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Turkish Soap Opera Diplomacy: A Western Projection By A Muslim Source, B. Senem Çevik Jan 2014

Turkish Soap Opera Diplomacy: A Western Projection By A Muslim Source, B. Senem Çevik

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

The rise of Turkish soap operas as a phenomenon, particularly in the Middle East, is a fairly new development. These soap operas have become non-governmental public diplomacy tools representing Turkey globally. The shows predominantly project a Western and modern lifestyle addressing everyday hurdles. More importantly, the female protagonists are central to the storylines. This paper examines the role of soap operas as a cultural diplomacy tool within the context of identity and the social implications that are prompted by these media exports.


Front Matter Jan 2014

Front Matter

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

front matter


India’S Digital Diaspora Diplomacy: Operationalizing Collaborative Public Diplomacy Strategies For Social Media, Bhattiprolu Murti, R.S. Zaharna Jan 2014

India’S Digital Diaspora Diplomacy: Operationalizing Collaborative Public Diplomacy Strategies For Social Media, Bhattiprolu Murti, R.S. Zaharna

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This study examines how India uses digital media to connect with its diaspora as part of its diaspora diplomacy. In order to analyze the strategy and its effectiveness, the study operationalized Cowan and Arsenault’s (2008) theoretical framework of three layers of public diplomacy – monologue, dialogue and collaboration – by identifying corresponding layers of social media components. The study draws a more distinctive line between dialogue and collaboration in digital strategies: dialogic entail relationship-building and knowledge sharing, while collaboration creates ownership, relationship transformation and knowledge creation. This analytical lens was then applied specifically to assess the website of Overseas Indian Facilitation ...


Table Of Contents Jan 2014

Table Of Contents

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

contents


“Russification” Of “Soft Power”: Transformation Of A Concept, Yelena Osipova Jan 2014

“Russification” Of “Soft Power”: Transformation Of A Concept, Yelena Osipova

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Soft power has become a popular foreign policy concept adopted by many different governments around the world, despite its lack of depth or broad applicability. The Russian government is among those eager adopters and has, over time, reconceptualized and transformed the concept to make it fit the Russian worldview and specific foreign policy objectives. The paper provides a critical examination of soft power as presented in the Russian official and academic discourse, and examines some of the key strategies serving as foundation for the Russian approach. The paper concludes that according to the current official interpretation of the concept, the ...


Keeping The Mexican Moment Alive: A Case For Public Diplomacy, Fernando De La Mora Jan 2014

Keeping The Mexican Moment Alive: A Case For Public Diplomacy, Fernando De La Mora

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Despite a sound political and economic outlook, Mexico’s international image has been on a roller coaster ride. After years of downward spiral, the Mexican moment has again raised expectations. However, structural and systemic factors hamper Mexican public diplomacy at a time when keeping that positive momentum is critical for the country’s national interests. The systemic challenge for all emerging nations derives from widespread confusion and uncertainty regarding future power shifts and dynamics. Whether the world is to be multilpolar, nonpolar, or interpolar, public diplomacy will play an important role in accomplishing foreign policy objectives. Unlike other emerging countries ...


Misconceptions In Comparative Study Of Public Diplomacy: A U.S.-China Case Study, Liang Pan Jan 2014

Misconceptions In Comparative Study Of Public Diplomacy: A U.S.-China Case Study, Liang Pan

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

The study of public diplomacy often proceeds with an empirical approach, focusing on crafting policy instruments and measuring policy efficiency. But this approach tends to render descriptive and quantitative results. This paper contextualizes public diplomacy in theoretical terms, institutional structure, and policy priority, and points out three common misconceptions in comparison of U.S.-China public diplomacy. It means to draw attention to normative and qualitative approaches that should be applied to the fledging interdisciplinary study of public diplomacy.


Public Diplomacy And The “Self” In Regional Organization: A Network Approach To Identity Formation, Image Formation, And Asean Community Building, Daniel J. Smith Jan 2014

Public Diplomacy And The “Self” In Regional Organization: A Network Approach To Identity Formation, Image Formation, And Asean Community Building, Daniel J. Smith

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This paper examines the construction of the ―Self‖ in regional community building—that is, the ―actorness‖ of a regional entity in the international system. Specifically, I address the function of official public diplomacy in regional organization. I contend that formal public diplomacy is a crucial component to the internal identity formation and external image formation processes that constitute regional ―community building,‖ leading to the ―Self.‖ In explicating the development of a regional institution’s actorness, public diplomacy is conceptualized through constructivist networks. I posit that these network representations reflect the continuous nature of identity and image in community building. I ...


Watchdog Or Lapdog? The Role Of U.S. Media In The International Humanitarian Intervention In Libya, Maggie Moore Jan 2013

Watchdog Or Lapdog? The Role Of U.S. Media In The International Humanitarian Intervention In Libya, Maggie Moore

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Do media influence government or does government influence media? This paper seeks to answer this question by examining the recent international humanitarian military intervention in Libya in 2011 to see what, if any, effect media played in the decision-making process. To determine which player, U.S. government or U.S. media, was the opinion leader persuading the other to support humanitarian military intervention, the author chronologically compared articles written in major U.S. newspapers and U.S. government statements. The author concludes that neither the U.S. government nor the U.S. media played the primary role in the case ...


Diplomacy 2.0: The Future Of Social Media In Nation Branding, Britney Harris Jan 2013

Diplomacy 2.0: The Future Of Social Media In Nation Branding, Britney Harris

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

The importance of social media as a tool of public diplomacy has gained traction in U.S. foreign policy initiatives. The Obama administration’s creation of “Diplomacy 2.0” has brought the use of Twitter and other social media sites to the front line of public diplomacy practices. This paper looks at why social media are an effective tool for two-way communication and how it can enhance U.S. public diplomacy initiatives. The author examines case studies of successful implementation of Twitter diplomacy and the use of Twitter for crisis management. Finally, the author concludes and discusses policy prescriptions, including ...


Front Matter Jan 2013

Front Matter

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Introductory pages to the 2013 issue, and the Table of Contents.


National Image Of South Korea: Implications For Public Diplomacy, Dennis F. Kinsey, Myojung Chung Jan 2013

National Image Of South Korea: Implications For Public Diplomacy, Dennis F. Kinsey, Myojung Chung

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This study explores the national image of South Korea by employing Q methodology. A structured Q sample of 36 photos representing (1) culture, (2) history, (3) economy, (4) people, (5) place, and (6) political system of Korea was sorted by 30 participants (10 Koreans, 10 Korean-Americans, and 10 non-Koreans) from (-4) “most uncharacteristic of Korea” to (+4) “most characteristic of Korea.” Two factors emerged from the subsequent correlation and factor analysis of the 30 Q sorts representing distinct views of Korea: (A) Advanced economy and technology and (B) historical view emphasizing the political system. Factor A participants associated the images ...


Social Media And Public Diplomacy: Foreign To China's Environmental Movements, Licheng Zhu Jan 2013

Social Media And Public Diplomacy: Foreign To China's Environmental Movements, Licheng Zhu

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

The looming environmental crisis in China not only brings obstacles and pain to society, but also creates a great opportunity for international cooperation. This paper critically assesses the pitfalls of China’s current environmental protection regime and the difficulties that Chinese environmental NGOs are facing. It argues that social media web sites and international environmental NGOs are able to help Chinese environmental NGOs confront their problems through tactics such as public diplomacy.


Rebranding Greece: Why Nation Branding Matters, Sofia Bisa Jan 2013

Rebranding Greece: Why Nation Branding Matters, Sofia Bisa

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Nation branding is an emerging concept with increased practical activity but fairly limited theory. Politicians engage actively in branding practices for their countries. Why do governments utilize certain branding strategies and ignore others? How have politicians come to perceive nation branding as a successful foreign policy strategy? This article seeks to examine the political aspect of nation branding and clarify the concept as a subset of international relations, and more specifically, its connection to public diplomacy. Finally, the article analyzes the case of Greece and the current branding campaign pursued by its government. What has Greece done in the past ...


Kony2012: The New Face Of Citizen Engagement, Nicole Audette Jan 2013

Kony2012: The New Face Of Citizen Engagement, Nicole Audette

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This paper breaks down the nongovernmental components of public diplomacy and examines the evolution of new public diplomacy. It discusses the rise of nonstate actors and the importance they play in changing international diplomatic engagements. It explores the rising prominence of both soft power and public relations on the global stage, highlighting the importance of strategic relationships and effective communications. The case study, used to exemplify the power of new public diplomacy, examines how Invisible Children’s KONY2012 campaign used public diplomacy to harness successfully the power of the American people to influence governmental foreign policy. The author shows that ...


Dancing In Davos: Combining Private Sector, Government, And Rising Nonstate Actors, Siyu Li Jan 2013

Dancing In Davos: Combining Private Sector, Government, And Rising Nonstate Actors, Siyu Li

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Nonstate actors, nongovernmental organizations, and diaspora communities are forming connections across national borders. These actors insert themselves into a wide range of decision-making processes, but it is unclear how states and international institutions enable or constrain transnational participation. This paper analyzes the existing partnership among nonstate actors, sovereign states, and the private sector. It discusses the World Economic Forum (WEF) and its annual meetings in Davos, Switzerland, and examines its ability to serve as a platform to combine the three different international actors and deal with global issues. By combining the three forces— sovereign states, private sector and the transnational ...


Unesco And The U.S. At The Palestinian Impasse: Using A Boomerang Pattern To Public Diplomacy, Oscar Castellanos Del Collado Jan 2013

Unesco And The U.S. At The Palestinian Impasse: Using A Boomerang Pattern To Public Diplomacy, Oscar Castellanos Del Collado

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

There is vast literature on the influence of nonstate actors (NSAs) on intergovernmental organizations (IGOs). Successful cases have been documented in which transnational advocacy networks (TANs) use the platforms provided by intergovernmental organizations for their own participation in treaty making, agenda-setting, policy formation and implementation, and to change repressive and norm-violating states’ behavior. However, little has been said about IGOs engaging NSAs to influence their own member states’ preferences. This paper uses the case of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United States on the eve of Palestine’s admission as a member state of ...


Modeling Global Citizenship As A Learning Process, Ryan Williams Jan 2013

Modeling Global Citizenship As A Learning Process, Ryan Williams

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

In an era of increasing globalization, Millennials are venturing abroad in record numbers. This paper is the result of a focus group conducted with students in Syracuse University’s Public Diplomacy Program. It explores the impact of international experience on students’ worldview and conceptualizations of citizenship. The end of the paper presents a model of citizenship as a learning process. It delves into notions of personal responsibility mobilized by new life experiences, growing awareness of self, others, critical reflection, and evolving identity. It provides some insight into the way graduate students of public diplomacy conceive of themselves and their role ...


Our Wavin’ Flag: U.S. Public Diplomacy Outreach, Sharon Hudson-Dean Jan 2012

Our Wavin’ Flag: U.S. Public Diplomacy Outreach, Sharon Hudson-Dean

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

In March 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama, an avid sports fan, sat down to talk with sports writer Bill Simmons.1 He explained why competition on the field connects radically different people to each other, "People - for all our differencespolitically,regionally,economically-mostfolksunderstandsports.Probablybecauseit'soneofthe few places where it's a true meritocracy. There's not a lot of BS. Ultimately, who's winning, who's losing, who's performing, who's not - it's all laid out there."

In many ways, sports is a perfect unifier. A fan need not be literate, educated, well-traveled, or wealthy to be personally ...


The New Public Diplomacy: The Winning Move In Revolutions, Shannon Zimmerman Jan 2012

The New Public Diplomacy: The Winning Move In Revolutions, Shannon Zimmerman

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

The countries of the Arab Spring have taken differing approaches and have experienced conflicting outcomes. Egyptian and Tunisian protestors utilized public diplomacy as a political weapon while other states failed to realize its potential. In particular, social media were used to communicate with local actors, the military, and the international community, allowing protesters to disseminate their messages of non-violence. As a result, the revolutionary movement was not alienating to the citizenry or to the security forces. This paper will explore the use of public diplomacy by nonviolent protesters to 'win' the security forces and prevent their uprising from descending into ...


Illusions Of Unity: The Paradox Between Mega-Sporting Events And Nation Building, Terrance Carroll Jan 2012

Illusions Of Unity: The Paradox Between Mega-Sporting Events And Nation Building, Terrance Carroll

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This article presents an investigation into the use of "nation building" rhetoric as a motive to host mega- sporting events. Previous literature regarding mega-events presents the potential for such events to be used for uniting a nation. Moreover, nation building has been conceived in public relations research as consisting of two main components; national identity and national unity, both of which can be tied to image crafting. However, examining the 2010 World Cup in South Africa and the planning for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil demonstrates a paradox that exists between the concept of nation building and the actual ...


From Stadiums To Shuttle Diplomacy: Qatar’S Emergence As A Regional Diplomatic Power, Kedar Pavgi, Nakul Kadaba Jan 2012

From Stadiums To Shuttle Diplomacy: Qatar’S Emergence As A Regional Diplomatic Power, Kedar Pavgi, Nakul Kadaba

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

During the chaos of the Arab Spring, Western diplomacy was facilitated through the State of Qatar. The small country's rise into the apex of international relations did not occur immediately after the first sparks of the revolution. Rather, Qatar's leadership within the Middle East resulted from years of effort put in by their leaders into devising a foreign policy that emphasized building relationships and cooperation with Western countries and their Arab counterparts. Qatar's leaders specifically focused their efforts on enhancing their reputation within international sporting forums, and the business that resulted from it. Major athletic events like ...


The Other War Next Door: Violent Crime In Central America And The U.S. Response, Ross Albert Jan 2012

The Other War Next Door: Violent Crime In Central America And The U.S. Response, Ross Albert

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

One of the defining characteristics of international politics and public diplomacy in the 21st century is the rapid growth of non-state actors. These non-state entities transcend borders and range from multinational corporations to non-governmental organizations and beyond. Transnational criminal organizations - a threatening breed of non- state actors - are increasingly common in today's international landscape. Their presence is especially forceful and troublesome within and among the small states of Central America. These organizations are interested in the pursuit of wealth and violence as a means to achieve rather than an end in itself. This paper seeks to explore transnational organized ...


Medvedev Vs. Putin In Kremlin-Sponsored Advertorials In The U.S. And India, Evhenia Viatchaninova Jan 2012

Medvedev Vs. Putin In Kremlin-Sponsored Advertorials In The U.S. And India, Evhenia Viatchaninova

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This essay explores the image making of Vladimir Putin vs. Dmitri Medvedev in the Kremlin-sponsored advertorials the "Russia Now" and the "Russia India Report" circulated as free supplements to The Washington Post, and The Times of India, India, in 2011. Advertorial content mentioning each politician was analyzed using basic qualitative and quantitative techniques, and several image making messages highlighting Putin's vs. Medvedev's leadership were deduced. Both advertorials served as a platform for mediated public diplomacy aimed at influencing foreign publics' perceptions of Russia's leadership in the wake of a major presidential election.


Mexico & Venezuela: Losing The Soft Power Sweepstakes At The Polls, Rick Rockwell Jan 2012

Mexico & Venezuela: Losing The Soft Power Sweepstakes At The Polls, Rick Rockwell

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This research article compares how the public images of Venezuela and Mexico have been shaped by the presidential election cycle of 2012 in each country. The results show that political leaders in both countries seem much more concerned about domestic issues rather than projecting a more positive public diplomacy image. The paper focuses on the history and political culture of both countries, which inevitably frames how both dealt with negative international impressions resulting from the elections. Although Venezuela has had many more demonstrations of national plebiscites and elections than any other Latin American country during the era of President Hugo ...


Factors Affecting The U.S. International Image: The Potential For Public Diplomacy In The Short- And Long-Term, Frank L. Rusciano Jan 2012

Factors Affecting The U.S. International Image: The Potential For Public Diplomacy In The Short- And Long-Term, Frank L. Rusciano

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This paper studies short-term and long-term factors that affected the image of the United States between the years 2000 and 2010. It begins by showing how the election of George W. Bush, the Iraq War, and the election of Barack Obama affected the United States' image in several nations. It then uses data from the Pew 2004 Global Survey to examine longer-term factors that influenced the U.S.'s international image. Using individual- and national- level regression analyses, it discovers several factors that predict how positive ratings of the United States were on an international level. The paper then discusses ...


The Obama Effect In The Arab World, Ryan J. Suto Jan 2012

The Obama Effect In The Arab World, Ryan J. Suto

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

This paper tests the Obama Effect hypothesis with respect to the Arab world. The paper first presents popular uses of the term and then discusses the thin scholarly literature on the topic. For quantitative data, the paper uses longitudinal data from the Annual Arab Public Opinion Poll from 2004 to 2011, with supplemental data from the Pew Research Center. Furthermore, the paper analyzed data on the Arab Spring in the context of a possible Obama Effect and policy implications for the future of U.S. foreign policy. The paper found insufficient support for the hypothesis due to a lack of ...


Contests As A Tool Of Public Diplomacy: The “India Is…” Global Video Contest, Navdeep Suri Jan 2012

Contests As A Tool Of Public Diplomacy: The “India Is…” Global Video Contest, Navdeep Suri

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

There is a growing recognition amongst public diplomacy practitioners for the need to reach young people. In large parts of the developing world - in Africa, in South and Southeast Asia, in the Caribbean and elsewhere - persons below the age of thirty-five constitute approximately seventy percent of the population. Among them, the educated, urbanized youth are growing up in an era in which connectivity and information on the go are taken for granted. India or Indonesia, Nigeria or Nicaragua, the phenomenon is rapidly gathering momentum.

How do we engage with this new generation? How do we encourage them to connect with ...


Sports Diplomacy In A Conflict Environment: The Case For Continued Efforts In Afghanistan, Ryan Robertson Jan 2012

Sports Diplomacy In A Conflict Environment: The Case For Continued Efforts In Afghanistan, Ryan Robertson

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Over thirty years of war and centuries of tribal and ethnic marginalization and centralization have left Afghanistan a nation both war-torn and in search of an identity. During the ten years of Operation Enduring Freedom, Coalition Forces and the Afghan government have tried to find ways to keep the nation's immense youth population away from insurgent influence. To date, the most effective method appears to be the implementation of sports diplomacy initiatives targeted at both the youth and female populations. With these government-run programs, Afghan youths and women are being offered an alternative to violence and respite from continued ...


Iran’S Soft Power Borne Of Necessity And Complexity Of Its Multi-Dimensional Audience, Hiva Feizi, Babak Talebi Jan 2012

Iran’S Soft Power Borne Of Necessity And Complexity Of Its Multi-Dimensional Audience, Hiva Feizi, Babak Talebi

Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy

Even measured against the Middle East's historically tumultuous dynamics, the dramatic political transformations witnessed in 2011 will shape global affairs for decades to come. The collapse of the ruling power structures in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen, as a result of people's unprecedented street protests and the ongoing protests in Syria and Bahrain, were all unexpected events with global ramifications. In the midst of this turmoil with new national and international players and evolving political structures, Iran has attempted to use its soft power to exploit new opportunities and advance its narrow interests. The unpredictable outcome of these ...