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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Democracy Promotion In U.S. Counterinsurgency: Tracing Post-War Security Sector Reconstruction In El Salvador And Iraq, Emma Redington Lawry Jan 2020

Democracy Promotion In U.S. Counterinsurgency: Tracing Post-War Security Sector Reconstruction In El Salvador And Iraq, Emma Redington Lawry

Honors Projects

Throughout the 21st century, certain facets of the democratic peace theory have informed American foreign policy, as policymakers credit democracy promotion with long-term stability and peace. In contrast, many political scientists have documented the often destabilizing and violent effects of democratization, particularly in underdeveloped states. How can we reconcile these tensions, and in what ways do they affect American foreign policy abroad? Under the lens of just war theory, or the doctrine of military ethics detailing the conditions under which it is morally acceptable to go to war, wage war and restore peace after war, this paper seeks to examine ...


Winning Public Hearts And Minds: Security And Development Aid In The 21st Century, Mohammad Ashraf Dec 2019

Winning Public Hearts And Minds: Security And Development Aid In The 21st Century, Mohammad Ashraf

Dissertations

In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States, foreign aid has focused on winning public hearts and minds in the aid recipient states as a hedge against insecurity and means to achieve progress in the “war on terror.” Western donors, especially the United States, argue foreign aid is an effective tool to expand government capacity and control over territory, win public hearts and minds, and ultimately mitigate the need and significant military costs of deployment to counter insecurity, extremism, and terrorism in weak, fragile and failing states.

This dissertation uses case studies to explore the ...


The Use Of Force: Hard Offensive Counterterrorism, Daniel Thomas Jan 2019

The Use Of Force: Hard Offensive Counterterrorism, Daniel Thomas

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

In the following research, I investigate whether hard offensive counterterrorism results in the failure or success of a counterterrorism strategy. In the second chapter, the academic literature of counterterrorism strategies is examined. Next, a hypothesis is put forth that if a hard offensive counterterrorism strategy is utilized, indicators such as high troop levels, more civilian casualties, more negative public opinion, and an increased rate of terrorism, will point to a failed counterterrorism strategy. Then, I put forth a methodology to test the hypothesis while introducing troop level databases, various public opinion polling sources, and terrorist attack databases to investigate the ...


Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak Jan 2019

Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I examine the content of and mechanisms of disseminating propaganda originating from Saddam Hussein’s regime during the Iran-Iraq War. This research specifically looks at how and why the regime targeted Iraqi Shi’as during the war, and how that contributed to the ways in which the regime engaged with rhetoric. Moreover, this thesis attempts to make sense of the diverse, and sometimes seemingly opposing, amalgam of the rhetoric’s subject matter and methods of circulation. More broadly, it speaks to the difficulty of fostering an environment that can produce patriotism and lead to the construction of ...


The U.S. Army In The Iraq War – Volume 2: Surge And Withdrawal, 2007-2011, Jeanne Godfroy, Matthew Zais, Joel D. Rayburn, Frank Sobchack, James Powell, Matthew Morton Jan 2019

The U.S. Army In The Iraq War – Volume 2: Surge And Withdrawal, 2007-2011, Jeanne Godfroy, Matthew Zais, Joel D. Rayburn, Frank Sobchack, James Powell, Matthew Morton

West Point Books

The Iraq War has been the costliest U.S. conflict since the Vietnam War. To date, few official studies have been conducted to review what happened, why it happened, and what lessons should be drawn. The U.S. Army in the Iraq War is the Army's initial operational level analysis of this conflict, written in narrative format, with assessments and lessons embedded throughout the work. This study reviews the conflict from a Landpower perspective and includes the contributions of coalition allies, the U.S. Marine Corps, and special operations forces. Presented principally from the point of view of the ...


The U.S. Army In The Iraq War – Volume 1: Invasion – Insurgency – Civil War, 2003-2006, Jeanne Godfroy, Matthew Zais, Joel D. Rayburn, Frank Sobchack, James Powell, Matthew Morton Jan 2019

The U.S. Army In The Iraq War – Volume 1: Invasion – Insurgency – Civil War, 2003-2006, Jeanne Godfroy, Matthew Zais, Joel D. Rayburn, Frank Sobchack, James Powell, Matthew Morton

West Point Books

The Iraq War has been the costliest U.S. conflict since the Vietnam War. To date, few official studies have been conducted to review what happened, why it happened, and what lessons should be drawn. The U.S. Army in the Iraq War is the Army's initial operational level analysis of this conflict, written in narrative format, with assessments and lessons embedded throughout the work. This study reviews the conflict from a Landpower perspective and includes the contributions of coalition allies, the U.S. Marine Corps, and special operations forces. Presented principally from the point of view of the ...


Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour Jul 2018

Beyond Carrots And Sticks: An Analysis Of U.S. Approaches To Counterterrorism From 2000-2016, Margaret M. Seymour

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

Soft power, a concept developed and presented by Joseph Nye in 1990, has quickly become a critical concept in U.S. foreign policy. Scholars and practitioners discuss the utility or futility of soft power. Theorists rank countries by their use of effective soft power against one another. Critically lacking in the discussion, however, is an analysis of how one country’s use of soft power changes, or remains the same, over time.

Counterterrorism policy has been a focus of U.S. foreign policy since 9/11, and while there is a robust discussion on effectiveness of various policies and strategies ...


Foreign Policy By Fiat: An Examination Of The United States Decision Making Process On Iraq From 1990-1998, Shawn Mcfall Jan 2018

Foreign Policy By Fiat: An Examination Of The United States Decision Making Process On Iraq From 1990-1998, Shawn Mcfall

CMC Senior Theses

This thesis explores how the United States identified Iraq as a threat to its national interest from 1990 to 1998. The international relations literature is heavily skewed toward exploring the question of why states engage in conflict and neglecting how a country identifies a threat. Therefore, this thesis focuses on the threat identification policy process. This thesis examines two security moves – the Gulf War and the Iraq Liberation Act – and uses primary documents to reveal how the foreign policy apparatus concluded that Iraq was a threat. Through the two cases, I found that foreign policy decisions were made on an ...


The Effect Of Unemployment On Democratic Warfare, Andres Rakower Jan 2018

The Effect Of Unemployment On Democratic Warfare, Andres Rakower

Honors Undergraduate Theses

This study was done to see the effects of a war on the economy and the internal politics of the United States. In selecting the engagement, we would study we agreed the Iraq War would be aided by a large amount of sampling of public opinion that was more nuanced than in previous wars. The Iraq War was a very complicated war, as it was controversial from the beginning and became a political issue while continuing to be a war fought by Americans abroad. Based on the literature, there were many starting effects and assumptions that were accounted for such ...


The Unraveling Of The Nation-State In The Middle East: Examples Of Iraq And Syria, Zachary Kielp Dec 2017

The Unraveling Of The Nation-State In The Middle East: Examples Of Iraq And Syria, Zachary Kielp

MSU Graduate Theses

After the carnage of World War One and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire a new form of political organization was brought to the Middle East, the Nation-State. Based on European ideas of Sovereignty and equality between countries; the nation-state was thrust upon these areas that had no history or interest in adopting a foreign form of governance and served the primary purpose of safeguarding the imperial interests of Europe. Compounding their error, the regions of these new nation-states contained populations that had long resented and mistrusted each other. While these countries could be held together by repressive dictatorships for ...


Putting Humpty Dumpty Back Together Again: Lessons Learned From State-Building In Iraq, Andrew F. Clark Jul 2017

Putting Humpty Dumpty Back Together Again: Lessons Learned From State-Building In Iraq, Andrew F. Clark

Pepperdine Policy Review

I was ten years old when the United States invaded Iraq to overthrow a tyrant, eradicate a terrorist organization, and destroy an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction. Thirteen years later there are still United States soldiers fighting in Iraq. The name of the war has changed over the last thirteen years, but the reality is that I have lived more years of my life with U.S. soldiers in Iraq than years without. The failed effort to rebuild Iraq after the 2003 invasion illustrates a larger incoherence of the United States foreign policy after conflict. There are valuable lessons ...


In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii May 2017

In Pawn: Kurdish Economic Development In The Context Of Conflict, Stephen E. Mcavene Iii

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

In this paper the author examines the struggle of the Kurdish people for self-determined social, political, and economic development in the whirlwind of conflict in the Middle East. It uses a case study of how a Kurdish minority in Iraq interact with multiple stakeholders in their struggle for nationhood, and implications of these interactions for overall Kurdish social and economic development. Studies on economic development while interested in social, economic and political aspect of development, are less concerned with the implications of right to self-determination on development; the unique case of the Kurdish struggle provides an opportunity to expand the ...


The Future Of Intervention: Examining The Legacy Of The Responsibility To Protect, William D. Gilman May 2017

The Future Of Intervention: Examining The Legacy Of The Responsibility To Protect, William D. Gilman

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel Apr 2017

Miedo Y Multilateralismo: Chile Y México En El Consejo De Seguridad De Las Naciones Unidas Antes De La Invasión De Irak De 2003, Amanda K. Krehbiel

Student Publications

En este proyecto, exploro la pregunta: ¿cuál fue la motivación de los gobiernos de Chile y México para votar en contra de los EEUU y que fue el efecto de tales acciones en sus relaciones políticos con los Estados Unidos? Investigo documentos oficiales de la ONU, archivos de periódicos, y documentos publicados por las embajadas de los EEUU, Chile, y México. Esta pregunta está en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. Examino este tema en el contexto de la Guerra con Irak en 2003. En las semanas antes de la Invasión, en el 19 de marzo de ...


Geopolitical Account Of Iran's Ties With Non-State Actors Under The Shah: 1958-1979, Arash Reisinezhad Mar 2017

Geopolitical Account Of Iran's Ties With Non-State Actors Under The Shah: 1958-1979, Arash Reisinezhad

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Late in 2004, King Abdullah of Jordan coined a controversial phrase that still dominates the heart of the geopolitics of the Middle East: The Shia Crescent. “If pro-Iran parties or politicians dominate the new Iraqi government, a new ‘crescent’ of dominant Shia movements or governments stretching from Iran into Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon could emerge to alter the traditional balance of power between the two main Islamic sects and pose new challenges to U.S. interests and allies. What the King of Jordan saw as a threat, Iran saw as the bedrock of its newfound regional power. However, what the ...


Building Military Helicopter Capacity: Influences On Process And Effectiveness, Rudy Goff Mar 2017

Building Military Helicopter Capacity: Influences On Process And Effectiveness, Rudy Goff

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

In 2016, the National Military Strategy of the United States of America listed building the capacity of partner nations as a key priority. By building military capacity, partner countries can become better equip to fight ongoing insurgencies, transnational terrorist organizations, and other threats to the U.S. themselves, allowing the U.S. to shift focus and resources towards other areas that need attention. In today’s battlefield, mobility and firepower are of the utmost importance. One capability that can address both of these areas is helicopters, which can greatly increase the effectiveness of a military and reduce the required number ...


The Bald Eagle Nests: The United States Role In State-Building: Germany, Kosovo, And Iraq, Visar Xhambazi Jan 2017

The Bald Eagle Nests: The United States Role In State-Building: Germany, Kosovo, And Iraq, Visar Xhambazi

Political Science & Geography Faculty Publications

(First paragraph) This paper aims to explain and analyze the role and the commitment of the United States in state-building, looking at three case studies coming from different regions and periods of time – from Germany to Iraq and Kosovo. The objective is to answer some critical questions such as how successful was the transition of state-building when it comes to security, economy, and institutions; what was the U.S. commitment; what happened for the better and for the worse; why in some countries was the state-building successful and in some countries not; and last but not least, how important is ...


A Contemporary Analysis And Comparison Of Kurdish National Movements: Syria, Iraq, And Turkey, Grayson Lanza Jan 2017

A Contemporary Analysis And Comparison Of Kurdish National Movements: Syria, Iraq, And Turkey, Grayson Lanza

Honors Undergraduate Theses

As commonly understood, and particularly espoused by Kurdish nationalists, the Kurds are by far the largest ethnic group in the world without their own nation-state. An estimated 2 to 2.5 million ethnically Kurdish people inhabit portions of Syria. There are approximately 6.5 million ethnically Kurdish people in Iraq, 7.6 million in Iran, and 16 million in Turkey. Overall, there are about 30 million Kurds in the world. In the broader context of the Kurdish nationalist struggle, this paper suggests that there is a growing bipolar hegemony for power over the control of Kurdish land and politics. Research ...


United States Interventions: Power Vacuums And The Rise Of Extremist Groups, Sarah Nicole Pedigo Jul 2016

United States Interventions: Power Vacuums And The Rise Of Extremist Groups, Sarah Nicole Pedigo

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to examine U.S. foreign policy in Iraq and Syria and the rise of violent extremist groups such as ISIS. By utilizing the integrated theory of violations of international criminal laws and the realpolitik theoretical frame, this qualitative case study analysis will explore how the U.S. foreign policy, driven by realpolitik and neo-liberalism in Iraq and Syria, resulted in the rise of violent extremist groups such as ISIS. It was concluded that if the United States were to remove the Assad regime and dismantle the Alawite ruling class as it did with the ...


The Challenges Of Isis And The Modern Nation-State, Matthew Burton Jun 2016

The Challenges Of Isis And The Modern Nation-State, Matthew Burton

Honors Theses

This essay examines the challenges that the so-called Islamic State, or ISIS, pose to the contemporary state system. The rise of ISIS in the territories of Iraq and Syria raises two fundamental questions, one conceptual the other directly political: First, ISIS’s claim to be a state and world powers’ resistance to this claim raises the question of what constitutes a state in today’s international system. Second, as a unique form of political organization that has become successful in the Middle East in a relatively short time, ISIS raises a number of practical political questions such as, what it ...


Isis: A Product Of The United States' Quest For The Neoconservative Identity, Christopher White Apr 2016

Isis: A Product Of The United States' Quest For The Neoconservative Identity, Christopher White

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Internal Displacement In Iraq: Internally Displaced Persons And Disputed Territory, Nancy Riordan Feb 2016

Internal Displacement In Iraq: Internally Displaced Persons And Disputed Territory, Nancy Riordan

New England Journal of Public Policy

The protracted conflict in Iraq has led to one of the highest internal displacements of people worldwide. With data from the International Organization for Migration’s Displacement Tracking Matrix and other sources, geographic information system methods were applied to investigate the quantitative and spatial characteristics of Iraq’s internally displaced persons (IDPs). Based on this analysis, significant numbers of IDPs were found to be displaced among the disputed territories of northern Iraq. The findings of this analysis, when paired with additional research, poses serious complications not only for the security of Iraq’s IDPs but also for the country. The ...


International Creations: The Case Of Iraq, Syria, And Jordan, Brittany Hale Jan 2016

International Creations: The Case Of Iraq, Syria, And Jordan, Brittany Hale

PPPA Paper Prize

This paper compares and contrasts Syria, Jordan, and Iraq, in terms of history and international policy.


Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra Jan 2016

Voting For Victory: The Impact Of Elections On Counterinsurgency Wars, Krishan Douglas Malhotra

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

What role do elections play during counterinsurgency wars? Prompted by the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, two broad empirical trends also underlay the posing of this research question. In the modern era, the number of electoral regimes in the international system has expanded dramatically. And in this same period, the fortunes of governments combatting asymmetric internal threats has reversed, with incumbents being defeated by their ‘weaker’ opponents one third of the time, and securing outright victory for themselves only to an equal extent. But while the grievances expounded by insurgents vary across conflicts, the inclusivity of access to the ...


The Power Of Ideas In Politics: Social Constructivism And Obama’S Foreign Policy In Iraq, Courtney Kayser Aug 2015

The Power Of Ideas In Politics: Social Constructivism And Obama’S Foreign Policy In Iraq, Courtney Kayser

Political Analysis

No abstract provided.


Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

A year ago the world witnessed the swift advances of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) in Iraq and Syria. Though the emergence of the group was somewhat expected for those who have been following the regional developments of the past years it caught most of the world by surprise. At the same time, its brutal tactics, military victories, resilience, evolution and extreme ideology have led many to characterize it as the greatest regional and international security threat at the moment or the most dangerous Islamist threat contemporary history has seen.


Peace Be Dammed? Water Power And Water Politics In The Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Camille E. Wasinger May 2015

Peace Be Dammed? Water Power And Water Politics In The Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Camille E. Wasinger

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Improving U.S. State Department Cultural Exchanges With The Middle East: A Case Study Comparison Of Iraq And Jordan, Irene K. Gibson Apr 2015

Improving U.S. State Department Cultural Exchanges With The Middle East: A Case Study Comparison Of Iraq And Jordan, Irene K. Gibson

Political Science Honors Projects

The U.S. State Department conducts cultural exchanges with the purpose of encouraging participants to instigate changes in their home countries. Despite extensive efforts by programs to measure their impact on participants, these effects are only indirect correlates or background variables for the ultimate goal of direct action. This thesis explores the impact of State Department cultural exchanges with the Middle East by drawing on eight interviews with exchange administrators of numerous programs in Iraq and Jordan. The case studies of Iraq and Jordan allow more careful scrutiny of the types of factors, both internal and external to programs, that ...


The Arab Fall: War Of All Against All, Muqtedar Khan Feb 2015

The Arab Fall: War Of All Against All, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

This article explore the geopolitics of the Arab World with the rise of Daesh - ISIS.


Not Our Fight Alone: An Analysis Of The Us Strategy Combating The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria, James E. Kelly Jan 2015

Not Our Fight Alone: An Analysis Of The Us Strategy Combating The Islamic State Of Iraq And Syria, James E. Kelly

CMC Senior Theses

The recent policies of former Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, combined with the collapse of the Syrian state in 2011, created conditions that led to the rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, or “ISIS.” As of November 2014, ISIS controls large areas of western and northern Iraq and northern and eastern Syria, an area roughly the size of Belgium. The rise of ISIS in the past three years has caught the attention of every major nation, especially the United States, and world leaders are justified in fearing a strong ISIS in the Middle East.

The purpose of ...