Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 121

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Effect Of The Canada-U.S. Border On The Vancouver, Bc, And Seattle, Wa, Music Network, Nabil Kamel, Lindsey Nordby, Henry Haro, Claire Swearingen Apr 2019

The Effect Of The Canada-U.S. Border On The Vancouver, Bc, And Seattle, Wa, Music Network, Nabil Kamel, Lindsey Nordby, Henry Haro, Claire Swearingen

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This Border Policy Brief examines the degree of connectivity between the two music scenes of Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC, which are less than 150 miles apart and share similar socio-demographic, economic, and regional characteristics. This Brief focuses on the effect of the Canada – U.S. border on the degree of connectivity between those music scenes and points out some opportunities and challenges faced by independent music artists in the early stages of their career, including Indigenous artists. The research presented here includes highlights from a broader project (see sidebar).

The vitality of the music industry in the two city-regions ...


Passenger Flows Through The Cascade Gateway: Changes From 2013 To 2018, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2019

Passenger Flows Through The Cascade Gateway: Changes From 2013 To 2018, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Every five years, the BPRI partners with the Whatcom Council of Governments to conduct a passenger vehicle intercept survey at four ports of entry between British Columbia and Washington State.Students from Western Washington University intercept drivers as they cross the border in both directions and ask them a variety of questions related to trip purpose and travel characteristics (see sidebar). This Border Brief provides a preliminary analysis of survey findings from the summer of 2018 and compares them to the responses collected in the summer of 2013. It also considers the impacts of changes in cross-border travel in the ...


Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University, University At Buffalo, The State University Of New York, Cross-Border Institute, University Of Windsor Oct 2018

Border Barometer, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University, University At Buffalo, The State University Of New York, Cross-Border Institute, University Of Windsor

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Running 5,000 miles between two of the world's most interdependent nations, the Canada-U.S. border plays an important role, directly and indirectly, in the lives of millions of North Americans. Whether as separator or seam, obstruction or conduit, the border influences a wide range of economic social interactions. The precise influence depends on a variety of policies and the extent to which those policies facilitate the movement of goods, people, capital, and ideas while ensuring the individual and collective security of the two countries.


Regional Cross-Border Collaboration Between The U.S. & Canada, Border Policy Research Institute Oct 2018

Regional Cross-Border Collaboration Between The U.S. & Canada, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On October 24th, 2018, the BPRI hosted a one-day forum to assess the state of cross-border collaboration between British Columbia and Washington State. The forum brought together regional experts from government, academia, and private industry to discuss the successes, barriers, and opportunities for cross-border collaboration across three ‘sectors’: transportation/infrastructure, business/economics, and the environment (see sidebar). U.S. Congressman Rick Larsen provided opening remarks about the region and Canadian Coast Guard Regional Director Brian Wooton gave a keynote address on collaboration in the marine environment. This Border Policy Brief highlights some of the findings from the forum, which illustrate ...


Cannabis In Cascadia: Impacts Of Legalization In The Region, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2018

Cannabis In Cascadia: Impacts Of Legalization In The Region, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The policies regulating the use and sale of cannabis have historically been constructed differently in the United States and Canada, yet both countries had deemed recreational use to be illegal. Beginning in 2012, however, individual states in the U.S. began to legalize recreational cannabis, including Washington, Oregon, and most recently, California. In 2017, the Government of Canada passed similar legislation. If Canada’s legislation goes into effect in mid-2018, the West Coast of North America will become the only contiguous region where recreational consumption and sale of cannabis are permitted across multiple jurisdictions (see Map 1, next page). However ...


Canada—U.S. Trade And Travel Patterns In The Post-Recession Period, Border Policy Research Institute Oct 2017

Canada—U.S. Trade And Travel Patterns In The Post-Recession Period, Border Policy Research Institute

BPRI Border Policy Briefs

The United States and Canada are entering a new political relationship that may lead to changes in economic relations between the two nations in the near future. Understanding current bilateral trade trends between the U.S. and Canada can help to inform predictions of future trade patterns if relations remain constant and to determine impacts if changes do occur. This Border Policy Brief explores trade patterns at the national scale, as well as trends in top bilaterally traded commodities and the ports that process them. The Brief provides an update to a previous BPRI research project authored by Globerman and ...


Crt Symposium Proceedings 2017, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Crt Symposium Proceedings 2017, Border Policy Research Institute

BPRI Proceedings

In February of 2017, Western Washington University (WWU) and Northwest Indian College (NWIC) hosted a two-day symposium on the modernization of the CRT. The purpose of this event was to develop public awareness and inform treaty negotiators from the United States and diplomats from Canada of key issues. Presenters and panelists explored the history of the treaty, governance ideas, Indigenous perspectives, hydrology and climate, electric energy, ecosystem function, and flood risk management/irrigation. Panelists included representatives from tribes and First Nations, government agencies, non-government organizations, private industry, and universities. During the panels, many speakers said that there is a need ...


Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Modernizing The Columbia River Treaty, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In February of 2017, Western Washington University (WWU) and Northwest Indian College (NWIC) hosted a two-day symposium titled, “The Changing Environment and the Columbia River Treaty.” The purpose of the symposium was to develop public awareness and inform treaty negotiators from the U.S. and diplomats from Canada on key issues to address when modernizing the Treaty. This event brought together tribal and First Nations leaders, representatives from government and private industry, non-governmental organizations and academics to discuss the modernization of the Columbia River Treaty (CRT).


Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2017

Changes In Canadian Shopping Visits To Northwest Washington, 2013-2016, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In 2013, the BPRI launched a long-term study to analyze the behavior of Canadians crossing the border to shop in Northwest Washington by counting the percentage of Canadian license plates in specified shopping locations along the Interstate 5 corridor. Our “license plate survey” includes data collected over the course of 6 weeks (3 days per week), for a total of 18 survey days in 2013 and 2016. This Border Policy Brief is a comparative analysis of the data collected in 2013, when the loonie averaged $0.97 USD, and data collected in 2016 in the same locations, when the loonie ...


Anne Of Green Gables: Childhood, Feminism, And The Canadian Story, Colin Carter May 2016

Anne Of Green Gables: Childhood, Feminism, And The Canadian Story, Colin Carter

Scholars Week

The novel Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery (L.M. Montgomery) follows the touching story of Anne Shirley, a young rebellious red-headed orphan. Anne, who is mistakenly sent to siblings Matthew and Marilla Cuthbert, and is begrudgingly adopted. Through the quirky trials and tribulations that follow in the quiet provincial town of Avonlea, a story about childhood, personal growth, and the female experience begins to emerge. Anne of Green Gables presents three unique, distinct, and incredibly important narratives that have implications for today’s society. First, Anne acts as a proto-essentialist feminist. By explicitly rejecting the objectification and ...


Spanish News Framing Of The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Ariana Hoyer Apr 2016

Spanish News Framing Of The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Ariana Hoyer

WWU Honors Program Senior Projects

During 2015 and 2016, Europe dealt with the largest migratory crisis since WWII due to the escalation of the Syrian civil war and ongoing conflict and violence. When an issue as significant as the Syrian refugee crisis occurs, it is crucial to carefully examine the news framing of the issue due to its strong power to influence public discourse. This influence can originate from many different aspects of framing, but one of the most influential is word choice. The word choices used to refer to groups of people can change the feelings of identification or “otherness” among readers. This paper ...


Braided Freshwater Governance: A Case Study Of Regulation And Stewardship Of Riparian Areas And Wetlands In British Columbia And Washington State, Stacy Clauson, Laurie Trautman Jan 2016

Braided Freshwater Governance: A Case Study Of Regulation And Stewardship Of Riparian Areas And Wetlands In British Columbia And Washington State, Stacy Clauson, Laurie Trautman

BPRI Research Reports

Clean water from freshwater sources that flow into the Salish Sea is essential for maintaining a healthy ecosystem. Yet, the riparian and wetlands areas that help to protect upstream water quality are threatened by a number of stressors, which include land use and development practices, forestry activities, and agricultural operations. These practices have historically resulted in the removal of vegetated cover, hardening, straightening or culverting of stream bank features, increases in impervious area, and wetland fill. These changes can impact a variety of ecosystem functions and, as a result, are considered to have a high potential impact to watersheds and ...


Carbon Policy Transfer: Learning Across Borders, Thomas Webler, William Jones, Stefanie Neal Jan 2016

Carbon Policy Transfer: Learning Across Borders, Thomas Webler, William Jones, Stefanie Neal

BPRI Research Reports

Given the failure of the federal governments of the U.S. and Canada to pass national carbon policy, the learning and dissemination of carbon policy in innovative states becomes increasingly important. This paper seeks to understand international carbon policy transfer, focusing on the cross-border dialogues between British Columbia and Washington State as a case study. The authors apply policy transfer literature to determine how knowledge and experience with carbon policy in British Columbia influences carbon policy considerations in Washington. The methodologies used were interviews with primary policy actors and qualitative coding of interviews, key reports, websites, blogs, and articles. The ...


Perception And Policy: U.S. Sociological Attitudes And Policies Towards Guatemalans And Salvadorans In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Violeta Paredes Jan 2016

Perception And Policy: U.S. Sociological Attitudes And Policies Towards Guatemalans And Salvadorans In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Violeta Paredes

American Cultural Studies Capstone Research Papers

This paper looks into Guatemalan and Salvadoran history and immigration in the late 20th Century and identifies how these patterns compare to and continue to affect present day immigration policy. By examining the difference between how immigration policy was handled prior and after the events that occurred on 9/11, the reader will be able to distinguish how social perception of immigrants in the U.S. changed drastically with the span of a few months. By examining the history of immigration policy post-WWII, the reader will be able to identify that aid such as providing asylum has historically contributed ...


Passenger Preclearance In The Pacific Northwest, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Passenger Preclearance In The Pacific Northwest, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

On March 16, 2015, the U.S. and Canada signed a Preclearance Agreement. The Agreement gives both countries the authority to implement passenger preclearance beyond the air mode (see sidebar) and expand to the land, rail, and marine modes of transportation. In addition, the Agreement enables Canada to request the U.S. to regularize existing U.S. immigration pre-inspection sites, namely at cruise, rail, and ferry terminals in British Columbia. This Border Policy Brief highlights rail and marine locations in the Pacific Northwest that will be affected by the Preclearance Agreement, and monetizes some of the benefits accrued to both ...


Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Exchange Rates, Border Crossings, And Retail Sales In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

One year ago, BPRI published a Border Brief analyzing the relationship between the Canada – U.S. exchange rate and crossing volumes in the Cascade Gateway (see Winter 2015 Border Brief). At that time, the decline in the value of the Canadian Dollar (CAD), which began significantly in mid-2013, had already influenced the volume of cross-border travel in the region and has continued to do so since. This Border Brief updates our previous analysis, and goes beyond crossing volumes to consider the economic impacts associated with the continued drop in Canadian cross-border travelers.


Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2016

Land-Based Freight Flows Between The Us And Its Nafta Neighbors, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This Brief provides an overview of the flow of goods between the U.S. and its two NAFTA neighbors, Canada and Mexico. For the U.S., the value and composition of freight that flows between its northern and southern borders varies significantly by port and region, and this variety inevitably has implications for border management policies and infrastructure investment needs. By providing an overview of the economic geography of the U.S.’s land-based trade with its NAFTA partners, this Brief seeks to inform decisions about border management and infrastructure investment, while also illustrating the value of cross-border trade to ...


Environmental Resource Management In Borderlands: Evolution From Competing Interests To Common Aversions, Patrick H. Buckley, John Belec, Jason Levy Jul 2015

Environmental Resource Management In Borderlands: Evolution From Competing Interests To Common Aversions, Patrick H. Buckley, John Belec, Jason Levy

Environmental Studies Faculty and Staff Publications

Great enthusiasm is attached to the emergence of cross-border regions (CBRs) as a new institutional arrangement for dealing with local cross-border environmental resource management and other issues that remain too distant from national capitals and/or too expensive to be addressed in the traditional topocratic manner requiring instead local adhocratic methods. This study briefly discusses the perceived value of CBRs and necessary and sufficient conditions for the successful and sustainable development of such places. Then, assuming that necessary conditions can be met, the study investigates an intriguing hypothesis concerning the catalyzing of sustainable consensus for cross-border resource management based on ...


An Inventory Of Policy Actors And Instruments Relevant To The Salish Sea, Stacy Clauson, Laurie Trautman Jan 2015

An Inventory Of Policy Actors And Instruments Relevant To The Salish Sea, Stacy Clauson, Laurie Trautman

BPRI Working Papers

The Salish Sea Governance Study is a baseline inventory, designed to identify and categorize the variety of actors and instruments that bear on the maintenance and revitalization of the Salish Sea. Both sides of the border have regulations and actors working to mitigate the multitude of stressors adversely impacting the health of the Salish Sea and to preserve and restore the system. These include governmental entities at varying scales; indigenous communities working individually or integrating efforts; and non-state actors working within non-governmental organizations and NGO-networks.

Formal and informal mechanisms bring these different actors together. Such interaction crosses multiple levels and ...


Improving The Process Of Adjudicating Tn Status, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

Improving The Process Of Adjudicating Tn Status, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In 1994, pursuant to NAFTA, the TN (for “Trade NAFTA”) labor-mobility provision was established. The TN concept was intended to meet the goal of “facilitating temporary entry on a reciprocal basis and of establishing transparent criteria and procedures for temporary entry” amongst the three NAFTA countries. For Canadian citizens seeking temporary work of a professional nature in the U.S., TN status created an alternative to the H-1B program, which was established in 1990. The process of gaining TN status was meant to be simpler than that of acquiring H-1B status, and no cap on the number of TN workers ...


Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel Jan 2015

Monetizing Some Benefits Of Participation In Nexus, Christopher Dingman, Daniel Edgel

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There are many benefits of the NEXUS program, ranging from personal time savings to improved security. While monetizing those benefits is challenging, it is important to assess the value of NEXUS and provide information that can support further expansion of the program. This Border Brief quantifies certain individual economic benefits of membership in the NEXUS program using data from 2012 to 2014. We focus on the Peace Arch/Douglas crossing, where the traffic volume is high and a large percentage of travelers are enrolled in NEXUS.


Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

Exchange Rates And Border Crossings In The Cascade Gateway, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

There has been recent speculation about the influence of the declining Canadian dollar on the volume of cross-border travel. This article explores that relationship in the context of the Cascade Gateway, which is the group of border crossings (Peace Arch, Pacific Highway, Lynden/Aldergrove, and Sumas/Abbotsford) that serve the Interstate 5 corridor, connecting Whatcom County, WA, to the Lower Mainland of B.C.


The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe Jan 2015

The Pacific Northwest As An Emerging Arctic Region, Heather Exner-Pirot, Joel Plouffe

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This border brief, authored by two Arctic scholars, takes a special look at how borders are changing in the Arctic. The fast-changing Arctic is increasingly defined by boundaries drawn at a regional scale, rather than traditional borders that are based on national lines. This has major implications for the national and foreign policies of both Arctic and non-Arctic actors. The Pacific Northwest, which has an Arctic foothold through the northern subnational units of Alaska, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories (NWT), has been playing an active role in this regionalization process for several years, and seeks to expand its presence ...


A Business Case For Increasing Rfid At The Canada - Us Land Border, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2015

A Business Case For Increasing Rfid At The Canada - Us Land Border, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

This business case presents results-to-date of ongoing work by the Whatcom Council of Governments (WCOG) and the Border Policy Research Institute (BPRI) to investigate the benefits and costs of significantly increasing the portion of cross-border traffic using radio frequency identification (RFID). Before reviewing the analysis, it is useful to review the current policy context as well as some details about travel documents and U.S.-Canada cross-border traffic operations.


Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman Jan 2015

Washington State's Economy In Relation To Canada And The Border, Paul Storer, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Economic ties have spanned the contemporary border between Washington State and Canada for as long as the Pacific Northwest has been inhabited. The native peoples of North America interacted across the border for centuries prior to the arrival of European explorers. In the early 19th century, the major regional European economic entity was the Hudson’s Bay Company. The fur-trading operations of this British-chartered corporation took place throughout its “Columbia Department” (a region that straddled the modern Canada – U.S. border), with outposts at locations such as Fort Vancouver and Fort Nisqually. The contemporary border dates from 1846, when the ...


Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali Jan 2014

Canadian Indians, Inuit, Métis, And Métis: An Exploration Of The Unparalleled Rights Enjoyed By American Indians Born In Canada To Freely Access The United States, Greg Boos, Greg Mclawsen, Heather Fathali

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Certain American Indians born in Canada (ABCs) enjoy access to the United States unrestricted by the Immigration and Nationality (INA), a right stemming from the Jay Treaty (1794). An examination of this right, reflected by codification as § 289 of the INA, reveals qualifying ABCs are entitled to privileges unparalleled by all but United States citizens to enter and remain in the U.S. “for the purpose of employment, study, retirement, investing, and/or immigration”4 or any other reason.


Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson Jan 2014

Pilot Project: Using Rfid To Reduce Border Queues, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

Since 9/11, about $500 million has been spent on border infrastructure in the Cascade Gateway region, including new port facilities, improvements to approaching highways, and deployments of technologies such as wait-time systems. Yet there frequently are queues in excess of 60 minutes for the many travelers who are not enrolled in NEXUS (a program that provides trusted travelers with access to a dedicated highway lane). While regional stakeholders know that queues would be far worse in the absence of past investments, efforts are continually underway to improve border mobility. Greater usage of RFID-enabled documents is a proven method of ...


The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain Jan 2014

The Columbia River Treaty Review: A Synopsis, David L. (David Lindsay) Davidson, Jaymes Mcclain

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The Columbia River watershed comprises 258,500 square miles (about the size of Texas), with 15 percent of the watershed located in Canada. Tributaries in the upper watershed drain a substantial portion of the Canadian and American Rocky Mountains; precipitation and snowmelt from the Rockies are main flow components. The river then crosses the arid Columbia Plateau and reaches the Pacific via the Columbia River Gorge. In an average year, the river disgorges 198 million acre-feet (MAF) of water, with 25 percent of the runoff (a disproportionately large amount) originating in Canada. With snowmelt a large component of runoff, the ...


Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman Jan 2014

Comparing Us And Canadian Foreign Worker Policies, Laurie Trautman

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

In both the U.S. and Canada, immigration reform is a politically, economically and emotionally contentious issue. One component of immigration policy in particular – the use of temporary foreign labor – is an important aspect of policy reform in both countries. This Border Policy Brief explores the policies used by Canada and the U.S. to import temporary foreign workers, often referred to as "guest workers,‟ particularly in lower-skilled occupations such as agriculture, hospitality and caregiving. Although both countries are increasingly relying on foreign workers to fill lower-skilled labor needs, they are doing so in very different ways.


Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute Jan 2014

Implications Of Trade Trends Upon Canada-Us Border Infrastructure, Border Policy Research Institute

Border Policy Research Institute Publications

The transportation and inspection agencies that build and operate border infrastructure are engaged in a constant process of facility planning, wrestling with decisions about where to invest limited resources. The existing situation at a facility is obviously influential—e.g., traffic volumes in excess of a facility’s capacity; subpar workplace conditions; excessive maintenance costs for a decrepit facility. But equally important is the need to consider future conditions, such as the traffic forecast. This article discusses the volume of trade forecasted to occur at eight major ports-of-entry (POEs) along the Canada – U.S. border.