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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Effect Of Illicit Drugs Securitization In Indonesia, Yanu Widiyono Jul 2018

The Effect Of Illicit Drugs Securitization In Indonesia, Yanu Widiyono

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Barry Buzan and the Copenhagen School scholars introduce the concept of Securitization in International Relations. This concept argues that threat is formed and based on the interpretation of the actors . Threat does not naturally arise from the situation of state. Rather, it arises because of how prominent actors politicize the issues.

This study mainly focuses on analyzing the effects of Illicit Drugs Securitization in Indonesia. Previous literature has analyzed the issue of Illicit Drugs Abuse and trafficking problems in Southeast Asia in general, but few focus on Indonesia in particular. As the biggest state in South East Asia and its ...


Contemporary Russia In America's World: Russian Narratives On Post-Soviet Space, Marianna Portniagina Apr 2018

Contemporary Russia In America's World: Russian Narratives On Post-Soviet Space, Marianna Portniagina

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study analyzes Russian perceptions and narratives of the post-Cold War international order, with attention to both Russia’s role in this order and to Russia’s perceived special mission in post-Soviet space, or what is often referred to as the ‘near abroad.’ Although Russia’s visions of the world and post-Soviet space were constructed, to some extent, during the Soviet era, this study shows that the experience of the US-led world order has had a great impact on contemporary Russian discourse. America often misunderstands the factors that motivate and inspire contemporary Russia, in part because the end of the ...


The Memorialization Of Historical Memories In East Asia, Bo Ram Yi Jul 2017

The Memorialization Of Historical Memories In East Asia, Bo Ram Yi

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

East Asia is embroiled in one of the most titillating historical memory wars in present-day politics. A highly complex and intricate matter, conflict over history is the underpinning strain behind political and social relations between China, South Korea and Japan. Mired by the past, tension often rises from conflict over the Yasakuni Shrine visits, comfort women and the textbook matter.

This dissertation will examine how China, South Korea and Japan maintain their historical memory narratives. Through a case study method, each state is analyzed through five factors: commemoration, rhetoric, education, compensation and punishment.

Overall, China and South Korea have maintained ...


Endpoints After Empire: Explaining Varying Levels Of Democracy In Post-Communist Europe, William John Eger Jr. Apr 2017

Endpoints After Empire: Explaining Varying Levels Of Democracy In Post-Communist Europe, William John Eger Jr.

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This study seeks to determine the impetus behind varying levels of post-communist democratization in central and eastern Europe. It explores the different theories of democratization. The work takes a regional approach to examining the states. This approach isolates less traditional factors that contribute to democratic quality: history, culture and geography. Qualitative studies of each help explain why the countries of the region have such a varying level of rights and freedoms.


Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel Jul 2016

Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation aims at analyzing the role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ (IRGC) extraterritorial activities in attaining Iran’s foreign policy goals. Based on observations and assessments from internal and external determinants, Iran’s foreign policy goals are defined as follows: regime survival, which is an indispensable goal of Iranian foreign policy, is above everything; state security and survival; projecting power and becoming the dominant power in the region.

The regime has deliberately supported several armed non-state actors to achieve the aforementioned goals, and as seen in the case studies, the IRGC has served as a node in providing ...


The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law Jul 2016

The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The attacks of September 11, 2001 by Al-Qaeda-sponsored militants represented a high- water mark for the terrorist organization in its self-styled journey to become the inspirational Islamic vanguard for disenchanted Muslims across the globe. In the years that followed these attacks, the Al-Qaeda enterprise underwent a constant rate of evolution and mutation, resulting in a phenomenon of parallel and like-minded Islamist groups pledging allegiance to Usama bin Laden and his ideological vision of a global jihad. Instead of strengthening the overall organization, this expansion diluted the command and control of Al-Qaeda senior leaders in their ability to shape the overall ...


Juridical, Religious And Globalization Perspectives On The Constitutions Of Egypt And Tunisia After The Arab Spring, Lora Hadzhidimova Apr 2016

Juridical, Religious And Globalization Perspectives On The Constitutions Of Egypt And Tunisia After The Arab Spring, Lora Hadzhidimova

Institute for the Humanities Theses

This work examines the juridical aspects of the current Egyptian and Tunisian Constitutions adopted after the Arab Spring. Along with the legal analysis of these two manifestations one more element is also a subject of this commentary – possible political issues that can surface from the interpretation of some controversial articles. The second part of this study focuses on the compatibility between the premises of the Islamic Sharia, the Islamic culture and tradition, and the core values of the contemporary modern democratic states. Moreover, it addresses some of the problematic moments within the discourse whether or not the Quran evokes discrimination ...


Energy As A Factor For Turkish - Russian Rapprochement, Saltuk Bugra Karahan Oct 2015

Energy As A Factor For Turkish - Russian Rapprochement, Saltuk Bugra Karahan

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation started with a simple question: What was the main source of Turkish-Russian rapprochement seen generally after the end of the Cold War, specifically within the last 15 years (2001-2015)? A review of the literature on the subject revealed three explanations for Turkish-Russian rapprochement: (1) Perception of the U.S. as a threat in the Black Sea and Caucasus region, (2) Deterioration of Turkey’s relations with the West, and (3) Turkey’s need for energy. Thus came the main question for this work: To what extent does Turkey’s need for energy play a role in Turkish-Russian rapprochement ...


'Home Was Congo': Refugees And Durable Displacement In The Borderlands Of 1,000 Hills, Erika Frydenlund Oct 2015

'Home Was Congo': Refugees And Durable Displacement In The Borderlands Of 1,000 Hills, Erika Frydenlund

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

As forced migrants linger at the borders of the world’s conflicts, refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo in Rwanda remain in camps where they have waited for ‘durable solutions’ to their geographic and political existence for nearly two decades. Protracted displacement such as this results from processes at the local, state, regional, and international levels, with consequences reverberating each of these levels, including insecurity, expenditure of already limited resources, and strained interstate political relationships. As refugees’ stays extend to increasingly long periods of time, situations once assumed to be temporary take on a semblance of permanence. Forced displacement ...


Deal With Iran's Nuclear Issue, Khadijeh Salimi, Regina Karp Sep 2015

Deal With Iran's Nuclear Issue, Khadijeh Salimi, Regina Karp

Political Science & Geography Faculty Publications

In December 2006, the UN announced the first resolution against Iran's nuclear activities. After many sanctions and negotiations, there still exists no definite agreement between parties over Iran's nuclear program. The objective of this study is to determine whether Iran's nuclear program has become Iran's identity. It is assumed that if the nuclear issue has not become Iran's identity, negotiation would be a useful threat. The Constructivists' approach for shaping states' identities was used in this study to analyze Iran's behavior toward the nuclear issue. Iran has a long history of civilization. Iranians can ...


Path Dependence In Intrastate Conflicts: Resources, Regimes, And Interventions, Ivan Medynskyi Jul 2015

Path Dependence In Intrastate Conflicts: Resources, Regimes, And Interventions, Ivan Medynskyi

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the patterns of path dependence in intrastate conflicts. It is motivated by three research questions: What factors determine a particular outcome of a civil war? How strong is their impact? What are the causal mechanisms in play? To examine these questions, this study introduces a theory of path dependence to the study of intrastate conflicts that bridges the gap between analyses of the phases of contention.

First, it examines the broad understanding of path dependence that highlights the impact of initial conditions on civil war outcomes. Then, this dissertation explores the narrower notion which focuses on the ...


In Search Of Autonomy: Nepal As A Wedge State Between India And China, Sagar Rijal Apr 2015

In Search Of Autonomy: Nepal As A Wedge State Between India And China, Sagar Rijal

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Traditional International Relations (IR) theories consign small states to the reactive roles of "bargaining, bandwagoning or buffering." Small states are deemed to be inherently vulnerable, forever concerned with their mere survival. However, the present global system of states is characterized by numerous smaller states, many of which are not only surviving but also thriving in both economically and politically spheres.

To unravel this anomaly, this study proposes a theory of wedge states as a separate category of small states, which are compelled to deep engagement with two or more rival powers simultaneously. The study analyzes a case of a typical ...


Tempering The Resource Curse In Sub-Saharan Africa: An Explanatory Analysis Of The Variance Of The Resource Curse In Nigeria And Botswana, Jody-Ann Suzette Jones Jul 2014

Tempering The Resource Curse In Sub-Saharan Africa: An Explanatory Analysis Of The Variance Of The Resource Curse In Nigeria And Botswana, Jody-Ann Suzette Jones

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The issue of the resource curse has been central to the academic debate since the 1990s. In recent years, we have witnessed a resurgence of the importance of this topic because of the discoveries of oil, natural gas, and other point source resources in several developing countries such as Ghana, Mozambique and Tanzania. It is important to note that while the resource curse is not solely limited to developing states, the main observation is that the majority of negative effects associated with the resource curse primarily afflicts poorer countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is reported that sub-Saharan Africa ...


State-Centric Or State-In-Society: National Identity And Collective Memory In The Linkage Politics Of Chinese Foreign Relations, Ning Liao Jul 2014

State-Centric Or State-In-Society: National Identity And Collective Memory In The Linkage Politics Of Chinese Foreign Relations, Ning Liao

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation, with a standpoint of disentangling China's diplomacy "inside-out," explores the Chinese state-society relationship in domestic-foreign-policy interaction. With its analytic focus resting on the collective memory of national humiliation in modern Chinese history and the derived national identity, this project delves into the linkage between the ideational impetus of the diplomatic decision-making of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the way that the authoritarian regime claims its internal and external legitimacy.

In the state legitimation, collective memory and national identity are instrumentalized to enact the moral justification of the CCP's political authority and to justify China's ...


Great Powers, The Persian Gulf, And Global Oil: A Comparative Analysis, Katerina Oskarsson Jan 2014

Great Powers, The Persian Gulf, And Global Oil: A Comparative Analysis, Katerina Oskarsson

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Using original data, this study explores the changing capabilities of the United States, China, and Russia in the conflict-ridden Persian Gulf since 1980. It reveals what such shifts mean for American hegemony, the international distribution of capabilities in the region, relations among the great powers, and global oil security.


The Complexity Of Armed Conflict In Mindanao: Beyond Economic Deprivation, Discrimination, And Inequality, Nasser Pendatun Lidasan Jul 2013

The Complexity Of Armed Conflict In Mindanao: Beyond Economic Deprivation, Discrimination, And Inequality, Nasser Pendatun Lidasan

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Studies on internal conflict focus on bringing a violent conflict to non-violent. Economic development and good governance are most attractive since essential services are provided to people, regardless of ethnic affiliation. Autonomy for minority groups to maintain the integrity of a state is another option. Applied in Mindanao conflict, negotiated settlement, separation, and military victory did not create a lasting peace. This study applies the levels of analysis framework to investigate the conflict and considers the sub-state level as vital. It suggests the role of local actors as crucial in intrastate conflict. It examines the dynamics of conflict at the ...


The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri Jul 2013

The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to explore the underlying factors behind the political and ideological transformation of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) since its foundation. Through the detailed analysis of the role of Turkey's internal versus external factors on the evolution of the PKK over time, this work finds that changing political developments in the Middle East were more influential than Turkey's shifting domestic political environment. Hypothesis testing revealed that the 1991 Gulf War, 2003 Iraq War, changing political dynamics of the Middle East following Syria's Arab Spring, and policy changes worldwide implemented after the ...


The Absent Empire: The United States And The South American Regional Subsystem, Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixerira Jul 2011

The Absent Empire: The United States And The South American Regional Subsystem, Carlos Gustavo Poggio Teixerira

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The United States often acted in Latin America as an empire. Nevertheless, there has been an obvious dissimilarity between US actions in South America and US actions in the rest of Latin America, which is illustrated by the fact that the United States never sent troops to invade a South American country. While geographic distance and strategic considerations may have played a role, they provide at best incomplete explanations for US relative absence south of Panama. The fact that the United States has had a distinct pattern of interactions with South America is thus not captured by the typical concept ...


Social Trust In Contemporary Rural China: Its Sources And Impacts On Public Goods Provision, Narisong Huhe Jul 2011

Social Trust In Contemporary Rural China: Its Sources And Impacts On Public Goods Provision, Narisong Huhe

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Social trust, as an essential element of political culture, is assumed to strongly affect the effectiveness of political institution. However, such studies in non-democratic settings are scarce, and even scarcer in the Chinese context. This dissertation, using data drawn from an original survey in rural China, examines the extent, sociopolitical origins, and political consequences of social trust in China. The results suggest that China has a unique pattern of social trust owing to its dual Confucian and Communist heritages. While trusts in relatives, neighbors, kinsman, and other villagers (i.e., particularized trust) are extensive, trust in strangers (generalized trust) is ...


Cooperative Strategies On Parallel Tracks: The Nepad And Agoa Initiatives, Guelmbaye Ngarsandje Jul 2010

Cooperative Strategies On Parallel Tracks: The Nepad And Agoa Initiatives, Guelmbaye Ngarsandje

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

In July 2001, at the 37th of the former Organization of African Unity, African heads of states launched the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), a combination of the Omega Plan from Abdoulaye Wade and The Millennium African Renaissance Partnership initiated by Thabo Mbeki, respectively presidents of Senegal and South Africa. This was an achievement of tasks given by their peers in Algiers in 1999. Previously to that, the Clinton administration initiated the African Growth and Opportunity Act passed in law in 1998. Though the two programs aim at African development, they did not take in account each other ...


Becoming A Good Neighbor In Southeast Asia: The Case Of China's Territorial Disputes In The South China Sea, 1989–2006, Dirk Richard Morton Jul 2007

Becoming A Good Neighbor In Southeast Asia: The Case Of China's Territorial Disputes In The South China Sea, 1989–2006, Dirk Richard Morton

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Since the establishment of formal diplomatic relations between China and the ASEAN states following the end of the Cold War, Sino-ASEAN relations have widened and deepened considerably. This is surprising, considering that most ASEAN states viewed China as a revisionist power and threat to regional security during the Cold War and Vietnam and the Philippines have a history of armed conflict with China over as-of-yet unresolved territorial disputes in the South China Sea. Given the withdrawal of American military forces from the Philippines in 1992 and the steady growth of Chinese economic and military power, one might expect ASEAN's ...


The Middle Class And Political Change In China: Chinese Middle Class's Attitudinal And Behavioral Orientations Toward Democracy, Chunlong Lu Apr 2007

The Middle Class And Political Change In China: Chinese Middle Class's Attitudinal And Behavioral Orientations Toward Democracy, Chunlong Lu

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Does the middle class in China think and act democratically and hence serve as the harbinger of democratic development in that country? Little empirical work has been done to systematically address this crucial question. The primary goals of this dissertation are to explore the level of attitudinal support for democracy among Chinese middle class individuals, examine their behavioral orientations toward politics, and provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of the Chinese middle class in the evolution of the Chinese political system. This dissertation argues that the middle class in China consists of the following four occupational groups: self-employed laborers ...


Quo Vadis? Polish-Ukrainian Relations In The Enlarging Europe, 1991–2004, Anna Makhorkina Jan 2007

Quo Vadis? Polish-Ukrainian Relations In The Enlarging Europe, 1991–2004, Anna Makhorkina

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to analyze the development of Polish-Ukrainian relations in the context of the EU and NATO enlargements. It examines changes in the relationship during 1991-2004, and evaluates major factors that influenced it. The study of Polish-Ukrainian relations in 1991-2004 is important not only from an historical and geopolitical perspective, but also within the context of institutionally enlarging Europe. Poland has been a NATO-member since 1999 and an EU-member since 2004. Ukraine is a member of neither. This turns the Polish-Ukrainian relationship into a relationship between two states, where one side is an "insider" and the other an "outsider ...


Nicaragua's Survival: Choices In A Neoliberal World, Stanley G. Hash Jr. Apr 2006

Nicaragua's Survival: Choices In A Neoliberal World, Stanley G. Hash Jr.

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

In January 1990 the Nicaraguan electorate chose to abandon the failing Sandinista Revolution in favor of the economic neoliberal rubric. However, since 1990 Nicaragua's economy has been stagnant. Today it is one of the four poorest states in Latin America having been one of the wealthiest before 1975.

The purpose of this work is to explain Nicaragua's poor performance since 1990. The hypothesis is that domestic independent variables are central to recovery and are the underlying causes of Nicaragua's failure to fully recover.

The abuses of the Somozas' ancien régime before the 1979 revolution are well documented ...


Leadership: The Missing Variable In The Economic Development Of Sub-Saharan Africa, Osei K. Bonsu Apr 2002

Leadership: The Missing Variable In The Economic Development Of Sub-Saharan Africa, Osei K. Bonsu

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Contemporary economic theories, modernization and dependency, have overlooked the fact that the development process depends on the interaction of social factors. Specifically, the theories have ignored the role of leadership in analyzing economic development. This dissertation seeks to incorporate the importance of leadership into the analysis of development. It argues that sub-Saharan African countries have not developed economically because leaders in the region have been less than successful in establishing a culture conducive to industrialization. African leaders have failed to establish the high moral and scientific cultures necessary to promote economic progress. In place of those cultural attributes, the leaders ...


East European Security Revisited: Institutions, Power, And Security, Blagovest Tashev Apr 2002

East European Security Revisited: Institutions, Power, And Security, Blagovest Tashev

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Drawing on the literatures on democratization, security studies, and small states this dissertation explores the relationship of small states' domestic and international institutionalization and their security. Small states have limited power not only to affect their environment but also to guarantee national security. Small states, it is hypothesized, enhance their security through the consolidation of domestic institutions and the accumulation of capacities provided by their participation in capacity-reach international institutions.

The dissertation tests the hypothesis by applying the comparative method to the post-communist states of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, and Lithuania. The three case studies analyze the effects of domestic ...


Sources Of Inter-State Alignments: Internal Threats And Economic Dependence In The Former Soviet Union, Eric A. Miller Jan 2002

Sources Of Inter-State Alignments: Internal Threats And Economic Dependence In The Former Soviet Union, Eric A. Miller

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation develops a framework for understanding the alignment patterns of states of the former Soviet Union (FSU) vis-à-vis Russia. The framework challenges traditional alignment theories, such as balance of power and balance of threat theories, and suggests that these theories provide less accurate predictions of alignment behavior in the FSU than the present framework because of a variety of situational and contextual factors. In particular, the present framework highlights the impact of two variables on alignment patterns, (1) the internal political threats to leaders, and (2) the economic dependence on Russia. These two variables produce a four-outcome model, presented ...


The Concept And Practice Of Representative Democracy In Post-Communist Eastern Europe, Georgeta V. Pourchot Jul 2000

The Concept And Practice Of Representative Democracy In Post-Communist Eastern Europe, Georgeta V. Pourchot

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Using the concept of representation, this study advances a comparative interpretive analysis which makes use of hard statistical data and soft data to assess the direction of democratization in Eastern Europe between 1990 and 1998. Specifically, the study looks at how governments in Eastern Europe chose to heed constituencies' calls for the institution of a market economy, and analyzes the degree of government responsiveness towards constituencies. The study finds that the region is moving towards a more responsible and responsive type of governance, but at different paces and degrees. Poland leads with respect to government responsiveness. The Czech Republic displays ...


Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger Apr 1998

Institutions, Developmental Alliances, And Economic Development In Korea And Brazil (1950-1985), Charles Paul Winebarger

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This paper compares the development of Korea and Brazil, 1950-85. These newly industrialized countries developed at above-average rates among less developed countries. Korea developed more rapidly than Brazil. The paper contends that institutions, interest groups (especially firms) and the state, enter into developmental alliances. Alliances affect policies. Policies, then, affect development.

Findings reveal interesting trends in the 1950s' democracies of the cases. Both countries had semi-autonomous states, equivocally committed to industrialization. Industry was the growth point in each. Korea used local firms to industrialize; Brazil used foreign firms. In both cases, the state allied itself with firms. Policy mostly favored ...