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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

On The Efficacy Of Sanctions: Why Regimes And Motives Matter, Colette Faulkner Jul 2018

On The Efficacy Of Sanctions: Why Regimes And Motives Matter, Colette Faulkner

Global Tides

This paper seeks to explain not only the reasons and motivations behind why countries choose to use sanctions as a tool of foreign policy but also interrogates the efficacy of sanctions. Sanctions are a mechanism that countries generally use against another country in order to get a response. Sanctions can be used as either tools of economic coercion or as symbols of disapproval. With regards to the efficacy of sanctions extracting political concessions, sanctions are generally succeeding with more democratic regimes and fail with more autocratic regimes. As a symbolic tool sanctions often succeed at increasing the reputation of the ...


When Words Are Worse Than Bullets: A Study Of Corruption As An Unintended Consequence Of Threats Of Sanctions, Aleksei Balanov Jan 2017

When Words Are Worse Than Bullets: A Study Of Corruption As An Unintended Consequence Of Threats Of Sanctions, Aleksei Balanov

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

This research contributes to the debates on the efficacy of economic sanctions as a tool of international diplomacy. It focuses on corruption, one of the potential unintended consequences of sanctions. Using multiple regression on a custom cross-sectional time series dataset of more than a thousand observations, this research finds the correlation between threats of sanctions and level of corruption statistically significant. The model suggests each new round of threats translates into a 1.25% increase in corruption for relatively clean states and a 5% increase for already corrupt states. The resulting policy implications are examined in this thesis.


The Fallacy Of Nonviolent Economic Sanctions, Andrew Kovach Jan 2016

The Fallacy Of Nonviolent Economic Sanctions, Andrew Kovach

The Downtown Review

The object of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of economic sanctions as weapons which tend to cause violence without effectively providing national defense or regime change. First, by describing the use of sanctions as a tactic of nonviolence and through a brief description of their historical use, it may be determined that sanctions are not as harmless as it may seem. Furthermore, this paper provides greater detail of two important instances of sanctions in U.S. foreign policy involving Iran and Cuba. Finally, through a synthesis of more modern research on the subject, the misperception of effective ...


How The Eu Learned To Love Sanctions, Clara Portela Jan 2016

How The Eu Learned To Love Sanctions, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

It is only recently that the European public has woken up to the sue of sanctions in EU foreign policy, though they have been employed since the early 1980s. They became more frequent following the 1992 establishment of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), the EU's intergovernmental forum for foreign policy coordination.


Exploring The Transformative Potential Of The E3+3 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action With Iran For Improving The Iranian Economy And Its Reintegration Into The Global System, Mohammad Reza Farzanegan Dec 2015

Exploring The Transformative Potential Of The E3+3 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action With Iran For Improving The Iranian Economy And Its Reintegration Into The Global System, Mohammad Reza Farzanegan

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan

This is background note for my presentation at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt.


The Economic Impact Of Lifting Sanctions On Iran: How The Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action Will Affect The Economy Of Iran, Ryan Foley Dec 2015

The Economic Impact Of Lifting Sanctions On Iran: How The Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action Will Affect The Economy Of Iran, Ryan Foley

Vannicelli Washington Semester Away Program Award

During the second term of the Obama Administration, the United States and the European Union negotiated a deal with the Islamic Republic of Iran regarding their nuclear program. These negotiations encompassed the relaxing of sanctions on the Iranian economy in exchange for concessions on the part of their nuclear program. This thesis investigates how the deal will affect the economy of Iran and the international oil market, two entities which are deeply intertwined. The findings suggest that the opening of Iran’s economy will almost certainly lead to a strengthening of their domestic economy in the short-term, but that the ...


The Un, Regional Sanctions And Africa, Andrea Charron, Clara Portela Nov 2015

The Un, Regional Sanctions And Africa, Andrea Charron, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Africa is the continent most targeted by sanctions. During the Cold War, when the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) was all but paralysed, the only sanctions regimes that the UN imposed were directed at countries located on the African continent: Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, penalized for their apartheid regimes. In the post-Cold War era, Africa has continued to register the highest frequency of sanctions, applied not only by the UN but by other organizations as well. Africa’s own regional bodies, such as the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), are active in ...


In Search Of Peace: Restructuring The Us-Iran Relationship In Light Of The 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action, Samuel E. Winkler Oct 2015

In Search Of Peace: Restructuring The Us-Iran Relationship In Light Of The 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action, Samuel E. Winkler

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis attempts to ask how the United States should conduct foreign policy towards Iran given the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), agreed to on 14 June 2015. The 2015 JCPOA initiated a drastic shift in US foreign policy toward Iran. It is now up to US policy makers to craft a coherent Iran foreign policy moving forward from the agreement. In order to accomplish this, the vitriolic relationship between Iran and the United States, which contains two concurrent narratives, must be examined. The dual narratives are the history of the successive US Presidential administrations’ relations with Iran, and ...


Eu Sanctions In Context: Three Types, Thomas Biersteker, Clara Portela Jul 2015

Eu Sanctions In Context: Three Types, Thomas Biersteker, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

All international sanctions are embedded in larger contexts of overlapping policy instruments and other sanctions regimes. Yet we tend to look at sanctions and evaluate their effectiveness from the vantage point of a single sender of sanctions – whether it is the UN, the EU, or an individual country like the United States – rather than consider the combined and interactive effects of different, co-existing sanctions regimes. EU sanctions tend to be imposed in conjunction with measures by other actors: their interplay deserves closer analysis in terms of sequencing, objectives, complexity and legitimacy. The latter is particularly important, given recent criticisms of ...


Unrecognized States: A Theory Of Self-Determination And Foreign Influence, Kristina Buzard, Benjamin A.T. Graham, Ben Horne Aug 2014

Unrecognized States: A Theory Of Self-Determination And Foreign Influence, Kristina Buzard, Benjamin A.T. Graham, Ben Horne

Economics - Faculty Scholarship

Unrecognized states are characterized by stagnant or crumbling economies and political instability, often serve as havens for illicit trade, and challenge the territorial sovereignty of recognized states. Their persistence is both intellectually puzzling and normatively problematic, but unrecognized statehood can be a remarkably stable outcome, persisting for decades. Our four-player model reveals that unrecognized statehood emerges as an equilibrium outcome when a patron state is willing and able to persistently invest resources to sustain it. We assess options available to actors in the international community who seek to impose their preferred outcomes in these disputes and find that, although sanctions ...


Sanctions Dataset Codebook For Arasp (Autocratic Regimes And Sanctions Project), Clara Portela, Christian Von Soest Jun 2012

Sanctions Dataset Codebook For Arasp (Autocratic Regimes And Sanctions Project), Clara Portela, Christian Von Soest

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This is the codebook containing definitions of terms used in the Sanction Dataset. The dataset is composed of the entire universe of sanctions regimes imposed by the UN, US and EU in the period from 1990 to 2010, including those sanctions regimes that were in place by 1990, targeting a country, its leadership and entities associated with it. Episodes which are still on-going are also recorded.


Myanmar: The Beginning Of Reform And The End Of Sanctions, Marco Bünte, Clara Portela Jun 2012

Myanmar: The Beginning Of Reform And The End Of Sanctions, Marco Bünte, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Since March 2011, Burma/Myanmar has witnessed a liberalization of the press, the release of political prisoners and the initiation of a political dialogue between the regime on the one hand and the opposition and ethnic groups on the other. The reforms culminated in by-elections on 1 April 2012, which in turn resulted in a landslide victory for Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD). Overall, political reforms in Burma/Myanmar are being initiated from “above.” They are elite-driven and stem from the president and progressive members of the military-dominated party, the Union Solidarity and Development Party ...


Power And Humiliation In Foreign Policy: The Effects Of Economic Sanctions, Rebecca A. G. Liftman Jun 2011

Power And Humiliation In Foreign Policy: The Effects Of Economic Sanctions, Rebecca A. G. Liftman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis analyzes the use and unintended outcomes of power in international politics through an examination of economic sanctions in selected countries. A theoretical argument is derived from punishment theories and analyzes the effects of punishment on the target, including subjugation, humiliation and resistance. Seven cases of economic sanctions are studied: Cuba, Burma, Pakistan, Syria, Libya, Iraq, and Iran where the United States, either unilaterally or as the leader of a coalition, sought to influence political outcomes in the target state, such as regime change or curbing WMD proliferation. Economic sanctions were generally unsuccessful in achieving the expected outcomes and ...


Impact Of Sanctions And Isolation Measurement With North Korea, Burma/Myanmar, Iran And Zimbabwe As Case Studies, Clara Portela May 2011

Impact Of Sanctions And Isolation Measurement With North Korea, Burma/Myanmar, Iran And Zimbabwe As Case Studies, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The present study explores how the introduction of targeted sanctions has transformed the practice of international organisations, looking at the examples of North Korea, Burma/Myanmar, Iran and Zimbabwe.

Although the ultimate effectiveness of the individual sanctions measures can hardly be ascertained, not least due to their co-existence with unilateral sanctions proactively enforced by the US, the analysis demonstrates that the character of sanctions measures, and the changing nature of the international system, has put the use of sanctions and isolation measures in different terms than was the case just a couple of decades ago.

While it is beyond the ...


The (Non-) Impact Of Un Sanctions On North Korea, Marcus Noland Jan 2009

The (Non-) Impact Of Un Sanctions On North Korea, Marcus Noland

Marcus Noland

This study finds that North Korea’s nuclear test and the imposition of UN Security Council sanctions have had no perceptible effect on North Korea’s trade with its two largest partners, China and South Korea. Before North Korea conducted an underground nuclear test, it was widely believed that such an event would have cataclysmic diplomatic ramifications. However, beginning with visual inspection of data and ending with time-series models, no evidence is found to support the notion that these events have had any effect on North Korea’s trade with its two principal partners. In retrospect, North Korea may have ...


Sanctions Against Belarus: Normative Unintended, Clara Portela Jan 2008

Sanctions Against Belarus: Normative Unintended, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The goals pursued by the EU vis-à-vis Belarus through its sanctions policies are unequivocally normative. The EU refers to the ‘violations of international electoral standards’ in the 2006 presidential elections and the ‘crackdown on civil society and democratic opposition’ as the primary reasons for the imposition of sanctions. The EU sanctions strategy against Belarus has followed an incrementalist logic, unfolding in parallel to the evolution of the Belarusian state towards authoritarianism.


Aid Suspensions As Coercive Tools? The European Union’S Experience In The African-Caribbean-Pacific (Acp) Context, Clara Portela Aug 2007

Aid Suspensions As Coercive Tools? The European Union’S Experience In The African-Caribbean-Pacific (Acp) Context, Clara Portela

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Since the signing of the Cotonou Agreement in 2000, the European Union (EU) has suspended development aid towards a number of African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries in response to breaches of Human Rights and democratic principles by activating the so-called Human Rights clause (article 96). The present article analyses the use by the EU of aid suspensions as political tools and their efficacy in achieving the desired policy goals, in an attempt to identify and explain the determinants leading to the success of these measures. The investigation finds that the use of development aid suspensions is frequently effective. Classical ...


Sanctions That Work: The Bush Perspective On Iraq, Editor Mar 2001

Sanctions That Work: The Bush Perspective On Iraq, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes some implications of United States (US) President Bush's comments on "sanctions that work" in the context of US foreign policy towards Iraq.


Trends. Psychology And Sanctions: Why Saddam Won, Editor Feb 2001

Trends. Psychology And Sanctions: Why Saddam Won, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses the psychology of sanctions and the effect sanctions have had on the Iraqi people.


Sanctions And Nonproliferation Behavior: Missing On Missiles, Editor Dec 2000

Sanctions And Nonproliferation Behavior: Missing On Missiles, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes political psychologies supporting United States (US) sanctions-related behavior towards the People's Republic of China's (PRC) exporting of missiles, missile components, and missile technology.


Sanctions, U.S. Policy And The Caspian Basin, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Peter Rutland Jan 1999

Sanctions, U.S. Policy And The Caspian Basin, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Peter Rutland

Giulio M Gallarotti

No abstract provided.


Sanctions, U.S. Policy And The Caspian Basin, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Peter Rutland Jan 1999

Sanctions, U.S. Policy And The Caspian Basin, Giulio M. Gallarotti, Peter Rutland

Division II Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Trends. Humane And Inhumane Rights: President Clinton's Trip To China, Editor Jul 1998

Trends. Humane And Inhumane Rights: President Clinton's Trip To China, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The editor discusses President Clinton's performance in China as one that variously exacerbated, paid lip service to, discounted, and/or ignored the human rights violations of his hosts.


Trends. Milosevic On Force Withdrawal: Can The Wrong Be Right?, Editor Jun 1998

Trends. Milosevic On Force Withdrawal: Can The Wrong Be Right?, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the completion of talks between Yugoslavian President Slobodan Milosevic and Russian President Boris Yeltsin, which seems to have lead to the lessening of the momentum for multilateral military intervention sponsored by the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to punish Serbia.


Trends. Iraq: To Bomb Or Not To Bomb?, Editor Feb 1998

Trends. Iraq: To Bomb Or Not To Bomb?, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author continues the analysis against initiating an "air war" employing bombs and missiles against Iraq as a punishment for violating United Nations directives.


Trends. United States Government (Usg) Policy Towards Cuba: Holier Than The Pope?, Editor Feb 1998

Trends. United States Government (Usg) Policy Towards Cuba: Holier Than The Pope?, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the failing policy of sanctions against the Cuban government.


Trends. Iran, Iraq, And Dual Containment: The Unbalanced Balance, Editor Dec 1997

Trends. Iran, Iraq, And Dual Containment: The Unbalanced Balance, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses his views on whether or not US policy should change in regards to Iran and Iraq in the wake of allegedly conciliatory comments towards the USG made by Iranian President Mohammed Khatami and of continued noncompliance by Saddam Hussein with United Nations (UN)-mandated sanctions.


Comments On Iraq, The United Nations (Un), And The Inspection Crisis: What Iraqi Error In Judgment? Nov 1997

Comments On Iraq, The United Nations (Un), And The Inspection Crisis: What Iraqi Error In Judgment?

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The Editor continues his diatribe of the Iraqi-UN crisis.


Trends. Libya, Iraq, And Sanctions-Busting Through Common Decency Sep 1997

Trends. Libya, Iraq, And Sanctions-Busting Through Common Decency

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses UN placed sanctions against Libya related to the 1988 bombing of a Pan Am aircraft in flight in which 270 people died.