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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Stepping Up: Burden Sharing By Nato's Newest Members, Joel Hillison Dec 2014

Stepping Up: Burden Sharing By Nato's Newest Members, Joel Hillison

Joel R. Hillison

This book examines the burden sharing behavior of new NATO members. It makes the argument that new NATO members are burden sharing at a greater rate than older NATO members. It also suggests that NATO’s expansion did not lead to greater free-riding behavior in NATO, contrary to the predictions of the collective action literature. This analysis reveals that new NATO members have demonstrated the willingness to contribute to NATO missions, but are often constrained by their limited capabilities. This argument is supported using case studies, interviews with key NATO officials, and quantitative analysis of NATO defense expenditures and troop ...


Power Struggle Over Ukraine: Systemic Observations, Zenonas Tziarras Feb 2014

Power Struggle Over Ukraine: Systemic Observations, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

The Syrian civil war and now Ukraine. These are only two examples of crises over which the United States and Russia have bumped heads recently. Some might be tempted to call this a “new Cold War,” but it’s really not. Yes, the geopolitical competition and power struggle might be obvious and similar. And even the race for maximizing the spheres of influence. But the ideological context is different and therefore there is no clash of politico-economic systems, not to mention that calling the current international system “bipolar” is simplistic, to say the least. What we have now is a ...


Europe In A ‘Nato Light’ World - Building Affordable And Credible Defense For The Eu, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther Jan 2013

Europe In A ‘Nato Light’ World - Building Affordable And Credible Defense For The Eu, Jan Kallberg, Adam Lowther

Jan Kallberg

From an outsider’s perspective, the Common Security and Defense Policy and the efforts of the European Defense Agency are insufficient to provide Europe with the defense it will require in coming decades. While the European Union—particularly the members of the European Monetary Union—struggle to solve prolonged fiscal challenges, viable European security alternatives to an American-dominated security architecture are conspicuously absent from the documents and discussions that are coming from the European Council and at a time when the United States is engaged in an Asia-Pacific pivot. This is not to say that no thought has been given ...


Analysis - Toward A New American Military., Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg Oct 2012

Analysis - Toward A New American Military., Adam Lowther, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

In releasing the United States Department of Defense’s (DoD) Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense and Defense Budget Priorities and Choices in January 2012, President Barack Obama and Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta offered a rationale for the administration’s reductions in defense spending. By stating that the shift in strategic direction is an effort to “put our fiscal house in order” and a response to the 2011 Budget Control Act, which requires DoD to reduce spending by $487 billion between fiscal years 2012 and 2021, the United States’ NATO partners in Europe were given ...


Common Criteria Meets Realpolitik Trust, Alliances, And Potential Betrayal, Jan Kallberg Jul 2012

Common Criteria Meets Realpolitik Trust, Alliances, And Potential Betrayal, Jan Kallberg

Jan Kallberg

Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation has the ambition to be a global standard for IT-security certification. The issued certifications are mutually recognized between the signatories of the Common Criteria Recognition Arrangement. The key element in any form of mutual relationships is trust. A question raised in this paper is how far trust can be maintained in Common Criteria when additional signatories enter with conflicting geopolitical interests to earlier signatories. Other issues raised are control over production, the lack of permanent organization in the Common Criteria, which leads to concerns of being able to oversee the actual compliance. As ...


Winning The Story War: Strategic Communication And The Conflict In Afghanistan, George Dimitriu Jun 2012

Winning The Story War: Strategic Communication And The Conflict In Afghanistan, George Dimitriu

George Dimitriu

In conflicts of the information age success in the application of force depends less on the outcome of tactical operations on the battlefields but more on how the war's purpose, course and conduct is viewed by public opinion at home as well as within the theatre of operations. Therefore western allies in Iraq and Afghanistan are not only involved in a physical struggle but also in a struggle over perceptions, for no long-term engagement of troops is possible without support from home, nor can a counterinsurgency succeed without the support of the local population. While the ability to exert ...


Operationele Ontwikkeling Van De Nederlandse Special Operations Forces, 2005-2010, George Dimitriu, Gijs Tuinman, Martijn Van Der Vorm Mar 2012

Operationele Ontwikkeling Van De Nederlandse Special Operations Forces, 2005-2010, George Dimitriu, Gijs Tuinman, Martijn Van Der Vorm

George Dimitriu

Between 2005 and 2010 Dutch Special Operations Forces (SOF) carried out three mission in Afghanistan. The authors describe these missions in which both Army SOF and Marine SOF took part. They describe SOF and analyze the planning and execution of SOF missions. Further, they discuss the insights and developments that resulted from these experiences. By doing this, they not only clarify but also explain recent developments in the Dutch SOF realm. The lessons learned and best practices identified are a sound foundation for the future of Dutch SOF. (article in Dutch).


Yeni Enerji Jeopolitiğinde Nato'nun Enerji Güvenliğinde Tamamlayıcı Rolü Ve Türkiye'nin Potansiyel Katkıları (Nato's Complimentary Role In Energy Security And Turkey's Potential Contributions At The New Energy Geopolitics ), Emre Iseri, Oguz Dilek Jan 2012

Yeni Enerji Jeopolitiğinde Nato'nun Enerji Güvenliğinde Tamamlayıcı Rolü Ve Türkiye'nin Potansiyel Katkıları (Nato's Complimentary Role In Energy Security And Turkey's Potential Contributions At The New Energy Geopolitics ), Emre Iseri, Oguz Dilek

Emre Iseri

Energy-related issues gained a prominent place within the NATO’s new strategic concept declared during the Lisbon Summit (November 20, 2010). This final strategic concept is to address two new sources of threat within the new energy geopolitics - ‘resource nationalism’ and ‘energy terrorism’ - which deeply concern those NATO members that require imported energy resources to meet their soaring domestic demand. Lisbon Summit to remove, if not alleviate, these security challenges tasked NATO with a set of specific roles. As a melting pot of the said two energy related risks, Turkey with its pledge to become the fourth energy artery of ...


Ondervraging Van Irakese En Afghaanse Insurgents: De Nederlandse Ervaringen, George Dimitriu Nov 2011

Ondervraging Van Irakese En Afghaanse Insurgents: De Nederlandse Ervaringen, George Dimitriu

George Dimitriu

Gedurende de afgelopen jaren is de Nederlandse Krijgsmacht een aantal jaren actief geweest in Irak en Afghanistan waarbij honderden mensen gevangen zijn genomen en zijn ondervraagd. In tegenstelling tot veel andere landen die ook in Irak en Afghanistan actief zijn of waren, zoals de Verenigde Staten, Groot-Brittannië, Spanje en Canada, is Nederland tot op heden gevrijwaard gebleven van een groot martelschandaal of een binnenlandse discussie. Afgezien van een incident in 2006 toen krantenkoppen Nederlanders betichtten van marteling tijdens de missie in Irak, is er maar weinig voorgevallen. Bovendien luwde de ophef over het vermeende martelincident in Irak al snel. Hoe ...


De Missie In Uruzgan Als Strategisch Narratief, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf Nov 2011

De Missie In Uruzgan Als Strategisch Narratief, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf

George Dimitriu

In dit artikel willen we stilstaan bij het belang van maatschappelijk draagvlak in westerse democratieën voor langdurige missies, waarbij de primaire landsbelangen niet direct op het spel staan en waarbij de noodzaak tot oorlogsvoering niet buiten kijf staat. We nemen de ISAF-evaluatie als uitgangspunt, maar willen het punt uitwerken dat in deze evaluatie buiten beschouwing is gelaten: de relatie tussen troepeninzet voor missies en het maatschappelijke draagvlak. Die relatie krijgt vorm in publieke en politieke debatten, in lobby's en stemmingen in de Kamer. Er is inmiddels een rijk onderzoeksveld ontstaan rond vraagstukken van maatschappelijk draagvlak, publieke opinie en oorlogsvoering ...


Strategische Communicatie In Afghanistan: Alles Draait Om Perceptie, George Dimitriu Oct 2011

Strategische Communicatie In Afghanistan: Alles Draait Om Perceptie, George Dimitriu

George Dimitriu

Tijdens conflicten is beïnvloeding van de verschillende relevante doelgroepen – tegenstanders, de lokale bevolking en het eigen thuisfront – altijd al van doorslaggevend belang geweest. Maar door de geglobaliseerde nieuwe vormen van media dat heeft geleid tot ongekende beïnvloedings-mogelijkheden, de verwevenheid van target audiences en de communicatiesuccessen van terroristen is het belang van de ideologische strijd vandaag de dag enorm toegenomen. De westerse bondgenoten zijn in Afghanistan niet alleen in een fysieke strijd verwikkeld maar ook in een strijd om percepties. Zonder draagvlak van het thuisfront is langdurige inzet van troepen immers niet mogelijk en zonder steun van de lokale bevolking zal ...


The Dutch Counterinsurgency Approach: Political And Military Lessons, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf Jul 2011

The Dutch Counterinsurgency Approach: Political And Military Lessons, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf

George Dimitriu

In the past, military defeat has led to resignations of Ministers of Defence. But in February 2010, it was the first time that a ruling party in the Netherlands, the social democrat party (Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA), brought down the coalition government, as a protest against extending a military mission. This historical moment even inspired the Taliban to congratulate the social democrats: ‘We congratulate the Dutch for this courageous and independent decision,’ said Taliban spokesman Qari Yusuf Ahmadi. The Taliban expressed the hope that other countries would follow the Dutch example. After four years of intensive commitment to the ...


‘Holding’ For Companies And Platoons In Counterinsurgency, George Dimitriu Mar 2011

‘Holding’ For Companies And Platoons In Counterinsurgency, George Dimitriu

George Dimitriu

In August 2010, the Dutch redeployed their forces after being active in Afghanistan for four years, aiding and abetting ISAF with around 2000 troops each rotation. Initially, the contribution after August had been discussed fiercely, but the collapse of the Netherlands’ coalition government in February 2010 meant also the end of the discussion about prolongation of the mission of Task Force Uruzgan; the withdrawal of troops is definite and more or less completed by the time of writing. In a recently published article about the performance of the Dutch forces in Uruzgan, which I wrote together with Dr. B.A ...


The Dutch Coin Approach: Three Years In Uruzgan, 2006-2009, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf Sep 2010

The Dutch Coin Approach: Three Years In Uruzgan, 2006-2009, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf

George Dimitriu

Rarely has a military commitment led to such intense discussion in the Netherlands as the Task Force Uruzgan (TFU) mission in Afghanistan. In February 2010, the Netherlands' coalition government even collapsed after the two largest parties failed to agree on the withdrawal of Dutch troops from Afghanistan later this year. This article deals first of all with the difficult discussion over the Afghanistan mission of the TFU. The authors then subject three ISAF operations to close scrutiny. The authors provide some suggestions to help understand better this pivotal point in the execution of the whole operation and thus give a ...


De Nederlandse Coin Aanpak: Drie Jaar Uruzgan 2006-2009, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf Nov 2009

De Nederlandse Coin Aanpak: Drie Jaar Uruzgan 2006-2009, George Dimitriu, Beatrice De Graaf

George Dimitriu

Zelden leidde militaire inzet tot zo veel discussie als de missie Task Force Uruzgan (TFU) in Afghanistan. Wat doen de Nederlandse troepen precies in Uruzgan? En hoe hebben ze de strategie de afgelopen twee jaar op het tactische en operationele niveau uitgewerkt en toegepast? Dit artikel behandelt de moeizame discussie over de missie van TFU. Vervolgens nemen de auteurs drie ISAF-operaties onder de loep. De meest complexe en cruciale fase van dergelijke operaties “de fase van consolidatie (hold)“ komt uitvoerig aan de orde. De auteurs bieden een kader om deze schakel in de uitvoering beter te begrijpen. Ze geven zo ...


The Yugoslav Wars’ Implications On Romanian Security, Nikolaos Tzifakis May 2001

The Yugoslav Wars’ Implications On Romanian Security, Nikolaos Tzifakis

Nikolaos Tzifakis

This paper perceives Romania as an integral part of the Balkan sub-regional security complex and attempts to evaluate the implications of its participation in Balkan affairs on its security. More precisely, the article discusses the effects that the Yugoslav (Croat-Serbian, Bosnian and Kosovar) wars had on Romanian security and presents Bucharest’s endeavor to manage its insecurity. The research demonstrates that Romania envisaged the management of its insecurity by upholding its application for membership in Western security structures (NATO, WEU) rather than by institutionalizing Balkan cooperation. Considering that NATO and Yugoslavia were adversaries throughout the 1990s, the paper discusses Bucharest ...