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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son Apr 2019

Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Modernizing the “Hermit Kingdom”:

Bridging the Cultural and Economic Gap through Soft Power Diplomacy

Following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea embraced modernization and rose as an economic power while its Northern counterpart employed isolationist policies and acquired the name “Hermit Kingdom.” In recent years, however, the “Hermit Kingdom” is exhibiting potential for change in under the Kim Jong-Un regime. In the wake of continued economic strife, shifting East Asian political dynamics, and insecure power consolidation, Kim appeared in the international scene with a different attitude: eagerness for dialogue. Such change in Pyongyang’s political stance engenders renewed hope ...


Modern Chinese Development Of Latin America, Alexander Tripp Apr 2019

Modern Chinese Development Of Latin America, Alexander Tripp

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

China, a rising global hegemon, has become increasingly interested in close economic and political relations with Latin America since the turn of the century. These relationships have been centered around two traits, foreign direct investment (FDI) and the export of raw materials. China has fully invested itself into the region in order to develop and maintain the production of certain goods necessary for upkeep of its massive population and industrializing economy. I test the significance of four prominent raw materials in Chinese trade with Latin America to determine their impact on Chinese FDI. Using this method, I gather and gauge ...


Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings Mar 2019

Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Syrian Refugee Camps in Jordan: An Assessment explores how and why the Government of Jordan created camps to house its 670,000 Syrian refugees. Examining Jordan’s four Syrian refugee camps, Jennings considers to what extent their different operating models are effective and why. Metrics of camp effectiveness include degree and type of support from non-Government of Jordan humanitarian actors, the availability of education and medical care in the camps, and the degree to which camp residents themselves engage in the camp communities. She posits that using the camp model affords Jordan greater internal security, and influence over refugee matters ...


An Exploration Of Iranian Use Of Gray Zones And Their Deterrence, Lauren Zimmerman, Amanda Urick Mar 2019

An Exploration Of Iranian Use Of Gray Zones And Their Deterrence, Lauren Zimmerman, Amanda Urick

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Iran, being the religious minority in the Middle East, has begun to extend its reach outside of its borders by influencing the stability of other states within the region. They have been utilizing their economic revenue to fund terrorist organizations and cyber capabilities to threaten free use of the internet in the Middle East. Iran is the world's most active state sponsor of terrorism, but how do we deter them? Our paper will explore the history of deterring Iran and future possibilities.


Refugees Threats Of Terrorism: Securitization By Means Of Social Integration, Anna Tegge May 2018

Refugees Threats Of Terrorism: Securitization By Means Of Social Integration, Anna Tegge

Celebration of Learning

This research analyzes factors that affect the number of terrorist incidents in Europe with large numbers of refugees. My research intends to explore the correlation between refugees and terrorist incidents and to identify if social integration and immigration policies can have an effect on the volume of attacks. My independent variables of social policies in addition to immigration policies confirm my hypothesis that certain factors within these policies affect terrorism in Spain, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Germany. The answer to this question will aid in the creation of stability, prosperity, and justice within Europe and provide a model for ...


Foreign Aid As An Influence On Foreign Public Opinion, Cierra Powell Apr 2018

Foreign Aid As An Influence On Foreign Public Opinion, Cierra Powell

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Countries have some ability to make other countries more likely to cooperate. Strategically, one way that this can be done is through building up a resource of what Joseph Nye calls “soft power.” In the summer of 2017, I conducted interviews around these topics in Ecuador, and came to the conclusion that monetary flowsremittances, inflows of monetary aid, importscan help to build up a resource of soft power that can influence the attitudes that foreign publics have about donor countries, possibly despite a detrimental colonial experience. In this paper I build upon this idea, that monetary flows can build up ...


More People, More Puppies And Less Latin American Rabies, Lizzy Younce Apr 2018

More People, More Puppies And Less Latin American Rabies, Lizzy Younce

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Since 1983 the countries of Latin America have come together as one to eliminate the fatal disease of rabies within the region. Through their international collaboration they have reduced human rabies case incidence by over 95%. There are political, economic, social, environmental and biological factors which contribute to this successful international public health campaign. With the oversight and collaboration of researchers at Washington State University (WSU) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), last summer I examined the various factors and their impact on postexposure vaccine usage. In this talk I will present our current findings, how we found them ...


Why Are European Countries Reluctant To Accept Syrian Refugees?, Halide Gorgun Kilinc Mar 2018

Why Are European Countries Reluctant To Accept Syrian Refugees?, Halide Gorgun Kilinc

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The conflict in Syria has forcibly moved about 10 million people from their homes. About 5 million of these displaced people fled to four of Syria’s neighbor countries: Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq. Resettlement of Syrian refugees has become a significant public policy debate not only in the neighboring countries of Syria but also in Europe and the United States. Despite the fact that European countries are champions of international law and human rights, there is a strong resistance to acceptance of Syrian refugees. This study analyzes and attempts to explain the reasons why European governments are reluctant to ...


Understanding Truth: How Commissioners Influence The Final Report Of A Truth Commission, Christine Bianco Nov 2017

Understanding Truth: How Commissioners Influence The Final Report Of A Truth Commission, Christine Bianco

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Ensuring a future of human rights means coming to terms with past violations of human rights. This both recognizes human rights as an important position in the policy of the state and helps to end a system of impunity against such actions, even if it is done symbolically. One of the major mechanisms that states have used to address their past has been truth commissions. The strength of truth commissions lies in their ability to bring to light the voices of the victims as well as their ability to criticize those who have committed human rights abuses.

In order to ...


Collective Memory Of Past Human Rights Abuses-South Korea, Ñusta Carranza Ko Nov 2017

Collective Memory Of Past Human Rights Abuses-South Korea, Ñusta Carranza Ko

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The discourse on transitional justice by academics and practitioners center upon a common understanding of the importance of truth-seeking or truth-telling, reparations, prosecutions, and other institutional reforms in addressing a state’s past abuses. Policies of memorialization complement these processes of transitional justice, with the production of collective memory and history that helps transitioning states from authoritarian pasts toward reconciliation.

This study builds on the growing interest in memory initiatives by bringing to light the integral and "visible" role memory practices have played in truth-seeking and reparations processes. Particularly, it focuses on the building of collective memory integrated in truth ...


Shaming The Truth: Naming And Shaming And Transitional Justice, Christopher F. Patane, Marc S. Polizzi Nov 2017

Shaming The Truth: Naming And Shaming And Transitional Justice, Christopher F. Patane, Marc S. Polizzi

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

While it is generally recognized that “naming and shaming” carried out by transnational human rights actors can lead to an improvement in aggregate conditions, it is less clear whether this strategy influences more specific behavior. As more states are democratizing, the international community has stepped up efforts at transitional justice to promote accountability and reconciliation. What is unclear is whether this promotion has been positive or negative for the pursuit of transitional justice broadly or if the community prioritizes some mechanisms over others.

In this paper, we examine the role that human rights advocacy plays in the onset of transitional ...


Homophobia, Human Rights And Diplomacy, Douglas Janoff Nov 2017

Homophobia, Human Rights And Diplomacy, Douglas Janoff

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Multilateral human rights diplomacy is a product of the triad relationship between intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), civil society organizations (CSOs), and states. This paper examines the emergence of LGBT rights within the context of the UN human rights system. Recently, the global debates around LGBT rights have become much more public and increasingly complex: Ministers, leaders, and even the UN Secretary-General routinely call on states to do more to protect sexual minorities. Countries such as Uganda and Russia are labeled “homophobic” — not just by human rights activists, but by other states. These “accusations” are delivered both bilaterally and in multilateral forums ...


The Power And Pathologies Of Language: How Human Rights Messaging Can Also Affect Support For Violent Non-State Actors, Alexandra Haines, Michele Leiby, Matthew Krain Nov 2017

The Power And Pathologies Of Language: How Human Rights Messaging Can Also Affect Support For Violent Non-State Actors, Alexandra Haines, Michele Leiby, Matthew Krain

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Are framing strategies that are effective at encouraging pro-social behavior such as participation in human rights campaigns also effective at mobilizing support for “anti-social” and violent causes? Using an experimental research design, we seek to understand under what conditions individuals will express support for retributive violent action.

We hypothesize that a personal story of victimization, wherein the humanity and vulnerability of the victim and the intensity of the violence suffered are described in vivid detail, will be necessary and sufficient to cause the audience to express support for the victim’s subsequent participation in organized, retaliatory violence. We expect that ...


The 'Nayirah' Effect: The Role Of Target States’ Human Rights Violations And Victims’ Emotive Images In War Support, Joseph Braun, Kiyoung Chang Nov 2017

The 'Nayirah' Effect: The Role Of Target States’ Human Rights Violations And Victims’ Emotive Images In War Support, Joseph Braun, Kiyoung Chang

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

When a target state violates human rights, how does the identity of the victims and the presence of emotive imagery affect the level of public support for interventionist war? How does the perceived race and gender of victims affect this relationship? We employ a survey experiment to study whether and when information about a target state’s human rights violations affects public attitudes toward the use of force. Specifically, we manipulate a fictional victim’s race (light-skinned vs. dark-skinned) and gender (male vs. female), and explore how these variations affect support for interventionist war. In our experiment, we find that ...


Silenced Agency Gains A Voice?, Katarina Lucas Nov 2017

Silenced Agency Gains A Voice?, Katarina Lucas

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Nearly twenty-three years since the Dayton Peace Accords ended the military violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia), the right to reparation for survivors of conflict-related sexual violence remains unrealized, as existing mechanisms for acquiring compensation and psycho-social services are gender-blind, decentralized, discriminatory, and nonexistent in parts of the country.

In 2012, the Bosnian government sought to begin remedying this broken system through the draft Programme for Victims of Wartime Rape, Sexual Abuse and Torture, and their Families (Programme). Today, the Programme remains stagnant as a draft policy, yet efforts by local and global actors to seek forms of reparation for ...


Agency, Equality And Courage: A Case Study Of Women On The Front Lines Of Egypt’S 2011 Revolution, Carol Gray Nov 2017

Agency, Equality And Courage: A Case Study Of Women On The Front Lines Of Egypt’S 2011 Revolution, Carol Gray

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

How were women involved in Egypt’s 2011 revolution/uprising? What role did they play vis-à-vis male activists? To what degree were Egyptian women “equal” during those 18 days in Tahrir Square? These questions will be explored within the context of interviews conducted by this writer in Cairo during and following Egypt’s 18-day revolution (uprising). This essay will explore the public/private sphere split, political consciousness-raising, and gender equality within the context of the stories of Egyptian women on the front lines of protest.

Much of the recent literature on women's protests in Egypt has focused on women ...


Gender, Displacement And Transitional Justice, Sinead Mcgrath Nov 2017

Gender, Displacement And Transitional Justice, Sinead Mcgrath

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

In the past fifteen years, there has been huge emphasis on the need for gendered mechanisms dealing with both forced migration and peacebuilding. The UN landmark resolution on Women, Peace and Security (S/RES/1325) and the gender-mainstreaming of the 1951 Refugee Convention have urged all actors to increase the participation of women in peacebuilding and their protection in instances of displacement. An underdeveloped link between these issues has not been addressed by the academic community, particularly when looking at societies in transition and the relationship of displaced women to international migration organisations in the context of transitional justice. This ...


State Sovereignty And Human Security: The Migration-Securitization Nexus In The Global South, Eugene R. Sensenig Nov 2017

State Sovereignty And Human Security: The Migration-Securitization Nexus In The Global South, Eugene R. Sensenig

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This paper deals with the issues of state sovereignty and refugee policy in insecure and marginalized regions of the Global South. Using the displaced Syrian populations (UN-recognized and undocumented) in Lebanon as a case in point, the attempt will be made to portray and discuss the responses of underdeveloped host communities to overwhelming increases in the size of their non-national population. Lebanon has faced various waves of refugees since its independence in 1943, making up between 2.5% (Iraqis) and 25% (Syrians) of the entire citizen population, currently estimated to be slightly over 4 million. Almost 500,000 Palestinian refugees ...


The Business Of Being Good: How It Pays To Be A Humanitarian State, Taylor Benjamin-Britton, Danielle Scherer Nov 2017

The Business Of Being Good: How It Pays To Be A Humanitarian State, Taylor Benjamin-Britton, Danielle Scherer

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

In an era where human rights increasingly take a position of primacy in international relations, certain states have donned the mantle of the humanitarian, prioritizing human rights over nearly every other item on the foreign policy agenda and mainstreaming humanitarianism in other areas of foreign policy.

Existing arguments find that states that advance humanitarian policies are coerced, socialized, or mimicking, but they fail to seriously consider that states may choose and benefit from humanitarianism in several ways. We do not focus on explaining or theorizing why states have chosen to engage in humanitarianism; rather, we offer an analysis of the ...


Providing Refuge: A Regime Analysis Of Legal Protections For Displaced Persons In Sub-Saharan Africa, Natasha Bennett, Hannah K. Brown Nov 2017

Providing Refuge: A Regime Analysis Of Legal Protections For Displaced Persons In Sub-Saharan Africa, Natasha Bennett, Hannah K. Brown

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

While refugees are entitled to the right of asylum vis-a-vis the U.N. 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and the subsequent 1967 Protocol, which includes rights of a legal resident in the host country, African states vary in their domestic implementation of refugee rights.

Sub-Saharan Africa host approximately 29 percent of the world’s refugees and as such represents a key region for understanding the dynamics of refugee rights and protections. With 45 member states having ratified (another 4 having signed) the Organization of African Unity’s 1969 Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of the Refugee Problem ...


Syrian Refugee Crisis And European Migration Policies: Rise In Xenophobic Rhetoric In Europe, Meltem Çelik Dirsehan Oct 2017

Syrian Refugee Crisis And European Migration Policies: Rise In Xenophobic Rhetoric In Europe, Meltem Çelik Dirsehan

UBT International Conference

Syrian immigration crisis has been ignored by advanced European countries and the heaviest burden is left to developing border countries. However this ignorance has resulted in more mass influx of immigrants illegally to the borders of European Union with a target of advanced Northern countries. To evaluate the European ignorance to this humanitarian crisis, first Turkey is evaluated as a transition point for all Asian and Middle Eastern immigrants dreaming to live in Europe. By a shocking extend of sea arrivals, Europe have noticed the humanitarian crisis and made a deal with main transition point for immigrants, Turkey. However this ...


Dilemmas About The Core Values In The European Union, Elisabeth Kardos Kaponyi Oct 2017

Dilemmas About The Core Values In The European Union, Elisabeth Kardos Kaponyi

UBT International Conference

The European integration was primarily about economic cooperation, but the European Union’s role in protecting the core values in its member states. EU values were first mentioned in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union, and since the Amsterdam Treaty the community law has a sufficiently precise description of this values, which should be respected not only by countries aspiring to the EU but also by the Member States themselves. The Lisbon Treaty defines EU values as “respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging ...


Conditions For An Effective Democracy In Multicultural Societies And Countries, Flora Kadriu Oct 2017

Conditions For An Effective Democracy In Multicultural Societies And Countries, Flora Kadriu

UBT International Conference

The motive behind this paper is exploration of the conditions for effective democracy in multicultural societies and countries. The two principles of social setting in the context of classical parliamentary democracy ensue from a special set of civil and political rights, as basis for cultural identity, which further underlies the collective cultural rights (CCRs) or group-differentiated rights (GDRs). Such setting is initiation into a serious process of changes in classical democracy. The cultural diversity accommodation in the political system of a given democracy is an intricate process that shifts the liberal justice concept and requires a new political system dubbed ...


The Stance Of Great Britain Towards The Government Of Fan Noli, Armend Mehmeti Oct 2017

The Stance Of Great Britain Towards The Government Of Fan Noli, Armend Mehmeti

UBT International Conference

Since after the First World War in internal political scene of Albania prevailed instability and political struggle between parties; such situation reached its peak in June 1924 when a rebellion was followed by seizure of power by opposition. This event attracted attention of all powers, especially of Great Britain, who was concerned about her oil concessions in Albania. Therefore this work aims to elaborate the attitude of Great Britain towards to Government of Noli. At the same time this work pretends to give a reflection to international and national circumstances which lead to failure of Government Noli to be recognized ...


Process Of State-Building In Kosovo, Ngadhnjim Brovina, Adlum Ramadani Oct 2017

Process Of State-Building In Kosovo, Ngadhnjim Brovina, Adlum Ramadani

UBT International Conference

The topic of state-building is a subject that has been continuously studied. To be fully understood, a case study should be included. Therefore, we have selected the case of Kosovo and the challenges of the process of state-building that Kosovo has had in the past. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the challenges that Kosovo's policy-making has faced along the road to state-building. The materials included in this scientific paper are from official documents from local and international institutions, as well as international and local authors from the field of state-building. The methodology used in this paper ...


Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa Oct 2017

Aspects Of Islamic Revival And Radicalization In The Region Of Middle East, Redi Papa

UBT International Conference

The main objective of this topic is to provide a detailed panorama of the causes of Islamic Revival and radicalization of Islam, particularly in the region of Middle East. In this perspective, it’s somehow puzzling to at the first sight that Arab World used to be a leader in the science, military and science, is now paradoxically a region characterized by unrest and turmoil. Contrary to the past decades where peace was a distinctive peculiarity of the region and economy flourished, now is overwhelmed by the phenomena of the Radicalization of Islam for political purposes and to come to ...


Social Policies In Kosovo: Institutional Reforms In The Context Of Globalization And Internatin Aladministration, Armend Muja Oct 2017

Social Policies In Kosovo: Institutional Reforms In The Context Of Globalization And Internatin Aladministration, Armend Muja

UBT International Conference

Social policy broadly focuses on pensions system, health insurance, education, family policies, disability and injury insurance, unemployment benefits, war victims’ benefits and other aid to the poor. The main features of Western Balkans’ welfare system during communism can be characterized by three pillars: full employment and quasi-obligatory employment: broad and universalistic social insurance: and a highly developed typically company-based, system of services and fringe benefits. This system was eliminated after the fall of communism, as it became impossible for the state to provide the necessary funds to cover new social costs associated with transformation. The welfare system reform in the ...


Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley Oct 2017

Forming Community Partnerships, Lori Foley

CHAR

In the event of a disaster, regardless of the type or scope, the first response is always local. For the institutions and organizations charged with safeguarding the nation’s cultural and historic resources – museums, historical societies, libraries, and municipal offices, to name just a few – building relationships with local first responders and emergency managers before disaster strikes is key to ensuring the safety of staff and collections. State emergency management agencies are also collaborating with their state cultural agencies to protect these valuable and vulnerable resources. The resulting emergency networks better position the local community and the state to be ...


Lessons Learned From Culture In Crisis; Or Protecting The Past To Save The Future, Laurie Rush Oct 2017

Lessons Learned From Culture In Crisis; Or Protecting The Past To Save The Future, Laurie Rush

CHAR

At the midpoint of the second decade of the 21st century, the world is experiencing deliberate destruction of cultural property at a scale not seen since the Second World War. Future protection and preservation of cultural heritage depends on learning from tragedy and applying these lessons as pro-actively as possible. First, we are discovering that no matter the threat, there are people who risk their lives to save artifacts and features of their culture, and the motives for this courage are retrospectively clear. For a community to survive a conflict or disaster as a corporate entity, elements of shared ...


Keynote Address - When Violent Nonstate Actors Target Cultural Heritage Sites, Victor Asal Oct 2017

Keynote Address - When Violent Nonstate Actors Target Cultural Heritage Sites, Victor Asal

CHAR

Why would organizations attack or kill people at cultural heritage sites or destroy such sites? Using data from the Big Allied and Dangerous insurgent dataset that has data on 140 insurgent organizations from 1998-2012, and data from the Global Terrorism Database, this presentation examines the factors that make insurgent groups more likely to attack such sites or kill people at such sites. We look at the impact of organizational ideology, organizational structure and power as well as country level factors.