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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard Dec 2018

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...


Book Review: Constructing Genocide And Mass Violence: Society, Crisis, Identity, Carola Lingaas Jun 2018

Book Review: Constructing Genocide And Mass Violence: Society, Crisis, Identity, Carola Lingaas

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Speaking Of Genocide: Double Binds And Political Discourse, Benjamin Meiches Oct 2017

Speaking Of Genocide: Double Binds And Political Discourse, Benjamin Meiches

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Genocide scholars have always argued over the best definition of genocide. However, recent genocide studies have begun to emphasize both the ‘contestable’ nature of genocide and, paradoxically, call for clear or rigid definitions of the term. This article evaluates this tension by examining the act of defining genocide as a type of epistemological practice. Placing the act of definition in the context of a complex socio-linguistic system, the article shows how genocide discourse is subject to a variety of demands and pressures. These pressures, internal to genocide discourse, inadvertently promote restrictive and paradoxical formulations of the concept. To illustrate this ...


Structural Racism: Racists Without Racism In Liberal Institutions Within Colorblind States, Alexis Nicole Mootoo Jun 2017

Structural Racism: Racists Without Racism In Liberal Institutions Within Colorblind States, Alexis Nicole Mootoo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Afro-Descendants suffer sustained discrimination and invisibility that is proliferated with policies that were once blatantly racist, but are now furtive. This study argues that structural racism is alive and well in liberal institutions such as publicly funded colleges and universities. Thus, structural racism is subtly replicated and reproduced within these institutions and by institutional agents who are Racist without Racism. This study builds on theories from Pierre Bourdieu, Frantz Fanon, Glen Loury and Eduardo Bonilla-Silva. The juxtaposition of their theoretical arguments provides a deeper insight into how structural racism becomes a de facto reflexive phenomenon in liberal and progressive institutions ...


Book Review: International Responses To Mass Atrocities In Africa: Responsibility To Protect, Prosecute, And Palliate, Shannon Zimmerman May 2017

Book Review: International Responses To Mass Atrocities In Africa: Responsibility To Protect, Prosecute, And Palliate, Shannon Zimmerman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This is review of Kurt Mills' most recent book, International Responses to Mass Atrocities in Africa: Responsibility to Protect, Prosecute, and Palliate. In this book Mills looks at international responses to instances of mass atrocities in Africa. Mills utilizes a three part framework encompassing protection, prosecution and palliation to provide holistic account of international responses. By detailing the different types of responses side by side in four case studies Mills is able to show how each type of response both helps and hinders the effectiveness of other responses.


People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green Dec 2016

People's War In Cyberspace: Using China's Civilian Economy In The Information Domain, Kieran Richard Green

Military Cyber Affairs

China is identified as posing a key challenge to US national security interests in cyberspace. These threats are incurred across the spectrum of conflict, ranging from low-level crime, to network penetration, to cyberattacks that have the potential to cause major physical destruction. Thus far, the majority of strategic assessments of China’s cyber capabilities have focused on the role of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), which is officially tasked with undertaking offensive operations in cyberspace.[1] However, China does not employ its cyber capabilities in isolation. Rather, it considers cyber to be part of the “Information Domain.” In Chinese ...


Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow Dec 2016

Book Review: A History Of Rwandan Identity And Trauma: The Mythmakers' Victims, James J. Snow

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka Oct 2016

Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The purpose of this article is to take stock of the European integration literature in reference to Eastern Europe in order to better understand how international forces affect minority rights. The article will focus on the status of the Albanian minority in the case of the Republic of Macedonia and attempt to illustrate how European integration has contributed to or hindered ethnic reconciliation between the ethnic Albanian minority and Macedonian majority through a historical-sociological analysis. Additionally, by linking the protection of minority rights to democratic consolidation, this article will show how the former is largely dependent on the latter.


Book Review: Conflict In The Nuba Mountains: From Genocide-By-Attrition To The Contemporary Crisis In Sudan, Alan J. Kuperman Oct 2016

Book Review: Conflict In The Nuba Mountains: From Genocide-By-Attrition To The Contemporary Crisis In Sudan, Alan J. Kuperman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


China And Africa’S Peace And Security Agenda: The Burgeoning Appetite, Oita Etyang, Simon Oswan Panyako Sep 2016

China And Africa’S Peace And Security Agenda: The Burgeoning Appetite, Oita Etyang, Simon Oswan Panyako

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

China and Africa have had contacts since time immemorial. It is, however, in the last two decades that China vastly increased its engagement with Africa, following the first Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) that took place in 2000 and the Beijing Summit held in 2006. China has skillfully utilized its international strategy of multipolarity and non-interference to champion its economic interests as well as its hegemonic quest. It is undeniable that China has heavily invested in Africa through Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), and infrastructure development. China has also increased its appetite on matters peace and security ...


Revitalizing The Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, And The Stakes Of Cultural Genocide, Christopher Powell Ph.D. Jun 2016

Revitalizing The Ethnosphere: Global Society, Ethnodiversity, And The Stakes Of Cultural Genocide, Christopher Powell Ph.D.

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This paper uses the concepts of ethnosphere and ethnodiversity to frame the stakes of cultural genocide in the context of the emerging global society. We are in an era of rapid global ethnodiversity loss. Global ethnodiversity is important because different cultures produce different solutions to the subjective and objective problems of human society, and because cultures have an intrinsic value. Rapid ethnodiversity loss is a byproduct of the expansion of the modern world-system, and Lemkin’s invention of the concept of genocide can be understood as a dialectical reaction to this tendency. The current phase of globalization creates pressures towards ...


The Impossibility To Protect? Media Narratives And The Responsibility To Protect, Kjell Føllingstad Anderson, Ingjerd Veiden Brakstad Feb 2016

The Impossibility To Protect? Media Narratives And The Responsibility To Protect, Kjell Føllingstad Anderson, Ingjerd Veiden Brakstad

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The media plays an important role in communicating mass atrocities to audiences across the globe. This article critically examines how journalists’ framing of mass atrocities may contribute to public discourse on the responsibility to protect principle, in particular the perceived obligation to intervene in cases of mass atrocities. It will draw from a broader conceptual framework on bystander responses to mass atrocities and utilise evidence from the analysis of newspaper accounts of the Rwandan and Bosnian genocides. It will argue that, in some cases, media narratives may actually erode political will and encourage passivity in response to mass atrocities.


Predicting Genocide And Mass Atrocities, Ernesto Verdeja Feb 2016

Predicting Genocide And Mass Atrocities, Ernesto Verdeja

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines several current risk assessment and early warning models to predict genocide and mass atrocities. Risk assessment (RA) concerns a country’s long­-term structural conditions (regime type, state-led discrimination, etc.) that determine overall risk for atrocities. Early warning (EW) focuses on short/midterm dynamics that can serve as triggers. The article evaluates contemporary RA and EW forecast modeling, and asks: How well can we predict mass atrocities and genocide? What are the strengths and limitations to current predictive modeling? Part I examines several quantitative (statistical) RA models and identifies several strengths and limitations in current research. Part ...


Why The U.S. Government Failed To Anticipate The Rwandan Genocide Of 1994: Lessons For Early Warning And Prevention, Matthew Levinger Feb 2016

Why The U.S. Government Failed To Anticipate The Rwandan Genocide Of 1994: Lessons For Early Warning And Prevention, Matthew Levinger

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

During the months leading up to the Rwandan genocide of 1994, cognitive biases obstructed the capacity of U.S. government analysts and policymakers to anticipate mass violence against the country’s Tutsi minority. Drawing on recently declassified U.S. government documents and on interviews with key current and former officials, this essay shows that most U.S. government reporting on Rwanda before April 1994 utilized a faulty cognitive frame that failed to differentiate between threats of civil war and genocide. Because U.S. officials framed the crisis in Rwanda as a potential civil war, they underestimated the virulence of the ...


Transparency And Accountability In The Management Of Oil Revenues In Ghana, Ransford E. Van Gyampo Jan 2016

Transparency And Accountability In The Management Of Oil Revenues In Ghana, Ransford E. Van Gyampo

Government and International Affairs Faculty Publications

This paper undertakes a five-year review of the management of oil revenues in Ghana since the commencement of oil production in 2010. Using reports from the Petroleum Transparency and Accountability Index, official records from key state agencies, and interviews with core individuals within the petroleum sector, the paper assesses the quality of transparency and accountability in the management of Ghana’s oil revenue. It argues that even though some progress has been made in the transparent and accountable use of oil revenues, more can be achieved if certain critical bills are passed and proactive interventions pursued without further delay on ...


Brandishing The Cybered Bear: Information War And The Russia-Ukraine Conflict, Azhar Unwala, Shaheen Ghori Dec 2015

Brandishing The Cybered Bear: Information War And The Russia-Ukraine Conflict, Azhar Unwala, Shaheen Ghori

Military Cyber Affairs

Russia’s use of cyber power against Ukraine offered renewed insight to Russian cyber strategy and capabilities. This article dissects the Russia-Ukraine conflict by analyzing Russia’s strategic doctrine, tactical maneuvers, and capabilities in the information realm. Understanding the Russia-Ukraine conflict in this manner can inform and strengthen U.S. cyber policy and strategy. In particular, U.S. strategic planners and cyber professionals should consider internalizing Russian strategic thinking regarding cyber power and promote tactical improvements in resilience, intelligence, and information among itself and its allies.


Beyond The Mato Oput Tradition: Embedded Contestations In Transitional Justice For Post-Massacre Pajong, Northern Uganda, David-Ngendo Tshimba Dec 2015

Beyond The Mato Oput Tradition: Embedded Contestations In Transitional Justice For Post-Massacre Pajong, Northern Uganda, David-Ngendo Tshimba

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

Human beings to a great extent are what community stories narrate about them. This paper is informed by an ethnological field research carried in one of the remotest villages of Mucwini Sub-county in Kitgum district, northern Uganda, scrutinizes people’s stories as they echo concerns about justice from different perspectives of victimhood in the aftermath of a Lord’s Resistance Army-commanded massacre which claimed the lives of 56 people in a night, the majority of whom (21) were from the Pajong clan. After a decade, all direct violent confrontations have no doubt ceased, however, the search for peace still is ...


La Gouvernance Des Mémoires Au Rwanda Au Travers Du Dispositif « Ingando »: Une Analyse Critique Des Représentations Sociales, Eric Ndushabandi Dec 2015

La Gouvernance Des Mémoires Au Rwanda Au Travers Du Dispositif « Ingando »: Une Analyse Critique Des Représentations Sociales, Eric Ndushabandi

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

The objective of this paper is to understand the place of memory in the post conflict society reconstruction. The main objective of this paper is to understand how Rwanda is managing the past and the genocide memory through “Ingando”, this kind of solidarity camps organized for all social categories. This paper builds its argument from findings of a doctoral research conducted on “Ingando”. The Ingando framework constitutes one of major mechanisms through which the post genocide Rwandan government has attempted to create one “common interpretation of the past” or a “national collective memory” as part of the nation building agenda ...


Accord De Paix Et Processus De Transformation Des Conflits Au Burundi, Leonidas Ndayisaba Dec 2015

Accord De Paix Et Processus De Transformation Des Conflits Au Burundi, Leonidas Ndayisaba

Journal of African Conflicts and Peace Studies

Après des décennies de conflits et d’instabilité politique, l’escalade du conflit interne burundais conduit aux négociations de paix d’Arusha (Tanzanie) de 1998 à 2000 entre les principales parties au conflit. Le résultat fut la conclusion de l’Accord d’Arusha pour la Paix et la Réconciliation au Burundi (AAPRB) signé le 28 août 2000. Prônant un esprit d’inclusion et de partage du pouvoir entre acteurs politico-ethniques burundais, l’Accord sera complété par un accord additionnel prévoyant une période de transition de 2001 à 2005 suivie de l’organisation d’élections générales en 2005. Il fut donc ...


What Does Genocide Produce? The Semantic Field Of Genocide, Cultural Genocide, And Ethnocide In Indigenous Rights Discourse, Jeff Benvenuto Oct 2015

What Does Genocide Produce? The Semantic Field Of Genocide, Cultural Genocide, And Ethnocide In Indigenous Rights Discourse, Jeff Benvenuto

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The semantic field of genocide, cultural genocide, and ethnocide overlaps between Indigenous rights discourse and genocide studies. Since the 1970s, such language has been used to express grievances that have stimulated the construction of Indigenous rights in international law. These particular words signify general concerns with the integrity of Indigenous peoples, thereby undergirding a larger framework of normative beliefs, ethical arguments, and legal claims, especially the right to self-determination. Going back to the post-World War II era, this article traces the normative and institutional processes through which this overlapping discourse has emerged. Culminating with the adoption of the 2007 United ...


The Us Response To Genocide In Rwanda: A Reassessment, Camara Silver Jul 2015

The Us Response To Genocide In Rwanda: A Reassessment, Camara Silver

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis analyzes the US response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide. It argues that in 1994, the US was retooling its stance on humanitarian intervention because of the disastrous US-led Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia in 1993. Therefore, the American response to the genocide in Rwanda became a casualty of Washington’s reassessment of its humanitarian intervention policy in the 1990s. The reason behind the US adoption of a more muscular humanitarian intervention policy was due in part to the end of the Cold War in 1991. Thus, the US was able to focus on other issues in international affairs ...


Review Of Developing Quantitative Literacy Skills In History And The Social Sciences: A Web-Based Common Core Approach By Kathleen W. Craver, Victor J. Ricchezza, H L. Vacher Jul 2015

Review Of Developing Quantitative Literacy Skills In History And The Social Sciences: A Web-Based Common Core Approach By Kathleen W. Craver, Victor J. Ricchezza, H L. Vacher

Numeracy

Kathleen W. Craver. Developing Quantitative Literacy Skills in History and Social Sciences: A Web-Based Common Core Standards Approach (Lantham MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc., 2014). 191 pp.
ISBN 978-1-4758-1050-9 (cloth); ISBN …-1051-6 (pbk); ISBN…-1052-3 (electronic).

This book could be a breakthrough for teachers in the trenches who are interested in or need to know about quantitative literacy (QL). It is a resource providing 85 topical pieces, averaging 1.5 pages, in which a featured Web site is presented, described, and accompanied by 2-4 critical-thinking questions purposefully drawing on data from the Web site. The featured Web sites range from primary documents (e.g., All about California and the ...


A Double Dispossession: The Crimean Tatars After Russia’S Ukrainian War, Stephen Blank Apr 2015

A Double Dispossession: The Crimean Tatars After Russia’S Ukrainian War, Stephen Blank

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Genocide and genocidal political processes have been used by the Russian state for decades—if not centuries—as a technique of self-colonial rule intended to eliminate “dissident” ethnic identities. Within this context, the historical fate of the Crimean Tatars is surely a unique one. Despite Soviet obstructions, the Crimean Tatars eventually returned to their homeland in Crimea after suffering forced deportations and genocide at the hands of the Soviet government. Now, 70 years after their deportation and genocide by Stalin, the Crimean Tatars are still fighting for justice. Defined as an autonomous group in their own land under the Ukrainian ...


Humanitarian Technologies And Genocide Prevention: A Critical Inquiry, Colette Mazzucelli Oct 2014

Humanitarian Technologies And Genocide Prevention: A Critical Inquiry, Colette Mazzucelli

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Fair Trade In Transition: Evolution, Popular Discourse, And The Case Of The Cado Cooperative In Cotopaxi, Ecuador, Robyn Michelle Odegard May 2014

Fair Trade In Transition: Evolution, Popular Discourse, And The Case Of The Cado Cooperative In Cotopaxi, Ecuador, Robyn Michelle Odegard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The literature on the changing nature of fair trade suggests it is indeed evolving and changed from the grassroots movement it once was. One of the strongest arguments that comes out in this body of literature is that the message, values, and way fair trade can encourage positive socio-economic and community development is changing. What the scholarship does not address, though, is how this evolution is changing the way that fair trade is perceived? The answer to this question about the changing perceptions of fair trade can be extended to those who produce fair trade products, those who consume them ...


Conflicto Político Y Lenguaje Literario En Tres Casos Representativos: Guatemala, El Salvador Y Honduras. Influencia Y Consecuencias De Las Políticas Estadounidenses En Centroamérica, Reina María Borjas Alvarado May 2014

Conflicto Político Y Lenguaje Literario En Tres Casos Representativos: Guatemala, El Salvador Y Honduras. Influencia Y Consecuencias De Las Políticas Estadounidenses En Centroamérica, Reina María Borjas Alvarado

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Debido a la posición geográfica de Latinoamérica en comparación con Europa, Estados Unidos quiso concentrarse en el desarrollo económico de la región y creó nuevas políticas que ayudarían al crecimiento económico en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, estas políticas tenían un segundo interés, el cual era prevenir la proliferación del socialismo en Centroamérica, ya que después de la Revolución Cubana, Estados Unidos sintió que era necesario evitar que los países vecinos llegaran a ser una amenaza para sus intereses en la región. No obstante, la intervención del gobierno estadounidense en Guatemala, El Salvador y Honduras se diluyó y los gobiernos nacionales se ...


Human Trafficking From Southern Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, And Guatemala: Why These Victims Are Trafficked Into Modern Day Florida, Timothy Adam Golob Mar 2014

Human Trafficking From Southern Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, And Guatemala: Why These Victims Are Trafficked Into Modern Day Florida, Timothy Adam Golob

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Florida is ranked as one of the United States' top three destination states for human trafficking; many of those victims originate from Mesoamerica--Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Human trafficking is a growing problem which hinders universal human rights for hundreds of new victims in Florida every year. Mesoamericans have a high risk of becoming victims due to the situations in their home countries. The issue of human trafficking has only recently gained the national and state attention of law makers and law enforcement officers.

This study uses several human trafficking cases to educate and exemplify why Mesoamerican victims ...


Memory And Truth In Human Rights: The Argentina Case. The Issue Of Truth And Memory In The Aftermath Of Gross Human Rights Violations In Argentina., Andres Delgado Feb 2013

Memory And Truth In Human Rights: The Argentina Case. The Issue Of Truth And Memory In The Aftermath Of Gross Human Rights Violations In Argentina., Andres Delgado

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis focuses on the importance of truth and memory in the process of transitional justice, within the context of the aftermath of gross violations of human rights that occurred during the military dictatorship of 1976 to 1983 in Argentina. The military junta that ruled Argentina took power under the pretext of national security, arguing that an enemy threatened to destabilize and destroy Argentine society. During the period of the military dictatorship an estimated 30,000 people "disappeared"; relatives of those disappeared mobilized and formed human rights organizations to confront the military regime for its abuses. Once the dictatorship collapsed ...


Guanxi, Networks And Economic Development: The Impact Of Cultural Connections, Patricia Anne Weeks Jan 2013

Guanxi, Networks And Economic Development: The Impact Of Cultural Connections, Patricia Anne Weeks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanics of guanxi in an organizational setting, focusing on the use of interpersonal relationships within Chinese firms to discover how firms initiate, build and use guanxi networks. Two richly detailed case studies document changes that take place over time in two distinct networks with respect to key actors and their contacts. This research also investigates patterns of social structure that emerge over time in these two distinct cases looking at brokerage relationships, network density, and dyadic redundancy in three waves at six month intervals. The cases are dissimilar in all aspects ...


Maximizing Citizenship With Minimal Representation: An Analysis Of Afro-Argentine Civil Society Organizing Strategies, Prisca Suarez Jan 2013

Maximizing Citizenship With Minimal Representation: An Analysis Of Afro-Argentine Civil Society Organizing Strategies, Prisca Suarez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the organizing strategies and successes of Afro-Argentine civil society organizations (CSO) in Buenos Aires. I argue that despite low representation, Afro-Argentines have strategically designed their initiatives in ways that draw on national discourses of identity rights and nationalism; and, as well, have used cultural inclusion to influence state actors, creating agency and increasing visibility. Afro-Argentines are a highly understudied population due to the common belief that they do not exist in Argentina as a group. This thesis not only dispels that myth with a history of the long hidden importance of Afro-Argentines contributions to the formation of ...