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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein Jun 2019

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Women's Rights And Representation In Saudi Arabia, Iran, And Turkey: The Patriarchal Domination Of Religious Interpretations, Roumaissaa Tailassane Apr 2019

Women's Rights And Representation In Saudi Arabia, Iran, And Turkey: The Patriarchal Domination Of Religious Interpretations, Roumaissaa Tailassane

International Relations Honors Papers

This research paper is divided into three case studies: Saudi Arabia, Iran and Turkey. The main focus of the paper is to examine barriers to women’s economic and political participation as well as the limits on their rights within the family and society. All three case studies are Muslim-majority countries. The paper argues that the subordination of women is not intrinsic to Islam but stems from patriarchal interpretations of Islam by religious authorities working in conjunction with autocratic political leaders. Furthermore, the paper analyzes cultural, political, and economic explanations for limits on women’s rights in these Muslim-majority countries ...


Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo Apr 2019

Wisdom (Hikmah) As Perceived By Iranian Muslim Scholars: Reflections On Ibn Sina, Ghazali, And Suhrawardi, Leyla H. Tajer, Amir H. Zekrgoo

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

The evolution of the concept of spiritual/religious wisdom (ḥikamt) by the Iranian Muslim philosophers from the 10th to 12th century, may be studied under three main trends namely Mashā’i (Peripatetic), Kalām (theology), and Ishrāq (Illumination). Despite the correlation among these trends each of them grew independently. Among the three, the Hikmat-i Ishrāq (Illumination Wisdom) which is also known as Ḥikamt-i Dhawqi (Intuitive Wisdom) of Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1153-1191) found a special place as it tended to bring together the philosophical and theological aspects of wisdom. This survey would address the development of ikmat (wisdom) among ...


Governments' Adoption Of Native Cryptocurrency: A Case Study Of Iran, Russia, And Venezuela, Rose Mahdavieh Jan 2019

Governments' Adoption Of Native Cryptocurrency: A Case Study Of Iran, Russia, And Venezuela, Rose Mahdavieh

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The emergence of digital currency is becoming prevalent in the age of globalization – specifically, cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies and blockchain are two recently discovered concepts currently being explored by researchers and developers. Cryptocurrency is a subset of digital currency that encompasses revolutionary technology, shifting political and economic spheres in nation-states. Certain governments are more prone to the adoption of cryptocurrencies and three comparative case study countries, Iran, Russia, and Venezuela, have shared attributes that result in adoption. Observed factors that result in the adoption of cryptocurrencies include corruption, GDP level, economic volatility, and Western sanctions. These factors will be applied in the ...


Islam & Interfaith Dialogue: Innovative Diplomacy Between The United States And Islamic Republic Of Iran, Kristyn Rohrer Dec 2018

Islam & Interfaith Dialogue: Innovative Diplomacy Between The United States And Islamic Republic Of Iran, Kristyn Rohrer

Honors Student Research

This meta-communicative study provides an analysis of global interfaith dialogue as it pertains to peace and conflict, with a primary focus on Islam. The Islamic Republic of Iran and United States have a complicated history. Their diplomatic relationship is rife with manipulation, radicalism, and a disregard for human dignity. Currently, the US is imposing hundreds of sanctions and restrictions on Iran, from nuclear energy to medicine, as a result of President Trump’s decision to back out of the Iran Deal. However, other forms of dialogue are affecting positive relations between the two countries. Interfaith dialogue between North American Mennonites ...


Kissingerism And Iranian-American Relations: Prospects For Reconciliation And The Establishment Of A New Order, Kaleb D. Mazurek May 2018

Kissingerism And Iranian-American Relations: Prospects For Reconciliation And The Establishment Of A New Order, Kaleb D. Mazurek

International Studies Honors Projects

This thesis is an attempt to resurrect the strategic and philosophical thinking of Henry Kissinger in order to unlock the Iranian-American impasse. Encounters between the two countries have been in a state of deadlock since the 1979 Iranian Revolution, though its genesis dates back, at least, to the American-sponsored coup d’état of 1953. Within the American foreign policy establishment, no one looms larger than Dr. Kissinger: his contributions intersect the two worlds of academic diplomatic history and statecraft at the highest levels of international relations. He was the chief diplomat at a momentous period. Kissinger―through his writings and ...


Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead Apr 2018

Iran’S New Interventionism: Reconceptualizing Proxy Warfare In The Post-Arab Spring Middle East, Emmet Hollingshead

Political Science Honors Projects

Iranian proxy groups in the Middle East pose a continuing challenge to stability, American interests, and peaceful self-governance in the region. From a strategic standpoint, Iran’s innovative use of proxy groups to pursue their political and military interests has proven difficult to understand and respond to within a comprehensive framework. This paper will argue in favor of reviving and modifying the ‘new wars’ literature as a theoretical framework for understanding Iranian proxy groups and regional interests. It analyses Iranian actions in fostering relationships with non-state actors in the region as an extension of the state into ‘new wars’ dynamics ...


Targeted Sanctions - Case Study: Iran, Emily Nygard Jan 2018

Targeted Sanctions - Case Study: Iran, Emily Nygard

Summer Research

In Iran’s history, there have been two prominent periods where international interference has led to a marked decrease in state revenue. One of these periods was in 1953, when a Central Intelligence Agency coup allowed the Anglo-Iranian oil company to reclaim possession of Iranian oil. The second was in 2006 to 2015, when the international community imposed various sanctions on Iran in order to curb the country’s nuclear weapons program. These sanctions regimes led to the crafting and acceptance of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. Charles Tilly’s theory of state formation shows how the change in ...


Saudi Arabia And Iran: Sectarianism, A Quest For Regional Hegemony, And International Alignments, Victoria Chen Aug 2017

Saudi Arabia And Iran: Sectarianism, A Quest For Regional Hegemony, And International Alignments, Victoria Chen

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

Saudi Arabia and Iran are two of the most influential countries in the Middle East. They have often clashed with each other for a number of reasons. Although Riyadh and Tehran frequently espouse their sectarian differences as an explanation and justification for their regional confrontations, sectarianism is only one variable of the complex relationship between the two countries. Therefore the main question for this research concerns the non-sectarian sources of contention between Saudi Arabia and Iran, and the ways in which Saudi and Iranian leaderships frame this confrontation around sectarianism. As the first step, using constructivist framework, this paper analyzes ...


Rivalry In The Middle East: The History Of Saudi-Iranian Relations And Its Implications On American Foreign Policy, Derika Weddington Aug 2017

Rivalry In The Middle East: The History Of Saudi-Iranian Relations And Its Implications On American Foreign Policy, Derika Weddington

MSU Graduate Theses

The history of Saudi-Iranian relations has been fraught. This relationship has impacted the United States’ role in the Persian Gulf. Prior to the formation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, bilateral relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran could be characterized in terms of mutual understanding which allowed them to become integral parts of the American foreign policy in the1970s. This policy was intended to safeguard Western interests in the Persian Gulf after the British left. Saudi-Iranian cooperation during this time was in stark contrast to the hostile relationship that developed between them following the Iranian Revolution in 1979 ...


Geopolitical Account Of Iran's Ties With Non-State Actors Under The Shah: 1958-1979, Arash Reisinezhad Mar 2017

Geopolitical Account Of Iran's Ties With Non-State Actors Under The Shah: 1958-1979, Arash Reisinezhad

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Late in 2004, King Abdullah of Jordan coined a controversial phrase that still dominates the heart of the geopolitics of the Middle East: The Shia Crescent. “If pro-Iran parties or politicians dominate the new Iraqi government, a new ‘crescent’ of dominant Shia movements or governments stretching from Iran into Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon could emerge to alter the traditional balance of power between the two main Islamic sects and pose new challenges to U.S. interests and allies. What the King of Jordan saw as a threat, Iran saw as the bedrock of its newfound regional power. However, what the ...


Governing Militaries In Liberalizing Economies: China, Iran, Egypt, Loosineh Markarian Senagani Jan 2017

Governing Militaries In Liberalizing Economies: China, Iran, Egypt, Loosineh Markarian Senagani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Why have some economically-active militaries of autocratic regimes gained more autonomy vis-à -vis their civilian elite as a consequence of economic liberalization processes adopted in 80s and 90s, whereas others have remained subordinate to civilian control? This dissertation examines the impact of economic liberalization since 1980s on civil-military relations (CMR) in autocratic regimes. Prior to liberalization, the centrally- planned governments of Egypt, Iran, and China utilized their militaries to implement economic development projects. Post-liberalization, these militaries expanded into new economic sectors like finance, banking, and trade. The expansion impacted the balance of CMR differently in each case. Egypt's military ...


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


A Fortuitous Hegemon: Cold War Presidential Foreign Policies, Benjamin Bowles Nov 2016

A Fortuitous Hegemon: Cold War Presidential Foreign Policies, Benjamin Bowles

Senior Honors Theses

Following the Cold War, the United States attained the pinnacle of global influence; however, new threats and challenges have arisen that possess the potential to unseat America from its position of global dominance. While the United States’ global power has remained unchallenged since the end of the Cold War, threats have formed that take the form of both maverick upstart nations, such as Iran and China, as well as foreign powers that are clamoring to retain the status of their former glory, such as Russia. In plotting the course with which the United States should address these new threats, an ...


Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel Jul 2016

Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation aims at analyzing the role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ (IRGC) extraterritorial activities in attaining Iran’s foreign policy goals. Based on observations and assessments from internal and external determinants, Iran’s foreign policy goals are defined as follows: regime survival, which is an indispensable goal of Iranian foreign policy, is above everything; state security and survival; projecting power and becoming the dominant power in the region.

The regime has deliberately supported several armed non-state actors to achieve the aforementioned goals, and as seen in the case studies, the IRGC has served as a node in providing ...


U.S. - Iran Relations: A History Of Covert Action And A Promising Future, Cody Morgan May 2016

U.S. - Iran Relations: A History Of Covert Action And A Promising Future, Cody Morgan

The Cohen Journal

No abstract provided.


Women In Higher Education In Iran: How The Islamic Revolution Contributed To An Increase In Female Enrollment, Meredith Katherine Winn Jan 2016

Women In Higher Education In Iran: How The Islamic Revolution Contributed To An Increase In Female Enrollment, Meredith Katherine Winn

Global Tides

In the three decades following the Islamic Revolution in Iran, rates of female enrollment in higher education increased despite a return to traditional and conservative gender roles. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the role the Islamic Revolution played in the changing roles of women in society, particularly as it pertains to education. It will argue a complex interplay of religious, cultural, and political factors emerged as a result of the Islamic Revolution that facilitated an environment where more young women could attend university. Finally, this paper will conclude that the rise in women’s participation in education ...


Muslim Stereotypes And Nuclear Iran, David S. Norick Dec 2015

Muslim Stereotypes And Nuclear Iran, David S. Norick

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Popular opinion among American citizens would attest that the United States should promote the restriction of nuclear weapons being developed. While other nations already have or are developing nuclear weapons, Iran continues to dominate the conversation. It may be possible that the prolonged focus on Iranian nuclear weapons development could be the result of past American intervention, but the United States has not directly attacked Iran since 1988. While the past has impacted opinion, it is not because of Iran itself. After the events of September 11th, 2001 and the wars in the Middle East, American paranoia has emerged ...


Exploring The Transformative Potential Of The E3+3 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action With Iran For Improving The Iranian Economy And Its Reintegration Into The Global System, Mohammad Reza Farzanegan Dec 2015

Exploring The Transformative Potential Of The E3+3 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action With Iran For Improving The Iranian Economy And Its Reintegration Into The Global System, Mohammad Reza Farzanegan

Prof. Dr. Mohammad Reza Farzanegan

This is background note for my presentation at the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt.


The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly Nov 2015

The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores what effect Saudi and American policy differences towards Iran have had on their bilateral relations. It is based on the recent thaw in Iran-U.S. relations, and the critical reaction of the Saudi government towards this policy. The question has two components – first, how severe the current Saudi-American rift is, and second, to what extent it can be traced to their differences over Iran. The topic will be addressed through process-tracing methods.

The thesis concludes that there is indeed a rift in Saudi-U.S. relations marked by an increasingly assertive and independent Saudi foreign policy, though its ...


In Search Of Peace: Restructuring The Us-Iran Relationship In Light Of The 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action, Samuel E. Winkler Oct 2015

In Search Of Peace: Restructuring The Us-Iran Relationship In Light Of The 2015 Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action, Samuel E. Winkler

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis attempts to ask how the United States should conduct foreign policy towards Iran given the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), agreed to on 14 June 2015. The 2015 JCPOA initiated a drastic shift in US foreign policy toward Iran. It is now up to US policy makers to craft a coherent Iran foreign policy moving forward from the agreement. In order to accomplish this, the vitriolic relationship between Iran and the United States, which contains two concurrent narratives, must be examined. The dual narratives are the history of the successive US Presidential administrations’ relations with Iran, and ...


Deal With Iran's Nuclear Issue, Khadijeh Salimi, Regina Karp Sep 2015

Deal With Iran's Nuclear Issue, Khadijeh Salimi, Regina Karp

Political Science & Geography Faculty Publications

In December 2006, the UN announced the first resolution against Iran's nuclear activities. After many sanctions and negotiations, there still exists no definite agreement between parties over Iran's nuclear program. The objective of this study is to determine whether Iran's nuclear program has become Iran's identity. It is assumed that if the nuclear issue has not become Iran's identity, negotiation would be a useful threat. The Constructivists' approach for shaping states' identities was used in this study to analyze Iran's behavior toward the nuclear issue. Iran has a long history of civilization. Iranians can ...


An Analysis Of United States-Iran International Relations, James Tyler Chapman Aug 2015

An Analysis Of United States-Iran International Relations, James Tyler Chapman

Kaleidoscope

My research strove to further the knowledge of United States-Iran international relations through comprehensive analysis. I investigated and presented information on the internal politics of Iran, and I analyzed and commented on the organization of the government of Iran. I critically examined the historical scholarship on the affairs of state between the United States and Iran, and I investigated the current state of affairs and prospects for the future. From this understanding, it became possible and necessary for rigorously logical and insightful decisions to be made in the current political environment in which emotions and passions dominate, and I probed ...


Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

In early May, 2015 it became known that Saudi Arabia and Turkey are supporting extremist Islamist groups in Syria against the regime of Bashar al-Assad. That Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, among others, have – mostly indirectly – been supporting Islamist groups is not news as similar reports have been emerging from time to time since 2011, if not earlier. But this policy with regard to the Syrian conflict became increasingly overt amidst growing instability and lack of Western commitment to Assad’s overthrow. According to The Independent and other media, Turkish and Saudi support focuses on the overarching jihadist group Jaish ...


Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

A year ago the world witnessed the swift advances of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) in Iraq and Syria. Though the emergence of the group was somewhat expected for those who have been following the regional developments of the past years it caught most of the world by surprise. At the same time, its brutal tactics, military victories, resilience, evolution and extreme ideology have led many to characterize it as the greatest regional and international security threat at the moment or the most dangerous Islamist threat contemporary history has seen.


A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink May 2015

A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink

Honors Theses

This study monitored the intelligence and foreign policy actions of Israel, Iran, and Saudi Arabia from August 2013 to August 2014. Data was collected from coverage by Associated Press, The Wall Street Journal, and Al-Jazeera, three reliable and respected news sources that cover global events. The actions taken by foreign policymakers in these countries were recorded throughout the study period.

These actions were organized into a taxonomy based on whether they were intelligence-based or non-intelligence based. Within those broad categories, more distinguishing characteristics were analyzed to show patterns of behavior within national intelligence services of the nations studied. These patterns ...


Ending Security Council Resolutions, Jean Galbraith Jan 2015

Ending Security Council Resolutions, Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The Security Council resolution implementing the Iran deal spells out the terms of its own destruction. It contains a provision that allows any one of seven countries to terminate its key components. This provision – which this Comment terms a trigger termination – is both unusual and important. It is unusual because, up to now, the Security Council has almost always either not specified the conditions under which resolutions terminate or used time-based sunset clauses. It is important not only for the Iran deal, but also as a precedent and a model for the use of trigger terminations in the future. The ...


New Middle East Cold War: Saudi Arabia And Iran's Rivalry, Tali Rachel Grumet Jan 2015

New Middle East Cold War: Saudi Arabia And Iran's Rivalry, Tali Rachel Grumet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The competing powers of Saudi Arabia and Iran continue to redress and reverse the strategic imbalance and direction of the Middle East’s regional politics. The 1979 Iranian Revolution catapulted these two states into an embittered rivalry. The fall of Saddam Hussein following the 2003 U.S. led invasion, the establishment of a Shi’ite Iraq and the 2011 Arab Uprisings have further inflamed tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Iran and Saudi Arabia have not confronted each other militarily, but rather have divided the region into two armed camps on the basis of political and religious ideology in seeking ...


China's Strategic Choices Towards North Korea And Iran, Kang-Uk Jung Jan 2015

China's Strategic Choices Towards North Korea And Iran, Kang-Uk Jung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study tests two hypotheses. First, China cooperates with the United States only when it is able to obtain material rewards. Second, without material incentives from the United States, China straddles between the United States on one hand and Iran and North Korea on the other. My findings show that neither Structural Realism, which holds anti-hegemonism alliance, nor Constructivism, which holds positive assimilation of the nuclear nonproliferation norm explains Chinese international behavior comprehensively. My balance of interest model explains Chinese foreign policy on the noncompliant states better. The cases cover the Sino-North Korean and Sino-Iranian diplomatic histories from 1990 to ...


Iranian Nuclear Proliferation And Sanctions, Bailey Nicole Burlingame Dec 2014

Iranian Nuclear Proliferation And Sanctions, Bailey Nicole Burlingame

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This project will involve the current problem of nuclear development in the nation of Iran. The question involved in the election studies was, “Should we try to stop Iranian Nuclear Development by increasing sanctions, yes or no?” According to the US Department of State website, they are attempting to increase these sanctions against individuals or cooperations who can be proven to have provided aid, information, or mechanical aspects to assist the goal of Iranian nuclear proliferation. The website provides identifying information for the individuals involved. The answer to this question I believe will be determined the amount of news information ...