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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Politicization Of The Genocide Label: Genocide Rhetoric In The Un Security Council, Michelle E. Ringrose May 2020

The Politicization Of The Genocide Label: Genocide Rhetoric In The Un Security Council, Michelle E. Ringrose

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines the intersection of language, power and national interest by discussing how the UN Security Council permanent five (P5) members navigate the linguistic rhetoric of genocide in debates surrounding the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A discourse analysis methodology is adopted to ascertain how P5 member-states framed the genocide in Srebrenica through an analysis of linguistic themes and silences in council debates. This article argues that UN P5 members use language as a mechanism to frame a conflict in a particular way that aligns with their own national political interests. The article reaffirms the importance of genocide recognition ...


Book Review: Reluctant Interveners: America’S Failed Responses To Genocide From Bosnia To Darfur, Jeffrey Bachman May 2020

Book Review: Reluctant Interveners: America’S Failed Responses To Genocide From Bosnia To Darfur, Jeffrey Bachman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Visions Of Greater Serbia: Local Dynamics And The Prijedor Genocide, Damir Kovačević May 2020

Visions Of Greater Serbia: Local Dynamics And The Prijedor Genocide, Damir Kovačević

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article examines the process of genocide in the Prijedor municipality during the Bosnian civil war of the 1990s. In this article, genocide is understood as a dynamic and extraordinary phenomenon, which requires a subnational, or meso-level analysis, to capture the complexities of the case and to account for the shortcomings in the previous literature focusing mostly on the national-level. By narrowing the analysis to a more in-depth level, two explanatory factors help us understand the escalation and radicalization of violence to genocide: structural control and agency collaboration. Specifically, overwhelming political authority, territorial dominance, and a highly coordinated effort between ...


Human Rights? What A Good Idea! From Universal Jurisdiction To Crime Prevention, Daniel Feierstein Dec 2019

Human Rights? What A Good Idea! From Universal Jurisdiction To Crime Prevention, Daniel Feierstein

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Over the last decades, Genocide Studies has entered in a “comfort zone.” With fellowships and support from governments or NGOs, we have developed a very comfortable environment in which the knowledge we produce about genocide prevention is neither critical nor useful. We have become trapped by assumptions we have never checked against reality and many of us have chosen to work inside the circle of those assumptions: genocide and mass violence are horrible acts committed by horrible people; we cannot stand by and do nothing; we have the responsibility to protect civilian populations and that responsibility takes the form, as ...


Critical Genocide Studies And Mass Atrocity Prevention, Ernesto Verdeja Dec 2019

Critical Genocide Studies And Mass Atrocity Prevention, Ernesto Verdeja

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Critical genocide studies has emerged as an important strand of scholarship devoted to interrogating the core assumptions of the field of genocide studies. Drawing on these developments, this article outlines a critical approach to modern atrocity prevention that is self-reflective, dialectical, multivalent, and anti-teleological. Part I provides a brief overview of contemporary prevention. Part II elaborates the four elements of the proposed critical approach toward prevention. Part III applies this approach to examine several important issue areas in current prevention work: the importance of global and regional contextualization; securitization and state power; conceptualizations of political violence; the status of expert ...


“Genocide Is Worth It": Broadening The Logic Of Atrocity Prevention For State Actors, James E. Waller Dec 2019

“Genocide Is Worth It": Broadening The Logic Of Atrocity Prevention For State Actors, James E. Waller

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Of particular focus in this piece is the communication of the logic of atrocity prevention to State actors. As genocide studies has developed as a field, we also have become more insular; professionalizing how we operate in such a way that it has pulled us away from those very venues in which we should be applying our work. From the sure footing of the outside, we often criticize State actors, particularly policymakers, for their impotent actions in the face of escalating risks or, even, genocidal violence. But we seldom speak with them or push ourselves to find ways to bridge ...


Book Review: The Justice Façade: The Trials Of Transition In Cambodia, Sabah Carrim Jun 2019

Book Review: The Justice Façade: The Trials Of Transition In Cambodia, Sabah Carrim

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


The Black Freedom Movement And The Politics Of The Anti-Genocide Norm In The United States, 1951 - 1967, Daniel E. Solomon Apr 2019

The Black Freedom Movement And The Politics Of The Anti-Genocide Norm In The United States, 1951 - 1967, Daniel E. Solomon

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article explores the political uses of the anti-genocide norm by black freedom activists in the United States between 1951, when the Civil Rights Congress petitioned the United Nations with evidence of genocide against black Americans, and 1967, when the topic of genocide returned to mainstream public debate with the beginning of William Proxmire’s campaign for US ratification of the Convention. Using public speeches and pamphlets of the US black freedom movement, and private documentation by movement activists, this paper demonstrates how black activists used the nascent anti-genocide norm to (1) critique the relationship between the US government’s ...


Between Hagiography And Wounded Attachment: Raphaël Lemkin And The Study Of Genocide, Benjamin Meiches, Jeff Benvenuto Apr 2019

Between Hagiography And Wounded Attachment: Raphaël Lemkin And The Study Of Genocide, Benjamin Meiches, Jeff Benvenuto

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In this article, we outline the significance of the special issue on the scholarship of Raphaël Lemkin. We argue that genocide scholars tend to identify with one of three different types of Lemkin scholarship. Each of the articles for the special issue challenges these genres in an effort to extend the study of genocide in new directions. Moreover, we contend that this work suggests that genocide scholars should endeavor to extend the study of genocide beyond Lemkin's vision and writings.


China’S Quantum Quandary, Elsa B. Kania Mar 2019

China’S Quantum Quandary, Elsa B. Kania

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Moving Away From The West Or Taking Independent Positions: A Structural Analysis For The New Turkish Foreign Policy, Suleyman Senturk Mar 2019

Moving Away From The West Or Taking Independent Positions: A Structural Analysis For The New Turkish Foreign Policy, Suleyman Senturk

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper focuses on understanding and explaining the change of Turkish foreign policy,particularly in the last decade. Many observers have expressed a suspicion that Turkey is abandoning its Western-centric alignment and gradually shifting its axis. The thesis argues that rather than a shift, Turkey is taking an independent position. It maintains that the end of the Cold War and the change in the international structure from bipolarity to unipolarity has provided incentives for countries with some degree of material capabilities to pursue independence from the U.S. policy preferences. This study analyses structural effects on the behavior of Turkey ...


Strategic Challenges Of Declining International Power For Democracies In A Hostile Cyber World: The Case Of China, Nigel Inkster Feb 2019

Strategic Challenges Of Declining International Power For Democracies In A Hostile Cyber World: The Case Of China, Nigel Inkster

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Financial Sector’S Vulnerabilities, Villains, And Options For Defense, John T. Harvey Feb 2019

The Financial Sector’S Vulnerabilities, Villains, And Options For Defense, John T. Harvey

Military Cyber Affairs

The consequences of cyber attacks on the financial sector go well beyond those suffered by the individuals and firms directly involved and may even lead to the destabilization of the system itself. The concern is all the greater given that banks and similar institutions play a much more critical role than most people realize and the nature of their operation already invites risk taking at the best of times. Bad actors hoping to sow chaos surely understand the trouble they could cause by targeting the financial underpinning of our economy. This paper will argue that while the cyber defense of ...


Dry Rivers, Scary Strangers: Are Financial And Cyber Crises Alike?, Claudia Biancotti, Paolo Ciocca Feb 2019

Dry Rivers, Scary Strangers: Are Financial And Cyber Crises Alike?, Claudia Biancotti, Paolo Ciocca

Military Cyber Affairs

The internet and the financial system show crucial affinities: both are tightly interconnected global networks whose orderly functioning is a prerequisite for economic prosperity. In financial and cyber crises alike, vulnerabilities are a consequence of distorted economic incentives, contagion is fast, and the most serious risk is loss of trust. Lessons learned from financial meltdowns translate to the cybersecurity world: stability cannot be achieved until policies are in place to address all of these issues. Steps have been taken to rectify incentives, as exemplified by recent European Union legislation. Data that helps identify weak nodes are still scarce, notwithstanding recent ...


Systemic Cyber Risks And Defense: Valuation, Innovation And Strategic Implications, Pythagoras N. Petratos Feb 2019

Systemic Cyber Risks And Defense: Valuation, Innovation And Strategic Implications, Pythagoras N. Petratos

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Trouble On The High “C’S” – China, Cyber, And The Trading System, Robert Fisher Feb 2019

Trouble On The High “C’S” – China, Cyber, And The Trading System, Robert Fisher

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Strategy Needed To Protect National Sovereignty Of Us Telecommunications Backbone, Thomas Donahue Feb 2019

Strategy Needed To Protect National Sovereignty Of Us Telecommunications Backbone, Thomas Donahue

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Regaining The Technological Edge: Authoritarians, Democracies, It Innovation’S Future, Andrea Little Limbago Feb 2019

Regaining The Technological Edge: Authoritarians, Democracies, It Innovation’S Future, Andrea Little Limbago

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Countering "Made In China 2025": Strategy For Western Powers In A Cybered World, David Mussington Feb 2019

Countering "Made In China 2025": Strategy For Western Powers In A Cybered World, David Mussington

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Mca Issue, “Systemic Cyber Defense", Chris C. Demchak Dec 2018

Introduction To Mca Issue, “Systemic Cyber Defense", Chris C. Demchak

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer Dec 2018

The Duty To Prevent Genocide Under International Law: Naming And Shaming As A Measure Of Prevention, Björn Schiffbauer

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In contrast to prosecuting and punishing committed acts of genocide, the Genocide Convention is silent as to means of preventing future acts. Today it is generally accepted that the duty to prevent is legally binding, but there is still uncertainty in international law about its specific content. This article seeks to fill this gap in the light of the object and purpose of the Genocide Convention. It provides a minimum requirement approach, i.e. indispensable State actions to comply with their duty to prevent: naming and shaming situations of genocide as what they are. Even situations from times before the ...


New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard Dec 2018

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...


Intercultural Communication Between International Military Organizations; How Do You Turn A ‘No’ Into A ‘Yes’?, Douglas A. Straka Nov 2018

Intercultural Communication Between International Military Organizations; How Do You Turn A ‘No’ Into A ‘Yes’?, Douglas A. Straka

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This research focuses on both the discovery and analysis of individual elements that define the interaction between dissimilar militaries during communication. This will provide a greater understanding as to how (and how much) intercultural communications factors help or hinder collaboration between differing governments and their military officials. This greater understanding may provide insight that would provide collaborators the opportunity to improve their negotiating performance based on both increased effectiveness and efficiency.

Previous literature informing this research included expatriate adaptation to foreign cultures, power distance, sensemaking theory, intercultural communication. These provided foundations to use phenomenological methods to explore intercultural communication effectiveness ...


China’S Maxim – Leave No Access Point Unexploited: The Hidden Story Of China Telecom’S Bgp Hijacking, Chris C. Demchak, Yuval Shavitt Oct 2018

China’S Maxim – Leave No Access Point Unexploited: The Hidden Story Of China Telecom’S Bgp Hijacking, Chris C. Demchak, Yuval Shavitt

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Book Review: To Kill A People: Genocide In The Twentieth Century, Caroline Bennett Oct 2018

Book Review: To Kill A People: Genocide In The Twentieth Century, Caroline Bennett

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Genocide: A World History, Renato S. Bahia Oct 2018

Book Review: Genocide: A World History, Renato S. Bahia

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Three Futures For A Post-Western Cybered World, Chris C. Demchak Jul 2018

Three Futures For A Post-Western Cybered World, Chris C. Demchak

Military Cyber Affairs

West faces a different security dilemma due to the shoddy cyberspace substrate it built and spread globally. Cyberspace created a new form of ‘cybered conflict’ with five advantages for offense previously – scale of organization, proximity, precision, deception and tools, and opaqueness in origins. It also accelerated massive wealth transfers to rising near peer and now peer adversaries, who were expected to simply fold into the western-built international system. In the process, the basic well-being of the economies of the consolidated civil society democracies have become non-kinetic fields of conflict among state and nonstate actors. The past twenty-five years of evolution ...


An Economics Primer For Cyber Security Analysts, John T. Harvey Jun 2018

An Economics Primer For Cyber Security Analysts, John T. Harvey

Military Cyber Affairs

One of the ingredients necessary to an understanding of the impact of cyber attacks is a reliable model of the economy. We face great challenges in trying to protect an already potentially unstable system from cyber aggression and operating with a flawed understanding of the determinants of output, employment, asset prices, et cetera, surely condemns us to failure. This is so not only because we need to know where points of leverage might exist for bad actors to disrupt and disable our system, but because policy recommendations may face significant push back from both selected scholars and powerful vested interests ...


Sticking To Their Guns: The Missing Rma For Cybersecurity, Lior Tabansky Jun 2018

Sticking To Their Guns: The Missing Rma For Cybersecurity, Lior Tabansky

Military Cyber Affairs

Why has cybered conflict disrupted the security of the most developed nations? A foreign adversary contemplating an attack on a developed nation's heartland certainly faces multiple state-run military-grade lines of defense on land, sea and air. A foreign adversary launching a direct cyber-attack on a non-military homeland target will meet none. Armed forces do not shield a society from cyber-attacks originated by foreign adversaries, no longer provide a buffer between the enemy and homeland, nor can they identify the attacker after an attack occurred.

Adversaries succeed in waging cybered conflict against the U.S. and its allies. Having repeatedly ...


Cyber Futures And The Justice Motive: Avoiding Pyrrhic Victory, Mark Raymond Jun 2018

Cyber Futures And The Justice Motive: Avoiding Pyrrhic Victory, Mark Raymond

Military Cyber Affairs

Evaluating, and choosing between, possible cyber futures requires making collective decisions about values. Tradeoffs exist in the design of any governance arrangement for information and communications technologies (ICTs). At minimum, policymakers will be required to choose between governance arrangements that optimize for speed and scale on the one hand, and those that optimize for diversity and decentralization on the other. As in any other political domain, every eventual outcome will create winners and losers, at least in relative terms. Actors dissatisfied with outcomes may perceive a discrepancy between entitlements and benefits. In some such cases, they will act on this ...