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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Uniquely Okinawan: Determining Identity During The U.S. Wartime Occupation, Courtney A. Short Mar 2020

Uniquely Okinawan: Determining Identity During The U.S. Wartime Occupation, Courtney A. Short

History

When the U.S. military landed on the shores of Okinawa in 1945, they faced not only a fierce and battle-tested Japanese force, but also 463,000 Okinawan inhabitants. Larger than any other civilian population encountered by the Americans during previous campaigns throughout the Pacific islands, the people of Okinawa also had a unique and complex historical and political relationship with Japan. Okinawa never experienced subjugation as a colony, yet its acceptance as a prefecture did not yield equal treatment for the people because of their Ryukyuan heritage. As the U.S. military prepared for the Battle of Okinawa, they ...


Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman Sep 2019

Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by ...


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman Aug 2019

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.


Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford Aug 2019

Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This research examines the effect of cruise missile possession on state behavior. Specifically, it seeks to determine if countries who possess cruise missiles are more likely to initiate a military threat, display, or use of force than countries who do not possess cruise missiles. Traditional International Relations theory suggests that, all else being equal, a state with an asymmetrical military advantage should enjoy concessions from target states, decreasing the likelihood of armed conflict. Accordingly, coercion theory warns the use of armed force to change adversarial behavior should be exercised sparingly. However, this dissertation finds that states possessing cruise missile initiate ...


You Can’T Surge Trust: Lessons On Working With Allies And Partners, George Fust Jul 2019

You Can’T Surge Trust: Lessons On Working With Allies And Partners, George Fust

West Point Research Papers

Today’s increasingly complex global operating environment can change at the speed of a tweet or viral video. It is therefore imperative for US forces to have the relationships that offer flexibility and options for any contingency—relationships established in advance of unforeseeable events. The world’s interconnectedness and US defense requirements demand partners and allies with whom we work effectively to bridge cultural gaps. Those relationships increase interoperability by creating realistic expectations and combating what can at times emerge as negative stereotypes. Further, shared experiences can help overcome misunderstandings and foster friendships that will be critical in times of ...


Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock Jul 2019

Becoming A Superpower: China’S Rise And The Belt And Road Initiative In Latin America, Garrett Bullock

History Summer Fellows

Is China a Superpower? Will it become one? After half a century of establishing a strong international military presence, thriving economic growth, domestic/international political authority, and considerable cultural “soft power”, the PRC has emerged as a hegemon capable of competing in international geopolitics. Nevertheless, these questions remain unanswered. For this reason, this research explores what it means to be a superpower, whether China is or will be a superpower, and, importantly, what impact China’s rise has on the world. To do this, this research explores existing debates surrounding China’s current global status, the historical emergence of the ...


Play To Win: Sticking To A Playbook In The Competition With Russia, George Fust Jul 2019

Play To Win: Sticking To A Playbook In The Competition With Russia, George Fust

West Point Research Papers

Russia docks a warship in Havana knowing it will provoke a response from the United States. How dare they. The US Navy dispatched a destroyer to shadow the vessel; after all, the United States has the Monroe doctrine to enforce. A few weeks prior, Russia sent around a hundred troops to Venezuela. This also provoked a response, albeit rhetorical. Despite these US reactions, Russia continues to play strategic games.

Why did the United States respond to these actions in these ways? And what is the most appropriate response?


An Alternative Perspective Of Veteran Disapproval Of Recent Wars: The Civil-Military Health Of The Nation Is Strong, George Fust Jul 2019

An Alternative Perspective Of Veteran Disapproval Of Recent Wars: The Civil-Military Health Of The Nation Is Strong, George Fust

West Point Research Papers

A Pew Research Center report published on July 10 suggests that most veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan believe these wars are “not worth fighting.” What are the implications of these findings? What can they reveal about the health of U.S. civil-military relations? Is it dangerous for the guardians to be opposed to the mission they are directed to accomplish?


Deriving A Solution To Venezuela: Civil-Military Relations Can Help, George Fust Jul 2019

Deriving A Solution To Venezuela: Civil-Military Relations Can Help, George Fust

West Point Research Papers

How does one define “healthy” civil-military relations? The simplest definition would suggest a nation’s military is subordinate to its ruling body. In other words, the guys with all the guns listens to those without any. So how then would we evaluate this relationship in a country like Venezuela?


The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly Jul 2019

The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Since the International Criminal Court (ICC)’s inception, observers have disagreed about how it would affect prospects for peace when it is involved in situations of ongoing conflict. Therefore, I ask, why do some of the civil war peace negotiations involving the ICC end with full peace agreements, while others end with resumed violence? I argue that how the Court affects the occurrence and outcome of peace negotiations is largely a function of the role that it plays in the situation. Due to its institutional design, the Court has the capacity to play either an oversight or a prosecutorial role ...


Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University, University At Buffalo, The State University Of New York, Cross-Border Institute, University Of Windsor Jul 2019

Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University, University At Buffalo, The State University Of New York, Cross-Border Institute, University Of Windsor

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Running 5,000 miles between two of the world's most interdependent nations, the Canada-U.S. border plays an important role, directly and indirectly, in the lives of millions of North Americans. Whether as separator or seam, obstruction or conduit, the border influences a wide range of economic social interactions. The precise influence depends on a variety of policies and the extent to which those policies facilitate the movement of goods, people, capital, and ideas while ensuring the individual and collective security of the two countries.


Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó Jun 2019

Media Discourses That Normalize Colonial Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of (Im)Migrants And Refugees, Meng Zhao, Jorge Rodriguez, Lilia D. Monzó

Education Faculty Articles and Research

The im(migration) and refugee crisis that are being exacerbated under the Trump administration, is a manifestation of empire-building and the long history of colonization of the Global South. A Marxist-humanist perspective recognizes these as consistent aspects of a clearly racist global capitalism that functions in the interest of multibillion dollar U.S.–based corporations and increasingly transnational corporations. Trade agreements, international economic policy, political intervention, invasion or the threat of these, often secure corporate interests in specific countries and regions. The authors use critical discourse analysis to examine the discourses around Mexican, Central American, and Syrian im(migrants) and ...


A Longview On Iran: Echoes From The Ancient Middle East, Jason M. Schlude May 2019

A Longview On Iran: Echoes From The Ancient Middle East, Jason M. Schlude

Languages and Cultures Faculty Publications

With its Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps blacklisted, Iran responded in kind, classifying United States Central Command as a terrorist organization. In the midst of a buildup of U.S. military in the Gulf, President Rouhani indicated Iran’s willingness to return to its previous program to develop nuclear arms. Where will this lead? Ancient history provides an illuminating—if unsettling—perspective.


Understanding Ngos And Their Effectiveness Through A Comparative Study Of Their Role In Redd+, Jessica Russo May 2019

Understanding Ngos And Their Effectiveness Through A Comparative Study Of Their Role In Redd+, Jessica Russo

Political Science Student Scholarship

This thesis explores the following question: what roles do NGOs play and how effective may they be in efforts at global governance? Through a comparative case study analysis of NGOs advocating for Reducing Emissions for Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) and NGOs implementing REDD+ projects, specifically the Surui Forest Carbon Project located in the state of Rondônia, Brazil, I examine whether NGOs are more effective taking on the role as advocates or policy implementers. For this work, I will argue that independent of the multiplicity of roles that NGOs play, their effectiveness is a function of the level of ...


Cooperation Or Conflict: Using Alliance Theory To Explain The Current Gulf Cooperation Council Crisis, Pierre Aguirre May 2019

Cooperation Or Conflict: Using Alliance Theory To Explain The Current Gulf Cooperation Council Crisis, Pierre Aguirre

Honors Scholar Theses

What caused the current diplomatic crisis between countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council? I analyze this question through the lens of alliance politics. In the past, scholars have used these different theories to explain the formation and sustainability of certain alliances, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Specifically, I test Walt's theory of the Balance of Threat against others to see which can best explain the Council's downfall. Using a case study research design, I disaggregate the alliance into three notable periods: formation, sustained cooperation, and discord. My findings reveal that Walt’s ...


Rebel Group Compliance With International Humanitarian Law And Foreign State Sponsorship, Hannah Read May 2019

Rebel Group Compliance With International Humanitarian Law And Foreign State Sponsorship, Hannah Read

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

While rebel groups are obligated to comply with international humanitarian law (IHL) only indirectly, many rebel groups express intent to comply with IHL. Previous research has examined the conditions that make compliance likely. While these studies emphasize legitimacy-seeking, little research considers whether there are tangible benefits for rebel groups that comply with IHL. Studying whether rebel groups that comply with IHL are more likely to receive either military or diplomatic support from a foreign state provides an opportunity to bridge the literature on rebel group compliance with the literature on foreign state sponsorship of rebel groups. This study considers rebel ...


Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones May 2019

Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones

Honors Theses (PPE)

The ASEAN human rights system consists of a network of formal institutions such as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission Human Rights, documents such as the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, and efforts to interact with regional civil society organizations. This system, which emerged in 2009, has come under intense scrutiny because the region’s human rights record has worsened since its inception. This paper examines the complex network of institutions, documents, and interactions between ASEAN member states and civil society organizations to determine the overall effectiveness of the organization’s efforts to safeguard human rights throughout the region. The paper begins with ...


Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri May 2019

Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Drawing from the experiences of the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), this study examines the impact of UN peacekeeping operations on the health and safety of women and girls in post-conflict environments. By combining findings from the four indicators of access to the provision of health care, state of maternal health, disarmament of women and girls, and the prevalence of sexual exploitation and abuse, this study will illustrate that neither mission led to disproportionately better outcomes for women and girls following mission deployment.


Reasons For Public Opinion On Foreign Policy, Maria Kachulis-Moriarty May 2019

Reasons For Public Opinion On Foreign Policy, Maria Kachulis-Moriarty

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In recent years, especially under President Trump’s administration, United States foreign policy has seen a great deal of changes, as has public opinion on U.S. foreign policy. Foreign policy faces increasing criticism and scrutiny as information about international trade and relationships between countries becomes more accessible to the public. This paper will address public opinion on current U.S. foreign policy with regards to three countries – China, Russia, and Mexico – and how it may differ based on variables such as trust in media, ideology, and belief that immigration increases the U.S. crime rate. These variables are vital ...


Constructing And Destructing The Peace: Models Of International Engagement In Post-Conflict States, Colin Churchill May 2019

Constructing And Destructing The Peace: Models Of International Engagement In Post-Conflict States, Colin Churchill

Political Science Honors Projects

Variance in the stability of post-conflict states presents an interesting predicament. What causes this variance in states two or three decades removed from civil conflict? In this paper, I argue that the type of engagement that international actors take towards post-conflict states explains differences in stability. I draw out four distinct models of international engagement from three case studies of Lebanon, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Northern Ireland that present the different ways that international actors have constructively and destructively engaged in these states. Furthering this analysis is an examination of the transition or possible transition between models in the cases.


Is Liberal Democracy In Decline?, Singapore Management University May 2019

Is Liberal Democracy In Decline?, Singapore Management University

Perspectives@SMU

The apparent decline of Western liberal democracy affords nations, especially those in ASEAN, the chance to forge a path without siding with a rising China or a stuttering America


Disruptive Innovation: The Rise Of The Knowledge-Sharing Market In China, Yaqing Lan Apr 2019

Disruptive Innovation: The Rise Of The Knowledge-Sharing Market In China, Yaqing Lan

International Studies Honors Projects

Innovation is a major subject of international political economy, but mainstream discussions focus on scientific research and development and detach innovation development from their social contexts. In response to this view, this project reveals the importance of cultural and social factors in influencing innovation development by examining the rise of the knowledge-sharing market (KSM) -- a social-network-site-based economy in China. It suggests the KSM is a disruptive innovation not only because it is pioneered by a latecomer in the global innovation market, China, but also because its emergence from the changing Chinese consumer demands disrupts the mainstream thinking of innovation.


The Wealth Of Nations And The Advancement Of Collective Security, Kerry Daniel Good Apr 2019

The Wealth Of Nations And The Advancement Of Collective Security, Kerry Daniel Good

Senior Honors Theses

This thesis will address the economic development of countries from the strategic perspective of the United States, and consider how this development will progress overlaid in the context of the Chinese framework for the projection of national power. Using an inter-disciplinary approach, this research will synthesize sources on national security policy and economics, while seeking a Christian apologetic framework to answer these questions: How can the United States promote the economic development of countries in the Asia-Pacific region using a biblical economic-development model, as a part of its national strategy? This thesis focuses on some of the political and socio-economic ...


Marxist Implementation Of Climate Change As A Geopolitical Fear Tactic, Katelyn Larossa Apr 2019

Marxist Implementation Of Climate Change As A Geopolitical Fear Tactic, Katelyn Larossa

Senior Honors Theses

In recent years the climate change debate has shifted from the peripheries of international political discussions to center stage, manifesting in the Paris Agreement in November of 2016 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, the science behind the climate change debate is disputed and does not support the claims made by global leaders who continue to push for increasing environmental regulations and financial aid to those most adversely affected by the supposed climate change (underdeveloped and developing nations). Examining the geopolitical and economic implications of climate change actions reveals the underlying political philosophies guiding global leaders ...


Military Statecraft And The Use Of Multinational Exercises In World Politics, Kyle J. Wolfley Apr 2019

Military Statecraft And The Use Of Multinational Exercises In World Politics, Kyle J. Wolfley

West Point Research Papers

How do major powers use militaries to cope with diverse threats in a complex environment of costly conventional war, emerging power competition, as well as the persistent challenge of violent non-state actors? I argue that multinational military exercises provide a tool for major powers to reduce the unpredictability of non-state threats as well as to weaken other powers through balancing and regime-promotion. The number of multinational exercises has increased substantially since the Cold War, which is puzzling given the end of superpower rivalry and incentives to enjoy the peace dividend. Textual analysis and regressions of over a thousand multinational military ...


Living In Gang-Controlled Neighborhoods: Impacts On Electoral And Nonelectoral Participation In El Salvador, Abby Córdova Apr 2019

Living In Gang-Controlled Neighborhoods: Impacts On Electoral And Nonelectoral Participation In El Salvador, Abby Córdova

Political Science Faculty Publications

Gangs’ territorial control affects the lives of residents in thousands of neighborhoods across Latin America, particularly in northern Central American countries. I argue that gang dominance constrains the ability of neighborhood residents to mobilize politically and consequently resist gang violence through institutionalized channels. Living in gang-controlled neighborhoods results in fewer incentives and opportunities to make political elites accountable for one’s personal safety. Even residents who have already experienced crime firsthand are discouraged from turning to politics as a strategy to change the status quo. My theoretical insights identify mechanisms through which gangs’ neighborhood control affects nonelectoral and electoral participation ...


India’S Surgical Strikes: Response To Strategic Imperatives, Karthika Sasikumar Apr 2019

India’S Surgical Strikes: Response To Strategic Imperatives, Karthika Sasikumar

Faculty Publications

In September 2016, militants who were allegedly backed by Pakistan attacked an Indian Army camp in Uri. The government in New Delhi was facing important regional elections. It faced intense public pressure to muster a military response. Such a response, however, ran the risk of triggering a nuclear exchange. Ten days after the Uri attack, India reported that it had carried out ‘surgical strikes’ on terrorist training camps in Pakistan-controlled territory. The paper examines this specific episode in India–Pakistan deterrence dynamics, focusing on the nomenclature ‘surgical strikes’. The paper argues that the choice of the term itself is new ...


Political Science 202 Introduction To International Relations Syllabus Spring 2019, Dale Gardner Apr 2019

Political Science 202 Introduction To International Relations Syllabus Spring 2019, Dale Gardner

Global Studies Initiatives in Social Sciences 2018 - 2019

This is a sample syllabus for Political Science 202, International Relations submitted as part of the Global Studies Initiatives in Social Sciences Grant at Parkland College for the 2018-2019 academic year. Already a course with a global focus, the highlights indicate changes made in instruction that encouraged students to discuss global issues with each other.


Immigration Policy Reform For A Stronger Economy, Pia M. Orrenius, Madeline Zavodny Apr 2019

Immigration Policy Reform For A Stronger Economy, Pia M. Orrenius, Madeline Zavodny

Mission Foods Texas-Mexico Center Research

The US economy grows as a result of higher labor force growth and productivity growth. Immigration is related to both of these drivers. Immigration accounts for about half of US workforce growth. This reliance is only set to increase as the baby boomer generation retires between now and 2030. As a result, immigrants and their children are expected to make up essentially all of the growth in the working-age population between 2015 and 2035.1 Immigration is also linked to productivity growth, in part via activities such as innovation and entrepreneurism, and hence less immigration could be a drag not ...


Variations In Media Framing Of U.S.-Cuba Policy, Anna Foster Apr 2019

Variations In Media Framing Of U.S.-Cuba Policy, Anna Foster

Honors College

This thesis looks at the usage of media framing in regard to Obama’s and Trump’s U.S.-Cuban policy. It analyzes articles from the New York Times and the Miami Herald and how they used framing techniques to present Obama’s 2016 opening of relations with Cuba, and Trump’s 2017 change in policy. After reading through the articles, content analysis was used in order to quantify the trends found in the framing techniques used by both papers. The findings of this paper show two very different approaches to both policies, despite many similarities in the framing techniques ...