, And Discourse: How Chevron Evaded Its Dues To The Indigenous Communities Of The Ecuadorian Amazon, Kine Norland

Master's Theses

Abstract

The principal objectives of this thesis were to shed lights on the backside of oil and to question the great power of big corporations. I researched why Chevron refused to acknowledge its legal obligation to remedy the complex problems it has caused in the Ecuadorian Rainforest. The catastrophes the indigenous communities have been facing are about to change as a result of grass root mobilization against Chevron. By the use of observations, discourse analysis of the media, and the use of theories from Michel Foucault, I was able to explain how Chevron has managed to escape from the terrible ...


Re-Evaluating Peacebuilding In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: A Case Study In Dongo, Wilita Sanguma Dec 2012

Re-Evaluating Peacebuilding In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: A Case Study In Dongo, Wilita Sanguma

Master's Theses

Re-evaluating Peacebuilding in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A case study in Dongo

The Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo) is a country rich with natural resources centered in the heart of Africa. Since the colonial era, the country has seen more bloodshed than peace and development. From 1996 to 2003, Congo experienced the worst conflict since World War II, with over six million people dead. Despite having the largest United Nations peacekeeping troops present; Congo continues to be plagued by violence. This research thesis argues that the international community failed to promote a lasting peace in Congo because the international ...


Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell Dec 2012

Women's Mobilization In Latin America: A Case Study Of Venezuela, Brianna Russell

Master's Theses

Abstract

I examine the following elements in regards to women’s mobilization in Latin America and Venezuela from the late 1950s to the present: (a) the influence of the state and economy on times when women mobilized (b) class division within the movement (c) women’s demands during different time periods (d) the ways in which women were successful in working towards gender equality. This thesis reviews the literature on women’s mobilization in Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century. I find that women mobilized across class lines with the masses to end dictatorships. Women demobilized ...


Dual Intransigence: An Assessment Of The Us-Iran Conflict And Prospects For Rapprochement, Chad Lama Dec 2012

Dual Intransigence: An Assessment Of The Us-Iran Conflict And Prospects For Rapprochement, Chad Lama

Master's Theses

In the months leading up to the 2012 Presidential Election, a number of Republican candidates that were vying for the nomination against the incumbent, Barack Obama, made sensational claims regarding the “Nuclear Iran Question”. This study discusses the issue of a nuclear Iran, what this means for regional stability, and what America’s options are in dealing with the Islamic Republic. Specifically the researcher addresses the consequences of a strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities, conducting a discourse analysis for the purposes of demonstrating the polarizing affect this issue has had on some of the leading scholars, theorists and practitioners ...


The Odious Debt System, Andrew Hanauer Dec 2012

The Odious Debt System, Andrew Hanauer

Master's Theses

Over the past forty years, African countries have accumulated enormous quantities of external debt. Today, this debt is heavily burdensome; money spent on debt service is money that cannot be invested into infrastructure development, health, education, or other areas that might benefit the large number of Africans who live in poverty. Calls for debt forgiveness have led western institutions to forgive a portion of this debt, but have not addressed the question of whether or not this debt is legitimate in the first place.

Similarly, academic proposals for the classification and subsequent repudiation or forgiveness of so-called "odious debt" have ...


The Cold War And Heated Divides: Religious Proliferation, Maxwell Bevilacqua Dec 2012

The Cold War And Heated Divides: Religious Proliferation, Maxwell Bevilacqua

The Undergraduate Journal of Social Studies

Whereas religion, in its most general sense, is typically understood to be a secondary, tertiary, or even a non-factor in the realm of international relations, this piece explores the potential primacy of it’s impact in the Cold War. Specifically, America’s fanatical and concerted efforts to rally the world against the fanaticism of communism underscore not only the universal appeal of ”spiritual forces”, but also the historical reframing of American soft power. Further, this piece investigates how we may have come to understood the Cold War as a battle of “good” against “evil” in pursuit of peace and yet ...


Soft Power, Ngos, And The Us War On Terror, Layla Saleh Dec 2012

Soft Power, Ngos, And The Us War On Terror, Layla Saleh

Theses and Dissertations

Bringing together foreign policy literature and INGO (international non-governmental organization) scholarship, this dissertation seeks to explain geographic and temporal variation in the US government's use of hard, soft and smart power in the War on Terror. Making an important theoretical contribution, I revise Nye's concept of soft power, more rigorously conceptualizing it as a consciously-utilized strategy employing methods other than hard power (military or economic sanctions) to influence a target government or population to enhance US interests. Soft power is a strategic means of achieving a foreign policy goal. I conceptualize smart power as including both soft and ...


Aesthetic Constructions Of Korea Nationalism: Spectacle, Politics And History, Yooil Bae Dec 2012

Aesthetic Constructions Of Korea Nationalism: Spectacle, Politics And History, Yooil Bae

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

No abstract provided.


Palestine Refuses To Disappear”, Le Monde Diplomatique, December 2012, Leila Farsakh Nov 2012

Palestine Refuses To Disappear”, Le Monde Diplomatique, December 2012, Leila Farsakh

Leila Farsakh

No abstract provided.


From “Top-Down” To “Middle-Out”: China And Japan Can Reconcile Their Relationship, Zheng Wang Nov 2012

From “Top-Down” To “Middle-Out”: China And Japan Can Reconcile Their Relationship, Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Book Review: H-Net, By Zachary Fredman (December, 2012), Zheng Wang Nov 2012

Book Review: H-Net, By Zachary Fredman (December, 2012), Zheng Wang

Zheng Wang

No abstract provided.


Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion Nov 2012

Foreword, Amy C. Gaudion

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler Nov 2012

A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler

Brian Wampler

The "third wave" of democratization has been accompanied by the spread of new institutions that allow citizens to deliberate and decide policy outcomes. Leading international organizations, such as the World Bank and the United Nations, have disseminated "best practice" programs identified with "good government" policy reform efforts. One of the most well-known programs, Participatory Budgeting (PB), was first adopted by Brazil's Workers' Party (PT) in 1989 as a means to promote social justice, accountability, and transparency. There has been widespread adoption of PB in Brazil, led by the PT. Yet, by 2001, nearly half of PB programs had been ...


Jlia Editorial Board & Staff Nov 2012

Jlia Editorial Board & Staff

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson Nov 2012

To Forgive And Forget: How Reconciliation And Amnesty Legislation In Afghanistan Forgives War Criminals While Forgetting Their Victims, Sara L. Carlson

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

More than three decades of war and hundreds of thousands killed or brutalized by the actions of warlords and insurgent commanders vying for power comprise the backdrop of modern Afghanistan. As Afghanistan continues toward a new era, seeking democracy in a country where tribal affiliations and ethnic groups often usurp any sense of patriotism, the reconciliation of armed fighters while providing an adequate grievance process for victims of war crimes must take priority in the process adopted to unify the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. This comment explores the current attempt by the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to provide a system ...


International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore Nov 2012

International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This essay explores the ways States use their domestic laws to regulate activities that cross national borders. Domestic-law enforcement decisions play an underappreciated role in the development of international regulatory policy, particularly in situations where the enforcing State's power to apply its law extraterritorially is not contested. Collective action problems suggest there will be an undersupply of enforcement decisions that promote global welfare and an oversupply of enforcement decisions that promote national welfare. These collective action problems may be mitigated in part by government networks and other forms of regulatory cooperation.


The Full Story Of United States V. Smith, America’S Most Important Piracy Case, Joel H. Samuels Nov 2012

The Full Story Of United States V. Smith, America’S Most Important Piracy Case, Joel H. Samuels

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This article explores the seminal United States Supreme Court decision of United States v. Smith (1820). Smith, an early piracy case, has influenced developments in both domestic and international law on piracy, universal jurisdiction, and a range of broader themes. This article is the first to explore the context within which the case arose, as well as the circumstances of the case itself. In addition to the details of the case, the story of the men prosecuted for their cruise aboard the vessel known as the Irresistible in the late spring and early summer of 1819 also offers a window ...


Remarks On Counterstrike, Eric Schmitt Nov 2012

Remarks On Counterstrike, Eric Schmitt

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

After 9/11, the United States government was forced to think differently about terrorism and the nation’s ability to respond to attacks. Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker address many of the intricacies faced by officials at the White House, the State Department and the Pentagon in their book Counterstrike. In this essay, transcribed from remarks given on March 21, 2012 at the Clarke Forum for Contemporary Issues at Dickinson College, Schmitt discusses how the U.S. government’s policies toward Al Qaeda and terrorism in general have evolved in the ten-year period following the attacks.


Remarks, The Big Picture: Beyond Hot Spots & Crises In Our Interconnected World, Anne-Marie Slaughter Nov 2012

Remarks, The Big Picture: Beyond Hot Spots & Crises In Our Interconnected World, Anne-Marie Slaughter

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The picture of foreign policy as seen by the United States has changed dramatically over the last few decades. The United States now faces a world far more interconnected and integrated than the foreign policy landscape of the Cold War and its immediate aftermath. Instead of one or two super power centers, the world today is made up of multiple global and regional power centers. This essay, transcribed and adapted from remarks given by Anne-Marie Slaughter on March 15, 2012, at the Dickinson School of Law of the Pennsylvania State University, examines the shift to a multi-polar world of foreign ...


International Order After The Financial Crisis, Harold James Nov 2012

International Order After The Financial Crisis, Harold James

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

How is international order built, and how is it legitimate, in a world in which political and economic foundations are rapidly shifting? What are the consequences of the rise of major new powers for the structure and the functioning of the international system? Great wars or great financial crises have in the past led to disorientation about the moral foundations of society, domestically and internationally. The paper examines parallels with the Great Depression, and in particular the weakening of multilateralism and of small political units, and the strengthening of large powers with hegemonic claims. The paper then turns to an ...


The Growing Dark Side Of Cyberspace ( . . . And What To Do About It), Ronald Deibert Nov 2012

The Growing Dark Side Of Cyberspace ( . . . And What To Do About It), Ronald Deibert

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Cyberspace – the global environment of digital communications – surrounds and embodies us entirely, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. We are always on, always connected: emailing, texting, searching, networking, and sharing are all now as commonplace as eating, breathing, and sleeping. But there is a dark side to cyberspace - hidden contests and malicious threats - that is growing like a disease from the inside-out. This disease has many symptoms, and is being reinforced by a multiplicity of disparate but mutually reinforcing causes. Some of these driving forces are unintended byproducts of the new digital universe into which we have thrust ...


The Rise Of Transparency And The Decline Of Secrecy In The Age Of Global And Social Media, P.J. Crowley Nov 2012

The Rise Of Transparency And The Decline Of Secrecy In The Age Of Global And Social Media, P.J. Crowley

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

News reporting of a wide range of sensitive government policies, operations, and internal deliberations has raised understandable concerns that U.S. national security is being compromised. In response, there is an increase in investigations and prosecutions and proposed legislation to plug government leaks. But a broader reality may be at work. In the increasingly interconnected and transparent world of the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, satellite television, WikiLeaks, omniscient cellphones and technology-enhanced revolutions such as the Arab Awakening, governments have lost their ability to control the flow of information. More people have access to more information, with the ability to communicate anything ...