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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

North African Regular And Irregular Migration: The Case Of Libya, Mustafa O. Attir Sep 2018

North African Regular And Irregular Migration: The Case Of Libya, Mustafa O. Attir

New England Journal of Public Policy

Because of its geographical size and location, Libya has for centuries been a transit county for human movement across the region. Thus, its experience with immigrants has a long history. In the early 1970s, Libya became a destination for foreigners seeking jobs. Some entered the country legally, others illegally. All came to work, live, and send remittances back to their families. During the 1990s, when many migrants used Libya as a transit country for crossing the sea to Europe, the European Union started negotiating with the Libyan government to curb the flow of irregular migrants. In 2011, the country joined ...


Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Strategies For Stability And Sustainability In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

In this article, the author provides a wide and vivid picture of the several dimensions of migration flows in the current global scenario and, in particular, in the Mediterranean. She proposes new interpretations of this complex phenomenon, analyzing its multiple aspects and characteristics and the push factors and policies and responses of the countries of origin, transit, and destination. She suggests new approaches and strategies to deal with the issue of migration, urging the EU member states and EU institutions to develop management policies for stability and sustainability that are welcoming and that respect human rights.


Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli Sep 2018

Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli

New England Journal of Public Policy

This study investigates the nexus between the mass movement of people and security and foreign policy behaviors. The assertion is that refugee flows intensify security issues among decision makers and members of society; consequently, new fears and wider perceptions of threats have several implications for foreign policy agenda. The article focuses on the theoretical analysis of the securitization of migration and its impact on foreign policy and security policy. It also analyzes, from a security perspective, the effect on Turkey of the refugees who arrived en masse from Syria during the past six years. The article concludes with an analysis ...


Syrian Refugees In Europe: Migration Dynamics And Political Challenges, Leila Hudson Sep 2018

Syrian Refugees In Europe: Migration Dynamics And Political Challenges, Leila Hudson

New England Journal of Public Policy

After 2011 the Syrian conflict caused growing numbers of residents to flee to escape escalating regime brutality and deteriorating economic conditions. In addition to a population of up to eight million internally displaced residents, at least four million Syrians fled to neighboring Arab states and Turkey. Conditions in those countries ranged from desperate to uncomfortable, and between 2014 and 2016 up to a million refugees continued on to seek asylum in Europe. In addition to the trauma of displacement the refugees experienced, the migration left traces on the host and transit countries in the form of economic and infrastructural challenges ...


Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski Sep 2018

Response And Responsibilities Of The Republic Of Macedonia In The Migrant And Refugees Crises, Toni Mileski

New England Journal of Public Policy

The Republic of Macedonia has had a long history of dealing with migrants and refugees. Since the late nineteenth century, conflicts, including the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), the First and Second World Wars, the Greek civil war (1945–1949), the Kosovo conflict, and the 2001 internal security crisis, have caused successive waves of migration. More recently, armed conflict in the Middle East, especially in Syria, caused a migrant and refugee crisis that has deeply affected the country. This article analyses how the Republic of Macedonia has responded to this crisis. It examines the initial period of the crisis, the measures ...


Managing Migration: The Balkans United Against Refugees, Hedvig Morvai, Dragan Djokovic Sep 2018

Managing Migration: The Balkans United Against Refugees, Hedvig Morvai, Dragan Djokovic

New England Journal of Public Policy

In 2015, alone, almost a million refugees sought to reach Northwestern Europe by traveling from Turkey, through Greece and Macedonia, and then across Serbia, Hungary, or Croatia, following what became known as the Balkan route. Despite the numerous problems associated with this route, it remained functional until March 8, 2016, when the EU member states reached a deal with Turkey that has put a stop to this particular migrants’ itinerary.

Like the member states of the European Union, the Balkan countries have been dealing with migration problems in an obsolete manner. Wars and their attendant difficulties in Serbia, Croatia, and ...


The Mediterranean Refugee Crisis: Heritage, Tourism, And Migration, Marxiano Melotti Sep 2018

The Mediterranean Refugee Crisis: Heritage, Tourism, And Migration, Marxiano Melotti

New England Journal of Public Policy

The Mediterranean Sea has become a huge cemetery: many thousands of migrants have lost their lives trying to cross it in search of a better future. In 2015, more than a million migrants and refugees reached Europe through irregular means, but almost 4,000 went missing and probably drowned. In 2016, 364,000 arrived in Europe and more than 5,000 were lost en route. The arrivals in Italy by sea were 181,436 in 2016 and 119,369 in 2017. While UN organizations and EU governments seem unable or unwilling to face this epoch-making drama, the culture industry has ...


Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re Sep 2018

Introduction: Developing Strategies For Stability And A Sustainable Shared Development In Euro-Mediterranean Migrations, Emanuela C. Del Re

New England Journal of Public Policy

This special issue on migration offers a collection of contributions from prominent scholars, academics, and researchers from Europe, Africa, and the United States who provide a unique multilevel and prismatic analysis of this fundamental social phenomenon.


Formulas For Partition, Fragmented Maps, Yet No Solution, Mahdi Abdul Hadi Dec 2005

Formulas For Partition, Fragmented Maps, Yet No Solution, Mahdi Abdul Hadi

New England Journal of Public Policy

The author traces the history of the partition formula in Israel and Palestine, beginning with the 1937 British "Peel Commission" through the decades to the June War of 1967 and, almost a decade later, President Jimmy Carter's mention of a "Palestinian homeland." The Reagan Plan followed, and the 1980s witnessed a flood of political formulas that attempted to manage the conflict. In the 1990s, in the light of the post-Cold War era, a "culture of recognition and reconciliation" was introduced and with it, hopeful times. But the more recent efforts to bring the partition formula back, introduced against a ...


Peace Through War? United States And Israeli Strategies, Heribert Adam Dec 2005

Peace Through War? United States And Israeli Strategies, Heribert Adam

New England Journal of Public Policy

Can the lessons learned from South Africa's struggle with apartheid be applied to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? Is a two-state solution in the Middle East a realistic way out of the long-standing dilemma? Or is a common state (what Israelis usually refer to as a "bi-national" state), which might be defined by a high security barrier, a feasible solution? The author investigates the implications of Iraq and 9/11 on progress toward a solution.


Truth Under Fire: The War And The Media, Gary S. Messinger Dec 2005

Truth Under Fire: The War And The Media, Gary S. Messinger

New England Journal of Public Policy

Over the last hundred years, the relationship between war and mass communication has become increasingly elaborate. Governments and private-sector organizations have found more and more ways to use the media in wartime, and the range of available technologies has expanded to include print, film, radio, television, and the Internet. The system that exists today, at the start of the twenty-first century, is the product of many twists and turns over the decades: an accretion of some strategies for wartime use of mass communication and a rejection of others. An understanding of this evolution is a starting point for crafting policies ...


Africa And The War On Terror, Eddy Maloka Dec 2005

Africa And The War On Terror, Eddy Maloka

New England Journal of Public Policy

The U.S. war on terror is now in its third year, and the bombings in Afghanistan and Iraq are far from over. Many analysts and policy thing-tanks have reflected on the impact of this war on Africa; some have put emphasis on the economy, development aid, security questions, and others on implications for U.S. foreign policy. The intention of this piece is to introduce new elements to the reflection.


One Morning In Morocco, Eli Mechanic Dec 2005

One Morning In Morocco, Eli Mechanic

New England Journal of Public Policy

Presents the journal of an American student studying in Morocco based on his firsthand experiences on how Arabs viewed the Iraq war from January to May 2003. Lesson learned on March 20, 2003 where he felt the anger of Arab people upon seeing an American; Excitement of Arabs upon hearing news about dead Americans; Realization of the Moroccans on the cruelty of the Americans.


Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley Dec 2005

Editor's Note, Padraig O'Malley

New England Journal of Public Policy

In the months preceding the U.S. presidential election in November 2004, George Bush and John Kerry conducted what passed for a serious debate on U.S. foreign policy, especially the rationale for the war in Iraq and on the state of the "war on terror." It was easy to lose sight of the primary purpose of these two special issues of the New England Journal of Public Policy on war. So I should, perhaps, remind our readers.

The question posed was: what lessons can we draw from the wars and conflicts of the twentieth century that might help us ...


Conflict Resolution, Nation-Building & Constitution-Making., Nicholas Haysom Dec 2005

Conflict Resolution, Nation-Building & Constitution-Making., Nicholas Haysom

New England Journal of Public Policy

Most of the current and intractable armed conflicts in the world today are intra-state conflicts in societies divided along the fault lines of race, religion, ethnicity, language, and region. These conflicts are overwhelmingly animated by identity. Even where such conflicts do not take on a violent form, they serve to prevent the emergence of interest-based politics in multi-cultural societies. The political systems in such nation-states -- and their national constitutions -- are required to address the way in which multiple identities can coexist within an inclusive national polity and alongside a national identity. This challenge faces both new democracies and older ones ...


Cruel Science: Cia Torture And U.S. Foreign Policy, Alfred W. Mccoy Dec 2005

Cruel Science: Cia Torture And U.S. Foreign Policy, Alfred W. Mccoy

New England Journal of Public Policy

The roots of the recent Abu Ghraib prisoner-abuse scandal lie in CIA torture techniques that have metastasized inside the U.S. intelligence community for the past fifty years. A contradictory U.S. foreign policy marked by both public opposition to torture and secret propagation of its practice has influenced American response to UN treaties, shaped federal anti-torture statutes, and produced a succession of domestic political scandals. After a crash research effort in the 1950s, the CIA developed a revolutionary new paradigm of psychological torture and then, for the next thirty years, disseminated it to allies worldwide. After September 11, the ...


Rhetoric Or Reality Exporting Democracy To The Middle East, Marina Ottoway, Andrew Hess, Naomi Chazan Dec 2005

Rhetoric Or Reality Exporting Democracy To The Middle East, Marina Ottoway, Andrew Hess, Naomi Chazan

New England Journal of Public Policy

Focuses on the promotion of democracy to the Middle East. Capacity of the U.S. to promote democracy in the Middle East; Discussion on the claim that spreading democracy in Iraq and Afghanistan is influenced by rhetorical flourish designed to impress American audiences; Assumption that the American brand of democracy is at a high price. From the EPIIC Symposium at Tufts University, February 2004.


The Role Of The United Nations In A Unipolar World, Brian Urquart, Michael Glennon Dec 2005

The Role Of The United Nations In A Unipolar World, Brian Urquart, Michael Glennon

New England Journal of Public Policy

Presents comments on issues concerning the role of the United Nations in a unipolar world system. Discussion on the issue concerning the failure of the Security Council to reach unanimity on the occupation of Iraq and the regime change; Views on preventive war; Information on several problems encountered by the UN wherein their actions are considered irrelevant. From the EPIIC Symposium at Tufts University, February 2004.


Weapons Of Mass Destruction & Public International Law, Michael Donlan Dec 2005

Weapons Of Mass Destruction & Public International Law, Michael Donlan

New England Journal of Public Policy

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) into the hands of rogue dictators and terrorists has brought a sea change in strategic international relations, and is accelerating the necessity of public international law to protect humanity. Traditional balances of power have little force left to deter WMD. Major powers must seriously revamp and proactively exploit public international law, and, to that end, bolster multilateral institutions to marshal an action plan to leash this unacceptable risk. Leadership is needed on three levels: 1) promote a new mission for public international law to address WMD; 2) muster a broad-based coalition of ...


The Pulse Of War: Writing A Response, Kevin Bowen, Tony Aiello, Chris Agee, Almira El-Zein, Fred Marchant, Carolyn Forché, Fanny Howe Dec 2005

The Pulse Of War: Writing A Response, Kevin Bowen, Tony Aiello, Chris Agee, Almira El-Zein, Fred Marchant, Carolyn Forché, Fanny Howe

New England Journal of Public Policy

Introduction and a series of articles and poetry concerning the war on terror being imposed by the U.S., and more.

Writes Kevin Bowen:

One year into the war in Iraq, the ugliness of the undertaking has become more and more inescapable. If anything, the experience has reaffirmed a few simple facts that deserve reiteration. There is no such thing as an easily winnable war. There is no such thing as a humane war. In every war, long after the fighting ends, peace will remain elusive, and memories of suffering will endure through generations.

Of course we knew all this ...


Intervening In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Strategy And Its Risks, David Matz Dec 2005

Intervening In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Strategy And Its Risks, David Matz

New England Journal of Public Policy

The primary problem in reaching a peaceful arrangement between the Israelis and the Palestinians is that a significant number of people on both sides reject dividing the land between the Mediterranean and Jordan (the two-state solution), and neither local government (not the Israelis nor the Palestinians) can control their own rejectionists. As long as any "solution" assumes that the local governments will be able to confront these rejectionists, that plan will fail. The only way around this is with the use of an international coalition composed, at least, of the United States, the EU, the UN, and Arab countries. The ...


Transitions From Terrorism To Modernity: Linking External And Internal Change Dimensions, Greg Mills Dec 2005

Transitions From Terrorism To Modernity: Linking External And Internal Change Dimensions, Greg Mills

New England Journal of Public Policy

The struggle between Arab nationalism and Islamic radicalism may determine the direction of Middle Eastern politics and society and possibly of world history for decades to come. The war on terror is likely to be more like the Cold War than a hot war, but a successful battle against the war on terrorism will have to involve military means with long-term engagement. The answer may lie in shifting the focus away from attempts to defeat the enemy to a strategy that attempts to neutralize the enemy, which demands nuance and empathy with local conditions.


From Dictatorship And War To Democracy: Alternative Future For The Drc, Claude Kambuya Kabemba Dec 2005

From Dictatorship And War To Democracy: Alternative Future For The Drc, Claude Kambuya Kabemba

New England Journal of Public Policy

With a transitional government in place, peace is now a possibility in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Policy options are being considered to sustain the peace and start the work of building a Congolese state that would not repeat the failings of the past. There is hope that the transitional period will produce democratic elections and subsequently a legitimate government, which would start to shake the view of the DRC as the "heart of darkness." There are two main obstacles to state-building in the DRC: lack of consensus on governance and illegal exploitation of resources. The two are ...


We Were Allies Once: Lessons Of D Day, 1944, Nigel Hamilton Dec 2005

We Were Allies Once: Lessons Of D Day, 1944, Nigel Hamilton

New England Journal of Public Policy

Nigel Hamilton swivels the century around the pivot of the massive cooperation and collaboration between the United States and its allies during World War II. In the early years, European and British troops suffered a series of discouraging defeats by the Nazis, and then when the United States entered the war the great collaboration among the allies was instrumental in achieving victory in Europe. This joint effort of nations continued for a time with such institutions as the UN and NATO and other international bodies. The war in Iraq ruptured the alliance. American unilateralism has distinguished most of the debacle ...


The Role Of The Military, General William Nash, Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, Gwyn Prins Dec 2005

The Role Of The Military, General William Nash, Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, Gwyn Prins

New England Journal of Public Policy

Presents comments (from the EPIIC Symposium at Tufts University, February 2004) on the issue concerning the role of the U.S. military on their citizens; Concern on defining victory in the war on terror; Discussion on the relationship between the political objectives of the U.S. grand strategy and how they employ a military instrument; Views on the role of the military force.


Power And Freedom/I Am Right; You Are Dead, Wole Soyinka Dec 2005

Power And Freedom/I Am Right; You Are Dead, Wole Soyinka

New England Journal of Public Policy

Focuses on issues concerning political power and freedom. Discussion on the concept of quasi-state; Disadvantages of having a quasi-state; Importance of the experience of Algeria in post-colonial reconstruction on the developmental transformation of African nations; Need to accept the factor of power as an unquantifiable element governing social and nation relationships.


Kenya's 1997 Elections: Making Sense Of The Transition Process, Rok Ajulu Sep 1998

Kenya's 1997 Elections: Making Sense Of The Transition Process, Rok Ajulu

New England Journal of Public Policy

The transition process in Kenya appears to be getting nowhere. Six years after the opening of democratic space, politics, political institutions, and governance remain predominantly stuck in the authoritarian quagmire of the past. Lack of broader participation in decision-making processes and absence of consensus around important issues of governance appear to be the norm rather than the exception. Indeed, Kenya's democracy experiment appears to defy conventional democratization models and discourse. It refuses to comply with prescriptive models developed by various Western scholars as the so-called liberal democratic values stubbornly refuse to take root in the country. This article attempts ...


Slovak Nationalism: Model Or Mirage?, Caroline Barker Sep 1998

Slovak Nationalism: Model Or Mirage?, Caroline Barker

New England Journal of Public Policy

In the face of an increasing number of bloody dissolutions of states around the world, the "velvet divorce" between Czechs and Slovaks has often been cited as evidence that such excesses can be avoided. This article, written before the October 1998 elections that saw the end of the government of Vladimir Meciar, seeks to explain that the peaceful split of these two nations is not an instance that can be replicated elsewhere but grows from the unique nature of Slovak nationalism. The article traces the historical evolution of Slovak nationalism and challenges the view that it has ever been a ...


Democratic Change And Transition In Africa And The Dilemma Of Nigeria, Leonard Robinson Jr. Sep 1998

Democratic Change And Transition In Africa And The Dilemma Of Nigeria, Leonard Robinson Jr.

New England Journal of Public Policy

The 1990s witnessed profound political change throughout the continent of Africa. Tired and frustrated with one-party, autocratic, and often military rule, ordinary African citizens in country after country began to voice and demonstrate their discontent in 1990. As the former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe broke ranks with the Soviet Union to claim their independence, these extraordinary events served as an added catalyst to African civil servants, market women, taxi drivers and peri-urban inhabitants to rise up against what they increasingly viewed as repressive governments and regimes, which had done little or nothing to improve their living standards and ...


What Have We Learned About Postconflict Elections?, Larry Garber, Krishna Kumar Sep 1998

What Have We Learned About Postconflict Elections?, Larry Garber, Krishna Kumar

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article suggests that postconflict elections are a unique subset of transition elections which deserve special attention. The authors describe the evolution of postconflict elections, identify some of their more salient characteristics, and offer preliminary lessons drawn from the recent experiences.