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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Discourse, Affinity And Attraction: A Case Study Of Iran's Soft Power Strategy In Afghanistan, Hiva Feizi Apr 2018

Discourse, Affinity And Attraction: A Case Study Of Iran's Soft Power Strategy In Afghanistan, Hiva Feizi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a case study of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s approach to soft power with a focus on Iran’s use of soft power in Afghanistan. This dissertation is unique as it a delves into the diverse conceptual prescriptions on soft power, especially from a non-Western perspective. Studies of soft power in the current International Relations discipline ignore the implicit widespread liberal democratic bias in the current understanding of the concept. This dissertation argues that there are certain ontological assumptions lying deep within the soft power model first proposed by Joseph Nye (1990) that make it difficult ...


Strategic Negligence: Why The United States Failed To Provide Military Support To The Syrian Resistance In 2011-2014, Konrad J. Trautman Mar 2018

Strategic Negligence: Why The United States Failed To Provide Military Support To The Syrian Resistance In 2011-2014, Konrad J. Trautman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The US military’s culture, structure, and process for providing advice to the president and his national security decision-making team are flawed due to the marginalization of unconventional warfare (UW) expertise -- UW is the military’s doctrinal term for support to resistance activities and movements. This marginalization results in inadequate consideration for applying UW as a strategic option for the nation.

Through a qualitative methods case study analysis utilizing macro- and micro-level process-tracing with a conceptual framework based on Niklas Luhmann’s Systems Theory, the author shows that viable and acceptable resistance elements existed in Syria in March 2011 to ...


The Viability Of Democratic Governance In De Facto States: A Comparative Case Study Of Iraqi Kurdistan And Syria Rojava, Chelsea Vogel Mar 2018

The Viability Of Democratic Governance In De Facto States: A Comparative Case Study Of Iraqi Kurdistan And Syria Rojava, Chelsea Vogel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The following comparative case study of Iraqi Kurdistan and Democratic Federation of Northern Syria-Rojava seeks to fill a gap in literature on the viability of democracy in cases of de facto statehood. There is yet to be an assessment of the potential influence of support from patron states on the degree to which democratization in de facto states is possible. This research expands upon on the argument that the decision to recognize de facto states is at least partially dependent upon the national interests of influential third party states. Syria Rojava has relied heavily on the strength of its internal ...


Assessment Of Drinking Water Quality Management And A Treatment Feasibility Study For Brick By Brick Water Storage Tanks In Rakai Uganda, James V. Murduca Mar 2018

Assessment Of Drinking Water Quality Management And A Treatment Feasibility Study For Brick By Brick Water Storage Tanks In Rakai Uganda, James V. Murduca

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reliable access to safe drinking water is one necessity for humans to live without concern for major health risks. The overall goal of this research is to improve the public health, through improved drinking water, for communities in the Rakai District in Uganda, directly, and other communities in the world, indirectly, via dissemination of knowledge. This study specifically assessed the knowledge of drinking water quality in regards to public health, their sanitation measures, and water treatment methods for users of Brick by Brick rainwater harvesting tanks in the Rakai District (N = 28) by using a knowledge, attitudes, and practice survey ...


Becoming Legitimate: How Pmscs Are Seeking Legitimacy In The International System, Sommer Mitchell Jan 2018

Becoming Legitimate: How Pmscs Are Seeking Legitimacy In The International System, Sommer Mitchell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of private military and security companies (PMSC) by state governments has raised many questions regarding the role of the private security industry (PSI) in conflict. This use of PMSCs by states has resulted in much debate in the public and academic spheres (Avant 2005, Dunigan 2011, Kinsey 2006, Leander 2005, Singer 2008). The PSI and PMSCs are altering the international system of norms and redefining what it means to be secure and make war. States are no longer the only entity in the international system with security needs. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs ...


Xenophobia And Its Implications For Refugee Policies: A Cross-National Study, Elisa A. D'Amico Jan 2018

Xenophobia And Its Implications For Refugee Policies: A Cross-National Study, Elisa A. D'Amico

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Refugee policy matters, both for academic researchers and real-world policy debates. The topic of refugee integration is just as relevant. Xenophobia has been on the rise and is an important theme in the realm of refugee policy discussion as well. Does xenophobia lower the likelihood of a nation’s policies helping to integrate refugees with the rest of society? If host-nation citizens fear that refugees will harm the economy, increase terrorism and heighten crime rates, lawmakers will have little reason to prioritize integrative refugee policies. These factors suggest that when a country is more xenophobic, integrative refugee policies will not ...


The Great Game’S New Player: China’S Belt And Road Strategy For Central Asia, Darrell James Carter Jan 2018

The Great Game’S New Player: China’S Belt And Road Strategy For Central Asia, Darrell James Carter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Under the leadership of President Xi Jinping China is taking ambitious strides towards greater economic and political influence globally, seeking to establish itself as great power by all definitions. Recently, one policy pushing towards that goal is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) initiative which will expand on trade routes and resource pipelines over land and sea reaching to Africa, the Middle East, and even Europe. The land leg of BRI is the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) which passes through Central Asia before reaching the desired destinations, making the region critical to China’s goals for BRI. Through an ...


Measuring Trust In Post-Communist States: Making The Case For Particularized Trust., Nicole M. Ford Nov 2017

Measuring Trust In Post-Communist States: Making The Case For Particularized Trust., Nicole M. Ford

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While the literature on democracy and its relationship to trust provides little consensus regarding the role of trust, researchers have emphasized the importance of generalized trust over particularized in relation to democracy. This research marks a departure from this consensus, and exposes the neglected role of personal relationships in fostering successful democracy.

One of the key measurements of democracy in a country is social trust. There are three forms of trust: generalized, particularized and institutional. Previously, the measurement of social trust focused on the importance of generalized trust, that is, trust in those we do not know (Putnam, 1993; Fukuyama ...


Humanitarian Military Intervention: A Failed Paradigm, Faruk Rahmanovic Apr 2017

Humanitarian Military Intervention: A Failed Paradigm, Faruk Rahmanovic

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the end of the Cold War, traditional justifications for war have diminished in relevance and importance, while the use of Humanitarian Military Interventions (HMI) has proliferated, to the point that formerly traditional wars – e.g. Afghanistan and Iraq invasions – have become retroactively redefined as HMIs. While HMI suffers from a number of problems, from international law to historical track record, its proponents have managed to turn aside all arguments by claiming they represent either statistical outliers, improper implementation, or at best indicate a need for a certain degree of fine-tuning. Crucially, the validity of the HMI practice is never ...


An Examination Of John Burton’S Method Of Conflict Resolution And Its Applicability To The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, John Kenneth Steinmeyer Feb 2017

An Examination Of John Burton’S Method Of Conflict Resolution And Its Applicability To The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, John Kenneth Steinmeyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper argues that the interactive problem-solving workshops created by political scientist John Burton and applied to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by social psychologist Herbert Kelman, while not, as yet, resulting in a just and permanent peace agreement, are effective in resolving intractable conflict, and, if persistently used, can significantly help to produce such an agreement. This is done by closely examining two books of Burton and a series of articles by Kelman to describe their process; the characteristics of intractable conflict are also reviewed from the work of social psychologist Daniel Bar-Tal. It is then argued that the psychological elements ...


Heating Up After The Cold War: The Effect The Cold War Had On Military Interventions, Johnathan Robert Vonderhaar Jan 2017

Heating Up After The Cold War: The Effect The Cold War Had On Military Interventions, Johnathan Robert Vonderhaar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the large body of literature produced by researchers attentive to the subjects of military intervention and the historical period known as the Cold War, little attention has been given to the effect that the tensions that existed during this time period on a global scale had on military interventions. Why have previous scholars missed this and why is it important? The body of existing literature looks at the effect the Cold War had on individual countries and examines individual conflicts, but overall trends are not examined in depth. This thesis proposes some theoretical propositions based on realist and constructivist ...


American Decline And Changing Global Hegemony, Addison Daniel Huygens Jan 2017

American Decline And Changing Global Hegemony, Addison Daniel Huygens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the reoccurring themes in international relations scholarship over the last fifty years has been the idea that the United States has undergone a decline. The United States established itself as a hegemon in the years following World War 2 thanks to a preeminence in power. However, it has been argued that the hegemony of the United States may now be at risk and that the American power advantage is shrinking in the face of rising challengers. This thesis examines American decline through an extensive literature review followed by an analysis of fifteen metrics of power capabilities along with ...


Application Of Spatial And Descriptive Analysis Methods To Determine Relationship Between Hardware Subsidies And The Sanitation Marketplace, Danielle Devuyst Mar 2016

Application Of Spatial And Descriptive Analysis Methods To Determine Relationship Between Hardware Subsidies And The Sanitation Marketplace, Danielle Devuyst

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sanitation marketing is an emerging approach of strengthening the local private sector to implement scalable and sustainable improved sanitation coverage in developing countries, specifically among the poor. It encourages the enhancement of sanitation market supply and demand by developing distribution infrastructure and stimulating consumer interest. Unlike interventions that provide hardware subsidies to initiate sanitation demand, financial support for sanitation marketing is used exclusively for the research and development of the market; this encourages the private sector to become independent and self-sufficient. Qualitative data suggests that while sanitation marketing projects have been successful at implementing replicable and sustainable sanitation coverage, they ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Food Aid On Conflict In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Disaggregate Approach, Elizabeth Christine Dippold Jan 2016

Evaluating The Effects Of Food Aid On Conflict In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Disaggregate Approach, Elizabeth Christine Dippold

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the benefit to hungry people in recipient countries, the use of food aid as a form of international assistance has become a source of contention among policy makers and researchers. The accusation is that food aid promotes the onset of conflict and sustains conflict in already volatile areas. This paper examines the relationship between food aid and conflict at the disaggregate, local level, with the purpose of determining if the provision of food aid increases conflict in recipient areas. The geospatial analysis performed as part of this study focused on 346 individual food aid events across 17 African countries ...


Strategic Missile Defense: Russian And U.S. Policies And Their Effects On Future Weapons Proliferation, Diana Marie Nesbitt Nov 2015

Strategic Missile Defense: Russian And U.S. Policies And Their Effects On Future Weapons Proliferation, Diana Marie Nesbitt

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the effects that Russian, U.S., and NATO policies of deterrence have on strategic missile defense as well as how these policies and strategic missile defense affect future weapons proliferation. The aspects explored are the current Russian strategic forces and quality, Russian policies and strategies, the Phased Adaptive Approach, and U.S. and NATO policies and strategies. Mitigation of this pressing issue may be through open dialogue, a system to limit future U.S. and NATO interceptors and sensors, and a possible joint data exchange center.


The Effect Of Neoliberalism On Capabilities: Evaluating The Case Of Mexico, James Paul Walker Oct 2015

The Effect Of Neoliberalism On Capabilities: Evaluating The Case Of Mexico, James Paul Walker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this thesis is to examine the effect of neoliberalism on developing nations. Specifically it will look at how neoliberalism has affected Mexico via the North American Free Trade Agreement. Mexico was chosen because since its depression in 1982 it has adopted continuing neoliberal policy, which according to its leaders, United States leaders, and international governmental bodies, is the path to development and the improvement of the standard of living for all people. This work begins by examining the historical path of neoliberalism to provide context for choosing Mexico for the focal point of this thesis, as well ...


The Us Response To Genocide In Rwanda: A Reassessment, Camara Silver Jul 2015

The Us Response To Genocide In Rwanda: A Reassessment, Camara Silver

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis analyzes the US response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide. It argues that in 1994, the US was retooling its stance on humanitarian intervention because of the disastrous US-led Operation Gothic Serpent in Somalia in 1993. Therefore, the American response to the genocide in Rwanda became a casualty of Washington’s reassessment of its humanitarian intervention policy in the 1990s. The reason behind the US adoption of a more muscular humanitarian intervention policy was due in part to the end of the Cold War in 1991. Thus, the US was able to focus on other issues in international affairs ...


Peace Talks And Two-Level Games, Iman Hasan Jan 2015

Peace Talks And Two-Level Games, Iman Hasan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper analyses the peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that lasted over the period of nine-months (29 July 2013 – 29 April 2014), under the theoretical framework of Robert Putnam’s two-level games model. The model does not offer a solution to the decades-old conflict, however it draws our attention to different actors that influenced the negotiations. Thus, the model identifies the factors that possibly caused failure to the peace-process.


On The Determinants Of Internal Armed Conflict, Nicholas James Hasty Jan 2015

On The Determinants Of Internal Armed Conflict, Nicholas James Hasty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study expands upon literature on the cross-national causes of civil war and terrorism by combining the two concepts into an aggregate variable called internal armed conflict. It applies relative deprivation theory to politically excluded ethnic groups and also separates those two entities to examine socioeconomic desperation and ethnic exclusion respectively. From a review of the literature I identify eight variables that were found to be statistically significant predictors of either civil war or terrorism in previous studies and I use them as control variables in my models. I find that countries with excluded ethnic groups are somewhat more likely ...


Human Trafficking From Southern Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, And Guatemala: Why These Victims Are Trafficked Into Modern Day Florida, Timothy Adam Golob May 2014

Human Trafficking From Southern Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, And Guatemala: Why These Victims Are Trafficked Into Modern Day Florida, Timothy Adam Golob

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Florida is ranked as one of the United States' top three destination states for human trafficking; many of those victims originate from Mesoamerica--Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Human trafficking is a growing problem which hinders universal human rights for hundreds of new victims in Florida every year. Mesoamericans have a high risk of becoming victims due to the situations in their home countries. The issue of human trafficking has only recently gained the national and state attention of law makers and law enforcement officers.

This study uses several human trafficking cases to educate and exemplify why Mesoamerican victims ...


Continuation In Us Foreign Policy: An Offensive Realist Perspective, Bledar Prifti Jan 2014

Continuation In Us Foreign Policy: An Offensive Realist Perspective, Bledar Prifti

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a study of US foreign policy that aims at maintaining its regional hegemonic status and preventing the emergence of another regional hegemon by implementing the offshore balancing strategy. US intervention during the 2003 Iraq War, strained US-Iran relationship, and the establishment of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in early 2014 compel a reevaluation of US foreign policy. Two major claims of this dissertation include: (1) US foreign policy is consistent with offensive realist theoretical claims; and (2) US foreign policy is characterized by continuity when it comes to issues related to America's ...


Does Sun Tzu's The Art Of War Influence China's Military Behavior? A Case Study Of The 1962 Sino-India War, Yifei Zhang Jan 2014

Does Sun Tzu's The Art Of War Influence China's Military Behavior? A Case Study Of The 1962 Sino-India War, Yifei Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study has been developed to test the feasibility of using Sun Tzu's The Art of War to analyze and predict China's future military behavior. The author systematically introduces Sun Tzu's teachings as contained in his book, lists expectations of the Chinese army's performance in the 1962 Sino-Indian War under the assumption that it was influenced by the thoughts expressed in The Art of War, and compares what actually happened in that war with these expectations. Most of the expectations were borne out in the actual war, and this indicates that the thoughts expressed in The ...


The U.S. Department Of State Office Of Faith-Based And Community Initiatives: What Does The U.S. Engage When They Engage `Religion'?, Belgica Marisol Cucalon Jan 2014

The U.S. Department Of State Office Of Faith-Based And Community Initiatives: What Does The U.S. Engage When They Engage `Religion'?, Belgica Marisol Cucalon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In August of 2013 the U.S. State Department launched the Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives with the objective to foster and promote religious engagements in foreign diplomacy. The language used by the architects and proponents of the initiative suggests that even though religion can be a source of great conflict, religion is also a powerful force for good capable of mitigating conflict and fostering progress. The present optimistic belief of American foreign diplomats that religious engagement will foster beneficial partnerships capable of advancing U.S. foreign interests has led scholars to pose the question, "what will the U ...


Conflicto Político Y Lenguaje Literario En Tres Casos Representativos: Guatemala, El Salvador Y Honduras. Influencia Y Consecuencias De Las Políticas Estadounidenses En Centroamérica, Reina María Borjas Alvarado Jan 2014

Conflicto Político Y Lenguaje Literario En Tres Casos Representativos: Guatemala, El Salvador Y Honduras. Influencia Y Consecuencias De Las Políticas Estadounidenses En Centroamérica, Reina María Borjas Alvarado

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Debido a la posición geográfica de Latinoamérica en comparación con Europa, Estados Unidos quiso concentrarse en el desarrollo económico de la región y creó nuevas políticas que ayudarían al crecimiento económico en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, estas políticas tenían un segundo interés, el cual era prevenir la proliferación del socialismo en Centroamérica, ya que después de la Revolución Cubana, Estados Unidos sintió que era necesario evitar que los países vecinos llegaran a ser una amenaza para sus intereses en la región. No obstante, la intervención del gobierno estadounidense en Guatemala, El Salvador y Honduras se diluyó y los gobiernos nacionales se ...


Impacts Of U.S. Foreign Policy And Intervention On Guatemala: Mid-20th Century, Patricia M. Plantamura Jan 2013

Impacts Of U.S. Foreign Policy And Intervention On Guatemala: Mid-20th Century, Patricia M. Plantamura

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

International Relations theory includes realist concepts of sovereign nation-states interacting in an anarchic world as they rationally determine their own national interests based upon ever-changing competition for power. In this interplay for power, nation-states may affect each other politically, economically, ideologically or militarily. This thesis focuses on effects of U.S. foreign policy and U.S. intervention in Guatemala in the time period surrounding the Guatemalan Revolution (1944-1954), with its "liberation" in 1954, and then into the early 1960s as the Guatemalan state began to be militarized. In this thesis I will answer the following question:

How did the United ...


A Comparative Study: How Educational And Healthcare Preparedness Affected Marketization Of The Chinese And Indian Economies, Cindy Arjoon Jan 2013

A Comparative Study: How Educational And Healthcare Preparedness Affected Marketization Of The Chinese And Indian Economies, Cindy Arjoon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In this archival study, I explore reasons why India's economic takeoff into marketization in 1991 failed to meet the same success as China in 1979 when it made the same transition. I analyze the impact of education and healthcare on development and how investments in both sectors can yield significant returns privately and socially. The research in this paper seeks to answer the following question: Why was the Indian economy unable to meet the same success as China when developing a global, open market economy?

In order to answer this question, I begin by proving a solid relationship between ...


European Union Institutions, Democratic Discourse, And The Color Revolutions, Lizette G. Howard Jan 2013

European Union Institutions, Democratic Discourse, And The Color Revolutions, Lizette G. Howard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since the Treaty of the European Union in 1993, the EU has embraced institutional reforms with the stated purpose of achieving greater unity in foreign affairs. Despite the EU's leading role in the political and economic reforms of former Soviet satellites in Central and Eastern Europe, the EU has been less consistent and cohesive in former Soviet space further east--in regions fraught with undemocratic qualities and places where the EU enjoys fewer credible incentives and less leverage. While scholars point to divergent national interests as obstacles for unity abroad, few have unraveled how the institutions of the EU itself ...


From Zaire To The Drc: A Case Study Of State Failure, Adam Zachariah Trautman Jan 2013

From Zaire To The Drc: A Case Study Of State Failure, Adam Zachariah Trautman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The issue of state failure within the international system has been a perplexing phenomenon in our increasingly mobile and modern society. The question of why some states succeed in developing into strong states within the international environment and why some fail is a question often overlooked. The focus of this thesis will be on three key factors that contribute towards state failure. The research will show how these three key factors: outdated state infrastructure, lack of economic development, and external intervention contribute to the occurrence of this phenomenon. Analyzing these key factors will highlight how state failure occurs within a ...


Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen Jan 2013

Navigation And Immersion Of The American Identity In A Foreign Culture To Emergence As A Culturally Relative Ambassador, Lee H. Rosen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Globalization is forcing many American college students to re-evaluate their perspective on foreign travel. If they are offered an opportunity to improve their cultural relativity skill set by immersing themselves into a new culture, the more astute students might choose to embark on that journey especially if it would result in resume enhancement. This paper focuses upon a group of twelve community college students' cross-cultural experiences, navigation techniques, and adaptation methods as student interns teaching conversational English in Changchun, China for a period of nine to thirteen weeks in spring 2011. Several areas of interest emerged from their experiences ...


Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer Jan 2013

Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The "Bridging the Gap" program provides an opportunity to explore the relationships between learning and power in international agricultural development partnerships. A USAID-funded partnership between Iowa State University and Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns, this farmer-to-farmer program sent groups of Iowan women farmers to Uganda to teach Ugandan women farmers with the objectives that Ugandans would move from subsistence to commercial farming and that both groups would benefit from the cultural exchange. Data were collected primarily through semi-structured qualitative interviews of 28 Ugandan farmers, 7 Iowan farmers, and several program staff, and were analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. This thesis ...