Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 106

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Book Review: The Justice Façade: The Trials Of Transition In Cambodia, Sabah Carrim Jun 2019

Book Review: The Justice Façade: The Trials Of Transition In Cambodia, Sabah Carrim

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Between Hagiography And Wounded Attachment: Raphaël Lemkin And The Study Of Genocide, Benjamin Meiches, Jeff Benvenuto Apr 2019

Between Hagiography And Wounded Attachment: Raphaël Lemkin And The Study Of Genocide, Benjamin Meiches, Jeff Benvenuto

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In this article, we outline the significance of the special issue on the scholarship of Raphaël Lemkin. We argue that genocide scholars tend to identify with one of three different types of Lemkin scholarship. Each of the articles for the special issue challenges these genres in an effort to extend the study of genocide in new directions. Moreover, we contend that this work suggests that genocide scholars should endeavor to extend the study of genocide beyond Lemkin's vision and writings.


The Black Freedom Movement And The Politics Of The Anti-Genocide Norm In The United States, 1951 - 1967, Daniel E. Solomon Apr 2019

The Black Freedom Movement And The Politics Of The Anti-Genocide Norm In The United States, 1951 - 1967, Daniel E. Solomon

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the political uses of the anti-genocide norm by black freedom activists in the United States between 1951, when the Civil Rights Congress petitioned the United Nations with evidence of genocide against black Americans, and 1967, when the topic of genocide returned to mainstream public debate with the beginning of William Proxmire’s campaign for US ratification of the Convention. Using public speeches and pamphlets of the US black freedom movement, and private documentation by movement activists, this paper demonstrates how black activists used the nascent anti-genocide norm to (1) critique the relationship between the US government’s ...


China’S Quantum Quandary, Elsa B. Kania Mar 2019

China’S Quantum Quandary, Elsa B. Kania

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Strategic Challenges Of Declining International Power For Democracies In A Hostile Cyber World: The Case Of China, Nigel Inkster Feb 2019

Strategic Challenges Of Declining International Power For Democracies In A Hostile Cyber World: The Case Of China, Nigel Inkster

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Financial Sector’S Vulnerabilities, Villains, And Options For Defense, John T. Harvey Feb 2019

The Financial Sector’S Vulnerabilities, Villains, And Options For Defense, John T. Harvey

Military Cyber Affairs

The consequences of cyber attacks on the financial sector go well beyond those suffered by the individuals and firms directly involved and may even lead to the destabilization of the system itself. The concern is all the greater given that banks and similar institutions play a much more critical role than most people realize and the nature of their operation already invites risk taking at the best of times. Bad actors hoping to sow chaos surely understand the trouble they could cause by targeting the financial underpinning of our economy. This paper will argue that while the cyber defense of ...


Dry Rivers, Scary Strangers: Are Financial And Cyber Crises Alike?, Claudia Biancotti, Paolo Ciocca Feb 2019

Dry Rivers, Scary Strangers: Are Financial And Cyber Crises Alike?, Claudia Biancotti, Paolo Ciocca

Military Cyber Affairs

The internet and the financial system show crucial affinities: both are tightly interconnected global networks whose orderly functioning is a prerequisite for economic prosperity. In financial and cyber crises alike, vulnerabilities are a consequence of distorted economic incentives, contagion is fast, and the most serious risk is loss of trust. Lessons learned from financial meltdowns translate to the cybersecurity world: stability cannot be achieved until policies are in place to address all of these issues. Steps have been taken to rectify incentives, as exemplified by recent European Union legislation. Data that helps identify weak nodes are still scarce, notwithstanding recent ...


Systemic Cyber Risks And Defense: Valuation, Innovation And Strategic Implications, Pythagoras N. Petratos Feb 2019

Systemic Cyber Risks And Defense: Valuation, Innovation And Strategic Implications, Pythagoras N. Petratos

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Trouble On The High “C’S” – China, Cyber, And The Trading System, Robert Fisher Feb 2019

Trouble On The High “C’S” – China, Cyber, And The Trading System, Robert Fisher

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Strategy Needed To Protect National Sovereignty Of Us Telecommunications Backbone, Thomas Donahue Feb 2019

Strategy Needed To Protect National Sovereignty Of Us Telecommunications Backbone, Thomas Donahue

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Regaining The Technological Edge: Authoritarians, Democracies, It Innovation’S Future, Andrea Little Limbago Feb 2019

Regaining The Technological Edge: Authoritarians, Democracies, It Innovation’S Future, Andrea Little Limbago

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Countering "Made In China 2025": Strategy For Western Powers In A Cybered World, David Mussington Feb 2019

Countering "Made In China 2025": Strategy For Western Powers In A Cybered World, David Mussington

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Mca Issue, “Systemic Cyber Defense", Chris C. Demchak Dec 2018

Introduction To Mca Issue, “Systemic Cyber Defense", Chris C. Demchak

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer Dec 2018

The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In contrast to prosecuting and punishing committed acts of genocide, the Genocide Convention is silent as to means of preventing future acts. Today it is generally accepted that the duty to prevent is legally binding, but there is still uncertainty in international law about its specific content. This article seeks to fill this gap in the light of the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention. It provides a minimum requirement approach, i.e. indispensable State actions to comply with their duty to prevent: naming and shaming situations of genocide as what they are. Even situations from times before the ...


New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard Dec 2018

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...


China’S Maxim – Leave No Access Point Unexploited: The Hidden Story Of China Telecom’S Bgp Hijacking, Chris C. Demchak, Yuval Shavitt Oct 2018

China’S Maxim – Leave No Access Point Unexploited: The Hidden Story Of China Telecom’S Bgp Hijacking, Chris C. Demchak, Yuval Shavitt

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Genocide: A World History, Renato S. Bahia Oct 2018

Book Review: Genocide: A World History, Renato S. Bahia

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Book Review: To Kill A People: Genocide In The Twentieth Century, Caroline Bennett Oct 2018

Book Review: To Kill A People: Genocide In The Twentieth Century, Caroline Bennett

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Three Futures For A Post-Western Cybered World, Chris C. Demchak Jul 2018

Three Futures For A Post-Western Cybered World, Chris C. Demchak

Military Cyber Affairs

West faces a different security dilemma due to the shoddy cyberspace substrate it built and spread globally. Cyberspace created a new form of ‘cybered conflict’ with five advantages for offense previously – scale of organization, proximity, precision, deception and tools, and opaqueness in origins. It also accelerated massive wealth transfers to rising near peer and now peer adversaries, who were expected to simply fold into the western-built international system. In the process, the basic well-being of the economies of the consolidated civil society democracies have become non-kinetic fields of conflict among state and nonstate actors. The past twenty-five years of evolution ...


An Economics Primer For Cyber Security Analysts, John T. Harvey Jun 2018

An Economics Primer For Cyber Security Analysts, John T. Harvey

Military Cyber Affairs

One of the ingredients necessary to an understanding of the impact of cyber attacks is a reliable model of the economy. We face great challenges in trying to protect an already potentially unstable system from cyber aggression and operating with a flawed understanding of the determinants of output, employment, asset prices, et cetera, surely condemns us to failure. This is so not only because we need to know where points of leverage might exist for bad actors to disrupt and disable our system, but because policy recommendations may face significant push back from both selected scholars and powerful vested interests ...


Sticking To Their Guns: The Missing Rma For Cybersecurity, Lior Tabansky Jun 2018

Sticking To Their Guns: The Missing Rma For Cybersecurity, Lior Tabansky

Military Cyber Affairs

Why has cybered conflict disrupted the security of the most developed nations? A foreign adversary contemplating an attack on a developed nation's heartland certainly faces multiple state-run military-grade lines of defense on land, sea and air. A foreign adversary launching a direct cyber-attack on a non-military homeland target will meet none. Armed forces do not shield a society from cyber-attacks originated by foreign adversaries, no longer provide a buffer between the enemy and homeland, nor can they identify the attacker after an attack occurred.

Adversaries succeed in waging cybered conflict against the U.S. and its allies. Having repeatedly ...


Cyber Futures And The Justice Motive: Avoiding Pyrrhic Victory, Mark Raymond Jun 2018

Cyber Futures And The Justice Motive: Avoiding Pyrrhic Victory, Mark Raymond

Military Cyber Affairs

Evaluating, and choosing between, possible cyber futures requires making collective decisions about values. Tradeoffs exist in the design of any governance arrangement for information and communications technologies (ICTs). At minimum, policymakers will be required to choose between governance arrangements that optimize for speed and scale on the one hand, and those that optimize for diversity and decentralization on the other. As in any other political domain, every eventual outcome will create winners and losers, at least in relative terms. Actors dissatisfied with outcomes may perceive a discrepancy between entitlements and benefits. In some such cases, they will act on this ...


Introduction To Mca Issue, “Cyber, Economics, And National Security”, Chris C. Demchak Jun 2018

Introduction To Mca Issue, “Cyber, Economics, And National Security”, Chris C. Demchak

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Constructing Genocide And Mass Violence: Society, Crisis, Identity, Carola Lingaas Jun 2018

Book Review: Constructing Genocide And Mass Violence: Society, Crisis, Identity, Carola Lingaas

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Discourse, Affinity And Attraction: A Case Study Of Iran's Soft Power Strategy In Afghanistan, Hiva Feizi Apr 2018

Discourse, Affinity And Attraction: A Case Study Of Iran's Soft Power Strategy In Afghanistan, Hiva Feizi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a case study of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s approach to soft power with a focus on Iran’s use of soft power in Afghanistan. This dissertation is unique as it a delves into the diverse conceptual prescriptions on soft power, especially from a non-Western perspective. Studies of soft power in the current International Relations discipline ignore the implicit widespread liberal democratic bias in the current understanding of the concept. This dissertation argues that there are certain ontological assumptions lying deep within the soft power model first proposed by Joseph Nye (1990) that make it difficult ...


Strategic Negligence: Why The United States Failed To Provide Military Support To The Syrian Resistance In 2011-2014, Konrad J. Trautman Mar 2018

Strategic Negligence: Why The United States Failed To Provide Military Support To The Syrian Resistance In 2011-2014, Konrad J. Trautman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The US military’s culture, structure, and process for providing advice to the president and his national security decision-making team are flawed due to the marginalization of unconventional warfare (UW) expertise -- UW is the military’s doctrinal term for support to resistance activities and movements. This marginalization results in inadequate consideration for applying UW as a strategic option for the nation.

Through a qualitative methods case study analysis utilizing macro- and micro-level process-tracing with a conceptual framework based on Niklas Luhmann’s Systems Theory, the author shows that viable and acceptable resistance elements existed in Syria in March 2011 to ...


The Viability Of Democratic Governance In De Facto States: A Comparative Case Study Of Iraqi Kurdistan And Syria Rojava, Chelsea Vogel Mar 2018

The Viability Of Democratic Governance In De Facto States: A Comparative Case Study Of Iraqi Kurdistan And Syria Rojava, Chelsea Vogel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The following comparative case study of Iraqi Kurdistan and Democratic Federation of Northern Syria-Rojava seeks to fill a gap in literature on the viability of democracy in cases of de facto statehood. There is yet to be an assessment of the potential influence of support from patron states on the degree to which democratization in de facto states is possible. This research expands upon on the argument that the decision to recognize de facto states is at least partially dependent upon the national interests of influential third party states. Syria Rojava has relied heavily on the strength of its internal ...


Assessment Of Drinking Water Quality Management And A Treatment Feasibility Study For Brick By Brick Water Storage Tanks In Rakai Uganda, James V. Murduca Mar 2018

Assessment Of Drinking Water Quality Management And A Treatment Feasibility Study For Brick By Brick Water Storage Tanks In Rakai Uganda, James V. Murduca

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Reliable access to safe drinking water is one necessity for humans to live without concern for major health risks. The overall goal of this research is to improve the public health, through improved drinking water, for communities in the Rakai District in Uganda, directly, and other communities in the world, indirectly, via dissemination of knowledge. This study specifically assessed the knowledge of drinking water quality in regards to public health, their sanitation measures, and water treatment methods for users of Brick by Brick rainwater harvesting tanks in the Rakai District (N = 28) by using a knowledge, attitudes, and practice survey ...


Why The United Nations Underperforms At Preventing Mass Atrocities, Edward C. Luck Mar 2018

Why The United Nations Underperforms At Preventing Mass Atrocities, Edward C. Luck

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Becoming Legitimate: How Pmscs Are Seeking Legitimacy In The International System, Sommer Mitchell Jan 2018

Becoming Legitimate: How Pmscs Are Seeking Legitimacy In The International System, Sommer Mitchell

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The use of private military and security companies (PMSC) by state governments has raised many questions regarding the role of the private security industry (PSI) in conflict. This use of PMSCs by states has resulted in much debate in the public and academic spheres (Avant 2005, Dunigan 2011, Kinsey 2006, Leander 2005, Singer 2008). The PSI and PMSCs are altering the international system of norms and redefining what it means to be secure and make war. States are no longer the only entity in the international system with security needs. Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs ...