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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein Jun 2019

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico Oct 2018

The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico

Sacred Heart University Scholar

During the Arab Spring in 2011, much of the Middle Eastern world faced a series of uprisings demanding democracy and equality. Most of these attempts at revolution desperately failed, with some nations faring far worse than before. Some, however, remain more stable than others, with Tunisia being the sole full success. This article delves into the varying causes of the uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria. These countries respectively represent the good, the bad, and the ugly outcomes of the Arab Spring.

Through a thorough analysis of other literature on the subject, I conclude that the success of modern Arab ...


Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour Jul 2018

Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Soft power, a concept developed and presented by Joseph Nye in 1990, has quickly become a critical concept in U.S. foreign policy. Scholars and practitioners discuss the utility or futility of soft power. Theorists rank countries by their use of effective soft power against one another. Critically lacking in the discussion, however, is an analysis of how one country’s use of soft power changes, or remains the same, over time.

Counterterrorism policy has been a focus of U.S. foreign policy since 9/11, and while there is a robust discussion on effectiveness of various policies and strategies ...


America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar May 2018

America's 'Just Wars' In The 21st Century: Implications Of Just War Theory On The Middle East, Sara Bakhtiar

Senior Theses

This paper will examine the presence of just war theory in the rhetoric and actions of U.S. leaders and policymakers. I look at Afghanistan to highlight the United States' misuse of just war doctrine, which led to highly destructive consequences. I then look at Syria and how just war language is already being used to justify a potential intervention in the state. Last, I assess the United States' intervention in Yemen to argue that the U.S. does not intervene in the Middle East for strictly humanitarian purposes, but rather to pursue and advance its own interests like policies ...


Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead Apr 2018

Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead

Political Science Honors Projects

Iranian proxy groups in the Middle East pose a continuing challenge to stability, American interests, and peaceful self-governance in the region. From a strategic standpoint, Iran’s innovative use of proxy groups to pursue their political and military interests has proven difficult to understand and respond to within a comprehensive framework. This paper will argue in favor of reviving and modifying the ‘new wars’ literature as a theoretical framework for understanding Iranian proxy groups and regional interests. It analyses Iranian actions in fostering relationships with non-state actors in the region as an extension of the state into ‘new wars’ dynamics ...


Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa Oct 2017

Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa

UBT International Conference

The main objective of this topic is to provide a detailed panorama of the causes of Islamic Revival and radicalization of Islam, particularly in the region of Middle East. In this perspective, it’s somehow puzzling to at the first sight that Arab World used to be a leader in the science, military and science, is now paradoxically a region characterized by unrest and turmoil. Contrary to the past decades where peace was a distinctive peculiarity of the region and economy flourished, now is overwhelmed by the phenomena of the Radicalization of Islam for political purposes and to come to ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii May 2017

In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

In this paper the author examines the struggle of the Kurdish people for self-determined social, political, and economic development in the whirlwind of conflict in the Middle East. It uses a case study of how a Kurdish minority in Iraq interact with multiple stakeholders in their struggle for nationhood, and implications of these interactions for overall Kurdish social and economic development. Studies on economic development while interested in social, economic and political aspect of development, are less concerned with the implications of right to self-determination on development; the unique case of the Kurdish struggle provides an opportunity to expand the ...


Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield Apr 2017

Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

Many factors have been used to explain durable authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and one of the most important external influences of MENA governments’ structure is support from the United States. The US balances security concerns and democratization rhetoric in the region, but much literature promotes that security concerns are the most important factor for US support in MENA. Using US aid as a proxy for US support, this study finds that US aid actually increases democratization in MENA, and counterintuitively, aid to MENA military and police forces seems to have a stronger democratization effect than ...


U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon Jan 2017

U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park Jan 2017

The Wwi Middle East: Western Intervention And Modern-Day Political Conflict, Pauline Park

Global Tides

This paper analyzes three conflicting agreements made by the Allied powers between 1915 and 1917: the Husayn-McMahon correspondence, the Sykes-Picot arrangements, and the Balfour Declaration. It reveals the agreements as demonstrative of deeper patterns of political power and strategy in the Middle East that persist today. This paper moreover compares the Middle East with the European colonization of Rwanda in the 1880s, and how the nation's internal division was caused by external global powers seeking political and economic gain. This analysis seeks to connect global events as part of a wider political agenda propagated by Western powers.


Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley Jan 2017

Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The intersection of trafficking, forced labor, and refugees is well-cited in the international human rights community yet is rarely studied academically, especially in the Middle East. Given the massive Syrian refugee crisis that began in 2011, which increased the total global population of refugees to the largest total in history, it is more important than ever to study and better understand how refugees are vulnerable to trafficking and forced labor, particularly in impacted countries. The purpose of this research is to answer the question why refugees are vulnerable and how anti-trafficking and anti-forced labor initiatives can use vulnerability indicators as ...


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat Dec 2016

"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat

Master's Theses

The Palestinian people have lived under numerous imperial rulers; first, the Ottoman Empire, then later the British. Today they live under the military occupation of the state of Israel as second class citizen millions more living abroad as refugees. Young Palestinian men have become the leaders and the physical manifestation of the struggle against Israel, a political Goliath that has used tactics to repress the Palestinians such as, detentions, beatings, and land confiscation, which many outside of the Israeli state deem as illegal. Scholar Rashid Khalidi states that “the quintessential Palestinian experience, which illustrates some of the most basic issues ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler Dec 2016

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren Dec 2016

The Failure Of Westphalia: A Constructivist Examination Of Western And Middle Eastern Relations, Jayson Warren

Masters Theses

This thesis is not intended to be a dogmatic or pedantic endorsement of any one religion, ethic, or culture. To the contrary, it is the intent of the author to examine a number of competing ideas, philosophies, and belief systems in order to extrapolate their geopolitical implications and to pursue them to their logical (albeit sometimes inevitable) conclusions. Too often, any number of presuppositions at work within a given situation go overlooked and subsequently skew geopolitical analysis and resulting policy decisions. This thesis seeks to transcend mere opinion or speculation and achieve instead a framework of Constructivism for pragmatic comprehension ...


“Frames” And Bias: How A Lack Of Context In Middle East News Coverage Can Impact U.S. Foreign Policy, Jennifer Lois Moore Dec 2016

“Frames” And Bias: How A Lack Of Context In Middle East News Coverage Can Impact U.S. Foreign Policy, Jennifer Lois Moore

MSU Graduate Theses

This thesis is a critical examination into how American mainstream news media outlets often neglect to incorporate religious, cultural and historical context into their coverage of the Middle East. I show through my research and analysis that the news coverage of the Middle East, even at the highest echelons of American journalism, is often lacking in sophistication in terms of cultural and religious context, sometimes to the point of affecting its fairness and accuracy. The danger of this is that it has the power to grossly simplify and reduce to an “us versus them” frame an entire contingent of the ...


Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner Nov 2016

Cultural Awareness In Nuclear Security Programs: A Critical Link, Al-Sharif Nasser Bin Nasser, Jasmine Auda, Katherine Bachner

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Nuclear security programs that offer training and capacity building opportunities to practitioners working in nuclear facilities play a central role in strengthening the global nuclear security architecture. There is often a significant divide, however, between both the development of these programs and their implementation, and between the programs’ intended and actual outcomes. As this article will argue, this disconnect can often be attributed to an absence of cultural awareness and an inability for internationally-designed programs to effectively resonate with local audiences. Accordingly, the importance of the role of cultural awareness in implementing nuclear security programs will be assessed, and its ...


Veto Syria: Explaining The Power Of The United Nations Security Council And The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Hanouf Khallaf May 2016

Veto Syria: Explaining The Power Of The United Nations Security Council And The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Hanouf Khallaf

Master's Projects and Capstones

The purpose of this research is to provide an analysis of the United Nations Security Council compliance with the Charter of the United Nations and the effectiveness of its Responsibility to Protect innocent civilians from crimes committed against them, particularly within the Syrian region in the Middle East. In addition, this research suggests that the Security Council needs reform in order to meet its obligations and function effectively in world crises. In order to achieve this, the research proposes multiple reform recommendations that could be implemented immediately within the system.


Transnational Capitalism And The Middle East: Understanding The Transnational Elites Of The Gulf Cooperation Council, Seyed Ahmad Mirtaheri May 2016

Transnational Capitalism And The Middle East: Understanding The Transnational Elites Of The Gulf Cooperation Council, Seyed Ahmad Mirtaheri

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, I argue that transnational elites within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been integrated within a Transnational Capitalist Class (TCC) economically, militarily and politically through relationships that transcend the boundaries of the nation-state. These relationships exist within the context of a global capitalist structure of accumulation that is dependent on the maintenance of a repressive state apparatus in the GCC. There have been few attempts to analyze the relationships that Middle Eastern political and economic elites have developed with global elite networks. This work fills an important gap in the scholarly literature by linking the political and ...


The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Nov 2015

The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The organization known today simply as the “Islamic State,” or by its Arabic acronym, Daesh (English, ISIL), has historical and ideological roots that go beyond the territories it now controls. These deep roots give Daesh confidence that it will succeed in dominating the world, but give others reasons to believe that it will fail in controlling even a single nation. Mixing puritan religious and political discourses, ISIL managed to dominate all other armed opposition groups in conflict zones (Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya) and has inspired individuals in many other countries (Egypt, Pakistan, France, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia) to ...


The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly Nov 2015

The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores what effect Saudi and American policy differences towards Iran have had on their bilateral relations. It is based on the recent thaw in Iran-U.S. relations, and the critical reaction of the Saudi government towards this policy. The question has two components – first, how severe the current Saudi-American rift is, and second, to what extent it can be traced to their differences over Iran. The topic will be addressed through process-tracing methods.

The thesis concludes that there is indeed a rift in Saudi-U.S. relations marked by an increasingly assertive and independent Saudi foreign policy, though its ...


Energy As A Factor For Turkish - Russian Rapprochement, Saltuk Bugra Karahan Oct 2015

Energy As A Factor For Turkish - Russian Rapprochement, Saltuk Bugra Karahan

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation started with a simple question: What was the main source of Turkish-Russian rapprochement seen generally after the end of the Cold War, specifically within the last 15 years (2001-2015)? A review of the literature on the subject revealed three explanations for Turkish-Russian rapprochement: (1) Perception of the U.S. as a threat in the Black Sea and Caucasus region, (2) Deterioration of Turkey’s relations with the West, and (3) Turkey’s need for energy. Thus came the main question for this work: To what extent does Turkey’s need for energy play a role in Turkish-Russian rapprochement ...


The Power Of Ideas In Politics: Social Constructivism And Obama’S Foreign Policy In Iraq, Courtney Kayser Aug 2015

The Power Of Ideas In Politics: Social Constructivism And Obama’S Foreign Policy In Iraq, Courtney Kayser

Political Analysis

No abstract provided.


Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

In early May, 2015 it became known that Saudi Arabia and Turkey are supporting extremist Islamist groups in Syria against the regime of Bashar al-Assad. That Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, among others, have – mostly indirectly – been supporting Islamist groups is not news as similar reports have been emerging from time to time since 2011, if not earlier. But this policy with regard to the Syrian conflict became increasingly overt amidst growing instability and lack of Western commitment to Assad’s overthrow. According to The Independent and other media, Turkish and Saudi support focuses on the overarching jihadist group Jaish ...


A Path To Peace: Reconciling The Sunni-Shi’A Conflict In Iraq, Kelsey L. Modica May 2015

A Path To Peace: Reconciling The Sunni-Shi’A Conflict In Iraq, Kelsey L. Modica

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The Iraqi state has a long history of division between Sunnis and Shiites. This conflict has often been violent and continues even today. Ultimately, this division dates back to the seventh century after the death of Muhammad. In order to better understand why there is a conflict between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq and not other countries, it is essential to understand the similarities and differences between their ideologies but also how they have been rooted against each other throughout history. Therefore, I begin with a description of the similarities and differences between Sunnis and Shiites to show the common ...


A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink May 2015

A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink

Honors Theses

This study monitored the intelligence and foreign policy actions of Israel, Iran, and Saudi Arabia from August 2013 to August 2014. Data was collected from coverage by Associated Press, The Wall Street Journal, and Al-Jazeera, three reliable and respected news sources that cover global events. The actions taken by foreign policymakers in these countries were recorded throughout the study period.

These actions were organized into a taxonomy based on whether they were intelligence-based or non-intelligence based. Within those broad categories, more distinguishing characteristics were analyzed to show patterns of behavior within national intelligence services of the nations studied. These patterns ...


Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden Apr 2015

Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper argues that the growth and legalization of Political Islamism in Tunisia will naturally hinder the contemporary influence of violent extremism, leading to partnership and inclusion within a Democratic government. The basis for this claim rests on the idea that the condemnation and repression of Political Islamism in Tunisia historically backfired and led to the further underground radicalization of Tunisians, along with scores of human rights abuses by authorities. Specifically, this essay will focus on the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, the Salafist party Ansar al-Sharia, and their complex relationship to each other as well as to domestic and regional ...


Causes Of Third Party Military Intervention In Intrastate Conflicts, Hailey Bennett Jan 2015

Causes Of Third Party Military Intervention In Intrastate Conflicts, Hailey Bennett

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Since the conclusion of World War II, the number of expansive interstate wars has decreased while devastating intrastate wars and conflicts have increased exponentially. The Cold War ushered in an era of international stability in the bipolar balance of power, but proxy wars, wars of succession and independence, genocide and civil war made the era anything but peaceful. These conflicts proved to be breading grounds for third party military interventions, which increased simultaneously. In this thesis, I attempted to determine what factors encouraged third party states to intervene militarily in the affairs of other states in the post-World War II ...


The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud Jan 2015

The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Though originally ascertaining that both blowback and interest sharing were the primary causal factors giving rise to Salafist terrorism from 1991-2010, the project found evidence supporting the idea that the two concepts are related instead. Blowback, specifically from “direct interventions,” increases interest sharing by providing Salafist terrorist groups with the means to expand their objectives to make their fight seem like that of ordinary citizens thereby swelling their numbers. It can also lead to the unification of various groups who previously may have had no common goals. In turn these intertwining phenomenon lead to more attacks and damage done by ...