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Passenger Flows Through The Cascade Gateway: Changes From 2013 To 2018, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2019

Passenger Flows Through The Cascade Gateway: Changes From 2013 To 2018, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Every five years, the BPRI partners with the Whatcom Council of Governments to conduct a passenger vehicle intercept survey at four ports of entry between British Columbia and Washington State.Students from Western Washington University intercept drivers as they cross the border in both directions and ask them a variety of questions related to trip purpose and travel characteristics (see sidebar). This Border Brief provides a preliminary analysis of survey findings from the summer of 2018 and compares them to the responses collected in the summer of 2013. It also considers the impacts of changes in cross-border travel in the ...


Regional Cross-Border Collaboration Between The U.S. & Canada, Border Policy Research Institute Oct 2018

Regional Cross-Border Collaboration Between The U.S. & Canada, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On October 24th, 2018, the BPRI hosted a one-day forum to assess the state of cross-border collaboration between British Columbia and Washington State. The forum brought together regional experts from government, academia, and private industry to discuss the successes, barriers, and opportunities for cross-border collaboration across three ‘sectors’: transportation/infrastructure, business/economics, and the environment (see sidebar). U.S. Congressman Rick Larsen provided opening remarks about the region and Canadian Coast Guard Regional Director Brian Wooton gave a keynote address on collaboration in the marine environment. This Border Policy Brief highlights some of the findings from the forum, which illustrate ...


Cannabis In Cascadia: Impacts Of Legalization In The Region, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2018

Cannabis In Cascadia: Impacts Of Legalization In The Region, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The policies regulating the use and sale of cannabis have historically been constructed differently in the United States and Canada, yet both countries had deemed recreational use to be illegal. Beginning in 2012, however, individual states in the U.S. began to legalize recreational cannabis, including Washington, Oregon, and most recently, California. In 2017, the Government of Canada passed similar legislation. If Canada’s legislation goes into effect in mid-2018, the West Coast of North America will become the only contiguous region where recreational consumption and sale of cannabis are permitted across multiple jurisdictions (see Map 1, next page). However ...


Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In 2013, the BPRI launched a long-term study to analyze the behavior of Canadians crossing the border to shop in Northwest Washington by counting the percentage of Canadian license plates in specified shopping locations along the Interstate 5 corridor. Our “license plate survey” includes data collected over the course of 6 weeks (3 days per week), for a total of 18 survey days in 2013 and 2016. This Border Policy Brief is a comparative analysis of the data collected in 2013, when the loonie averaged $0.97 USD, and data collected in 2016 in the same locations, when the loonie ...


Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In February of 2017, Western Washington University (WWU) and Northwest Indian College (NWIC) hosted a two-day symposium titled, “The Changing Environment and the Columbia River Treaty.” The purpose of the symposium was to develop public awareness and inform treaty negotiators from the U.S. and diplomats from Canada on key issues to address when modernizing the Treaty. This event brought together tribal and First Nations leaders, representatives from government and private industry, non-governmental organizations and academics to discuss the modernization of the Columbia River Treaty (CRT).


Perception And Policy: U.S. Sociological Attitudes And Policies Towards Guatemalans And Salvadorans In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Violeta Paredes Jan 2016

Perception And Policy: U.S. Sociological Attitudes And Policies Towards Guatemalans And Salvadorans In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Violeta Paredes

American Cultural Studies Capstone Research Papers

This paper looks into Guatemalan and Salvadoran history and immigration in the late 20th Century and identifies how these patterns compare to and continue to affect present day immigration policy. By examining the difference between how immigration policy was handled prior and after the events that occurred on 9/11, the reader will be able to distinguish how social perception of immigrants in the U.S. changed drastically with the span of a few months. By examining the history of immigration policy post-WWII, the reader will be able to identify that aid such as providing asylum has historically contributed ...


Passenger Preclearance In The Pacific Northwest, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Passenger Preclearance In The Pacific Northwest, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On March 16, 2015, the U.S. and Canada signed a Preclearance Agreement. The Agreement gives both countries the authority to implement passenger preclearance beyond the air mode (see sidebar) and expand to the land, rail, and marine modes of transportation. In addition, the Agreement enables Canada to request the U.S. to regularize existing U.S. immigration pre-inspection sites, namely at cruise, rail, and ferry terminals in British Columbia. This Border Policy Brief highlights rail and marine locations in the Pacific Northwest that will be affected by the Preclearance Agreement, and monetizes some of the benefits accrued to both ...


Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

One year ago, BPRI published a Border Brief analyzing the relationship between the Canada – U.S. exchange rate and crossing volumes in the Cascade Gateway (see Winter 2015 Border Brief). At that time, the decline in the value of the Canadian Dollar (CAD), which began significantly in mid-2013, had already influenced the volume of cross-border travel in the region and has continued to do so since. This Border Brief updates our previous analysis, and goes beyond crossing volumes to consider the economic impacts associated with the continued drop in Canadian cross-border travelers.


Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This Brief provides an overview of the flow of goods between the U.S. and its two NAFTA neighbors, Canada and Mexico. For the U.S., the value and composition of freight that flows between its northern and southern borders varies significantly by port and region, and this variety inevitably has implications for border management policies and infrastructure investment needs. By providing an overview of the economic geography of the U.S.’s land-based trade with its NAFTA partners, this Brief seeks to inform decisions about border management and infrastructure investment, while also illustrating the value of cross-border trade to ...


Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There has been recent speculation about the influence of the declining Canadian dollar on the volume of cross-border travel. This article explores that relationship in the context of the Cascade Gateway, which is the group of border crossings (Peace Arch, Pacific Highway, Lynden/Aldergrove, and Sumas/Abbotsford) that serve the Interstate 5 corridor, connecting Whatcom County, WA, to the Lower Mainland of B.C.


Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman Jan 2015

Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Economic ties have spanned the contemporary border between Washington State and Canada for as long as the Pacific Northwest has been inhabited. The native peoples of North America interacted across the border for centuries prior to the arrival of European explorers. In the early 19th century, the major regional European economic entity was the Hudson’s Bay Company. The fur-trading operations of this British-chartered corporation took place throughout its “Columbia Department” (a region that straddled the modern Canada – U.S. border), with outposts at locations such as Fort Vancouver and Fort Nisqually. The contemporary border dates from 1846, when the ...


A Business Case For Increasing Rfid At The Canada - Us Land Border, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

A Business Case For Increasing Rfid At The Canada - Us Land Border, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This business case presents results-to-date of ongoing work by the Whatcom Council of Governments (WCOG) and the Border Policy Research Institute (BPRI) to investigate the benefits and costs of significantly increasing the portion of cross-border traffic using radio frequency identification (RFID). Before reviewing the analysis, it is useful to review the current policy context as well as some details about travel documents and U.S.-Canada cross-border traffic operations.


Improving The Process Of Adjudicating Tn Status, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

Improving The Process Of Adjudicating Tn Status, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In 1994, pursuant to NAFTA, the TN (for “Trade NAFTA”) labor-mobility provision was established. The TN concept was intended to meet the goal of “facilitating temporary entry on a reciprocal basis and of establishing transparent criteria and procedures for temporary entry” amongst the three NAFTA countries. For Canadian citizens seeking temporary work of a professional nature in the U.S., TN status created an alternative to the H-1B program, which was established in 1990. The process of gaining TN status was meant to be simpler than that of acquiring H-1B status, and no cap on the number of TN workers ...


The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe Jan 2015

The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This border brief, authored by two Arctic scholars, takes a special look at how borders are changing in the Arctic. The fast-changing Arctic is increasingly defined by boundaries drawn at a regional scale, rather than traditional borders that are based on national lines. This has major implications for the national and foreign policies of both Arctic and non-Arctic actors. The Pacific Northwest, which has an Arctic foothold through the northern subnational units of Alaska, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories (NWT), has been playing an active role in this regionalization process for several years, and seeks to expand its presence ...


Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel Jan 2015

Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are many benefits of the NEXUS program, ranging from personal time savings to improved security. While monetizing those benefits is challenging, it is important to assess the value of NEXUS and provide information that can support further expansion of the program. This Border Brief quantifies certain individual economic benefits of membership in the NEXUS program using data from 2012 to 2014. We focus on the Peace Arch/Douglas crossing, where the traffic volume is high and a large percentage of travelers are enrolled in NEXUS.


The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain Jan 2014

The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Columbia River watershed comprises 258,500 square miles (about the size of Texas), with 15 percent of the watershed located in Canada. Tributaries in the upper watershed drain a substantial portion of the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains; precipitation and snowmelt from the Rockies are main flow components. The river then crosses the arid Columbia Plateau and reaches the Pacific via the Columbia River Gorge. In an average year, the river disgorges 198 million acre-feet (MAF) of water, with 25 percent of the runoff (a disproportionately large amount) originating in Canada. With snowmelt a large component of runoff, the ...


2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Project Organization & Report Of Findings, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

For the IMTC passenger vehicle survey, the notion of a "cross-border trip" is not as rigid a definition of "trip" as typically used in traffic modeling. While basic origin and destination data was collected here, our purpose was not to obtain a trip diary from our respondents that would account for intermediary stops. Our interests were in the primary destination a traveler had when they left their residence and headed across the border.


Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Suggestions For Improving Cross-Border Mobility And North American Competitiveness, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On May 15, 2014, the BPRI hosted a conference titled “Beyond NAFTA: Streamlining the Border to Strengthen North American Competitiveness.” With two decades of NAFTA behind us, and with the U.S.-Canada “Beyond the Border” (BtB) agenda near the end of its phase-one timeline, speakers were asked to produce ideas about what should next be done in order to foster crossborder mobility


Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali Jan 2014

Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Certain American Indians born in Canada (ABCs) enjoy access to the United States unrestricted by the Immigration and Nationality (INA), a right stemming from the Jay Treaty (1794). An examination of this right, reflected by codification as § 289 of the INA, reveals qualifying ABCs are entitled to privileges unparalleled by all but United States citizens to enter and remain in the U.S. “for the purpose of employment, study, retirement, investing, and/or immigration”4 or any other reason.


An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer Jan 2014

An Assessment Of Future Bilateral Trade Flows And Their Implications For U.S. Border Infrastructure Investment, Steven Globerman, Paul Storer

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are frequent calls for investment in border infrastructure given security-related delays and transportation bottlenecks associated with physical infrastructure described as outdated and inadequate. Given the potentially large investment expenditures needed to expand inspection and transportation infrastructure at border crossing sites, as well as the irreversibility of many of the investments that might need to be made, it is important that government decision-makers base spending choices on highly-informed forward-looking projections of capacity demands on traffic corridors through which bilateral commercial shipments are likely to travel.


Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2014

Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Since 9/11, about $500 million has been spent on border infrastructure in the Cascade Gateway region, including new port facilities, improvements to approaching highways, and deployments of technologies such as wait-time systems. Yet there frequently are queues in excess of 60 minutes for the many travelers who are not enrolled in NEXUS (a program that provides trusted travelers with access to a dedicated highway lane). While regional stakeholders know that queues would be far worse in the absence of past investments, efforts are continually underway to improve border mobility. Greater usage of RFID-enabled documents is a proven method of ...


Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman Jan 2014

Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In both the U.S. and Canada, immigration reform is a politically, economically and emotionally contentious issue. One component of immigration policy in particular – the use of temporary foreign labor – is an important aspect of policy reform in both countries. This Border Policy Brief explores the policies used by Canada and the U.S. to import temporary foreign workers, often referred to as "guest workers,‟ particularly in lower-skilled occupations such as agriculture, hospitality and caregiving. Although both countries are increasingly relying on foreign workers to fill lower-skilled labor needs, they are doing so in very different ways.


Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The transportation and inspection agencies that build and operate border infrastructure are engaged in a constant process of facility planning, wrestling with decisions about where to invest limited resources. The existing situation at a facility is obviously influential—e.g., traffic volumes in excess of a facility’s capacity; subpar workplace conditions; excessive maintenance costs for a decrepit facility. But equally important is the need to consider future conditions, such as the traffic forecast. This article discusses the volume of trade forecasted to occur at eight major ports-of-entry (POEs) along the Canada – U.S. border.


The Pre-Inspection Pilot Test At Blaine: Field Data, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

The Pre-Inspection Pilot Test At Blaine: Field Data, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Beyond the Border Action Plan called for USCBP to implement “a truck cargo facilitation pilot project in at least one location in Canada,” and agencies settled upon a twophase approach, as described in the left sidebar. USCBP invited our institute to gather field data in Blaine during the phase 1 pilot.


Evaluation Of Commercial Pre-Inspection Pilot Test - Blaine, Wa, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Hugh Conroy Jan 2013

Evaluation Of Commercial Pre-Inspection Pilot Test - Blaine, Wa, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Hugh Conroy

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (USCBP) is pilot-testing the operation of a commercial primary inspection booth on Canadian soil. The pilot test is occurring at the Pacific Highway port-of-entry in Blaine, WA. In past years, the Border Policy Research Institute (BPRI) has partnered with the Whatcom Council of Governments (WCOG) to collect extensive datasets at Pacific Highway, including metrics such as the average dwell-time of a truck at a primary booth and the average wait-time in the queue.


Canadian Shoppers In Northwest Washington State, Ian Faulds, Jaymes Mcclain, Irena Booth, Cynthia Jurado, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2013

Canadian Shoppers In Northwest Washington State, Ian Faulds, Jaymes Mcclain, Irena Booth, Cynthia Jurado, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The purpose of this project was to record the proportion of Canadian vehicles in prominent retail destination parking lots along the I-5 corridor in northwest Washington State. These destinations were located in Blaine, Lynden, Ferndale, Bellingham, Burlington and Marysville. Data collection was executed by dividing the locations into northern and southern zones, with each zone visited by a two-person team following a prescribed route. The teams collected data within specific mapped sections of parking lots by counting the number of cars with Canadian and U.S. license plates with the use of tally counter devices. Additionally, an I-5 overpass is ...


Washington Connecting To Canada: Flow Of Goods, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds Jan 2013

Washington Connecting To Canada: Flow Of Goods, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Ian Faulds

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There is a dense web of connections between the state of Washington and its northern neighbor, Canada. This article catalogs the transportation modes that connect the two and then explores the way in which goods flow between Washington and Canada across and through those connections. As seen in the sidebar figure, Canada is the 3rd -ranked destination of Washington’s exports and the largest source (by far) of imports. The conveyance of goods between these trade partners is of vital interest to both, so the methods of conveyance deserve some attention. A future issue of the Border Policy Brief will ...


Canadians Shopping In Northwest Washington, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

Canadians Shopping In Northwest Washington, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In March 2013 the BPRI began a long-term study of the behavior of Canadian cross-border shoppers. The main goal of the study is to provide data with which to analyze the economic impacts of changes in factors that might influence cross-border shopping—changes such as a decline in the exchange rate, or a revision of sales taxes or duty-free limits.


The Wait-Time System At The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

The Wait-Time System At The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In December 2011 the governments of Canada and the U.S. published the Beyond the Border (BTB) Action Plan, which includes an objective of installing border wait-time (BWT) measurement systems at the 20 busiest land-border crossings by the end of 2014. The BTB plan is not the first instance of federal interest in BWT systems: a BWT Working Group was established in 2008 as a joint initiative of Transport Canada, CBSA, USCBP, and FHWA, and that group investigated the merits of various BWT measurement technologies. Upon creation of the bi-national BTB framework, the task of the working group was absorbed ...


2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Report Of Interim Findings, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2013

2013/14 Imtc Passenger Vehicle Survey: Report Of Interim Findings, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The 2013/14 passenger vehicle survey consists of a questionnaire administered to cross-border personal vehicles at five land border ports-of-entry between Western Washington State and Lower Mainland British Columbia – commonly referred to as the Cascade Gateway. The project is advanced by the International Mobility and Trade Corridor Program (IMTC) and is the third such survey undertaken by this regional cross-border planning coalition since 2000. This report outlines the organization of the project and summarizes high level findings from the summer and winter interviews conducted in July 2013 and February 2014, respectively.