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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Backlash To The European Court Of Human Rights: The Case Of Russia, Cole Kovarik, Courtney Hillebrecht Apr 2020

Backlash To The European Court Of Human Rights: The Case Of Russia, Cole Kovarik, Courtney Hillebrecht

UCARE Research Products

Since the end of World War II, the international community has forged human rights accountability systems that have since become increasingly important. The good work done by these international tribunals has come under threat more and more by a process of backlash called tribunal capture, or “the politics of states and individual political leaders seeking to undermine the tribunals by working within the judicialized and legalized landscape of international human rights law” (Hillebrecht). The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is no exception; since its foundation, it has been largely utilized. However, lack of compliance with its rulings remains to ...


Lincoln: A Hidden Refugee Hotspot In The United States, Rhiannon Cobb Mar 2020

Lincoln: A Hidden Refugee Hotspot In The United States, Rhiannon Cobb

UCARE Research Products

This case study examines refugee integration in Lincoln, Nebraska, one of the 63 identified cities who are promoting integration, improved economic mobility, and enhanced civic participation by immigrants and refugees. The United States settles more refugees than any other country and has created diasporas throughout the country. Lincoln is known for the largest Yazidi population outside of the Middle East. I use two major research strategies (1) a qualitative analysis of refugee resource centers and (2) secondary sources on refugee integration. Information and secondary sources have been collected from archives, newspapers, and published journals. This case study further examines the ...


The Social Construction Of Digital Multimedia Technology And Creation Of Political Hyper-Realities In Indonesia And Malaysia, Basa Alim Tuelaka, Burhan Bungin Jan 2020

The Social Construction Of Digital Multimedia Technology And Creation Of Political Hyper-Realities In Indonesia And Malaysia, Basa Alim Tuelaka, Burhan Bungin

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The development of media technology nowadays displays rapid progress, particularly the mainstream media that is developing towards digital media, which makes the social construction power even more flawless. This progress is very beneficial to the development of society, but it can also be used by political interests for control over powers. Against their political opponents, political parties can use this advanced mass media technology to attack and block off counterattacks through social construction or deconstruction. This study uses a narrative qualitative approach and interview method, by interviewing the informants to explore the understanding of the social construction of media in ...


Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford Aug 2019

Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This research examines the effect of cruise missile possession on state behavior. Specifically, it seeks to determine if countries who possess cruise missiles are more likely to initiate a military threat, display, or use of force than countries who do not possess cruise missiles. Traditional International Relations theory suggests that, all else being equal, a state with an asymmetrical military advantage should enjoy concessions from target states, decreasing the likelihood of armed conflict. Accordingly, coercion theory warns the use of armed force to change adversarial behavior should be exercised sparingly. However, this dissertation finds that states possessing cruise missile initiate ...


The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly Jul 2019

The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Since the International Criminal Court (ICC)’s inception, observers have disagreed about how it would affect prospects for peace when it is involved in situations of ongoing conflict. Therefore, I ask, why do some of the civil war peace negotiations involving the ICC end with full peace agreements, while others end with resumed violence? I argue that how the Court affects the occurrence and outcome of peace negotiations is largely a function of the role that it plays in the situation. Due to its institutional design, the Court has the capacity to play either an oversight or a prosecutorial role ...


Rebel Group Compliance With International Humanitarian Law And Foreign State Sponsorship, Hannah Read May 2019

Rebel Group Compliance With International Humanitarian Law And Foreign State Sponsorship, Hannah Read

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

While rebel groups are obligated to comply with international humanitarian law (IHL) only indirectly, many rebel groups express intent to comply with IHL. Previous research has examined the conditions that make compliance likely. While these studies emphasize legitimacy-seeking, little research considers whether there are tangible benefits for rebel groups that comply with IHL. Studying whether rebel groups that comply with IHL are more likely to receive either military or diplomatic support from a foreign state provides an opportunity to bridge the literature on rebel group compliance with the literature on foreign state sponsorship of rebel groups. This study considers rebel ...


Coming And Going: Identity, Institutions, And The United Kingdom's Resistance To The European Union, Lauren Bruning Mar 2019

Coming And Going: Identity, Institutions, And The United Kingdom's Resistance To The European Union, Lauren Bruning

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union, a decision widely known as ‘Brexit’. This analysis compares two competing theories – institution and identity – to explain why. Four historical events, chronologically ordered from 1945 to 2016, are examined with both identity and institution analysis to explain British integration and its subsequent withdrawal from the European Union. Through this analysis, one can conclude the United Kingdom’s decision to withdraw in 2016 stemmed from a variety of reasons, but each of these can be explained by identity (a sense of nationalism), or institution (EU relationships).

Nationalism around the world ...


A Sliding Scale: Nuclear Proliferation Among States, Jessica Liu Jan 2019

A Sliding Scale: Nuclear Proliferation Among States, Jessica Liu

UReCA: The NCHC Journal of Undergraduate Research & Creative Activity

Why do states engage in nuclear proliferation? Nuclear proliferation is a major security issue affecting the international arena. Existing studies debate both the strength and direction of determinants of nuclear proliferation and the effect of domestic and international circumstances on proliferation. A clear understanding of why states choose to pursue nuclear arms is critical to promoting and maintaining international security. By analyzing what factors may make a state less prone to proliferation, the international community may incentivize disarmament. My research question considers membership in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) as a potential correlate of nuclear proliferation. Are countries that ...


Shield Or Glue? Key Policy Issues Constraining Or Enhancing Multinational Collective Ballistic Missile Defense, Marxen Kyriss Nov 2018

Shield Or Glue? Key Policy Issues Constraining Or Enhancing Multinational Collective Ballistic Missile Defense, Marxen Kyriss

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This dissertation explores a series of eleven political factors nations would have to consider should they contemplate joining a military coalition or alliance that uses ballistic missile defense (BMD); which of these factors incentivize or dissuade states from joining this coalition, and whether they vary from region to region, or state to state. It uses a two-stage case-study-based qualitative research design, in which the first theory generation phase was comprised of 21 experimentation events over a ten-year period with BMD policy experts from 24 nations led by the United States Strategic Command known as NIMBLE TITAN. The results of these ...


Truth And Justice? Towards Comprehensive Transitional Justice In Uganda And The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Alicia Weaver Dec 2016

Truth And Justice? Towards Comprehensive Transitional Justice In Uganda And The Democratic Republic Of Congo, Alicia Weaver

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

The field of transitional justice currently views retributive and restorative justice as a means of reconciliation dichotomously. With practice becoming increasingly legalistic, the restorative approach is seen as not forcing accountability. This is a mistake. This article will attempt to show that prosecutions and truth and reconciliation commissions can complement one another to attain the most justice for the most people. Using the case studies of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, I will examine under what conditions retributive and restorative justice will be used, and how they can be used to promote national reconciliation.

Advisor: Ariel Kohen


Can International Criminal Law Deter Rebel Groups?: The Case Of Uganda, The Lord's Resistance Army, And The International Criminal Court, Julia Reilly Dec 2016

Can International Criminal Law Deter Rebel Groups?: The Case Of Uganda, The Lord's Resistance Army, And The International Criminal Court, Julia Reilly

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

How does a state’s commitment to international criminal accountability mechanisms affect the tactics of rebel groups fighting against it? I examine the conflict between Uganda and the Lord’s Resistance Army, spanning four phases from 1996 until 2015, and parse out whether Uganda’s stance on the Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court affected the LRA’s propensity to target civilians. I use descriptive statistics of civilian and military casualties and qualitative case studies, drawing largely on newspaper and NGO reports of events in the conflict. I find that the affect of Uganda’s signaling on justice on ...


Unaccompanied Children Migration, Ronald Alvarado Jan 2016

Unaccompanied Children Migration, Ronald Alvarado

Nebraska College Preparatory Academy Senior Capstone Projects

The way people view immigration has changed over the past few years. Children fleeing to the United States without their parents has been a huge issue lately. Unaccompanied children are kids younger than 18 who are sent alone, in this case to the United States. These kids migrate because of the extreme violence that occurs in their home countries.

Statistics prove that children in their home countries are exposed to much violence. Most are coming from the northern triangle of Central America. I believe they should have more rights here in the United States, and be treated just the same ...


Love Thy Neighbor? Trust In Foreigners And Support For Transnational Policies, Sergio Wals, Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, Frank J. Gonzalez, Tess Gosda Jan 2015

Love Thy Neighbor? Trust In Foreigners And Support For Transnational Policies, Sergio Wals, Elizabeth Theiss-Morse, Frank J. Gonzalez, Tess Gosda

Faculty Publications: Political Science

This study assesses the extent to which individual levels of trust in foreigners relate to preferences about regional transnational policies. We use a nationally representative survey from Mexico (2003), an emerging democracy with relatively high levels of nationalism and several multinational trade agreements. We argue that clarifying the target of social trust is essential for understanding the attitudes of citizens of less powerful countries toward the international policy realm. Statistical analysis strongly suggests that in fact trust in foreigners, above generalized trust, is key to understanding such attitudes. Our results indicate that trust in foreigners among Mexican respondents is positively ...


Determinants Of Rural Latino Trust In The Federal Government, Nathan Munier, Julia Albarracin, Keith Boeckelman Jan 2015

Determinants Of Rural Latino Trust In The Federal Government, Nathan Munier, Julia Albarracin, Keith Boeckelman

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Trust in government is essential to democratic practice. This article analyzed the factors shaping trust in the federal government using a survey of 260 Mexican immigrants living in rural Illinois and in-depth interviews with 32 participants. To analyze these data, we drew a distinction between support for the regime (system of government that is relatively stable in a political system) and support for authorities (those who temporarily occupy positions of power) to test whether regime or authorities’ considerations shaped respondents’ political trust. The results showed that both considerations influenced trust in the federal government. We also found that a perception ...


Coercive Airpower In The Precision Age: The Effects Of Precision Guided Munitions On Air Campaign Duration, Brett A. King Aug 2014

Coercive Airpower In The Precision Age: The Effects Of Precision Guided Munitions On Air Campaign Duration, Brett A. King

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Prior scholarship on the duration of coercive air campaigns has often focused on regime type, the adversary’s vulnerability (of both military forces and civilian population), and the involvement of additional forces (ground/naval). Strong findings emerged that emphasized the significance of democratic attackers and the target state’s vulnerability to their political and military strategies. These findings, however, do not address the role of the technological capabilities of the attacking states’ air forces. A more detailed explanation of military capabilities may help to fill in this hole in the research, particularly how military capabilities affect the coercing state’s ...


Emerging From The Shadows: Civil War, Human Rights, And Peacebuilding Among Peasants And Indigenous Peoples In Colombia And Peru In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Charles A. Flowerday Jun 2014

Emerging From The Shadows: Civil War, Human Rights, And Peacebuilding Among Peasants And Indigenous Peoples In Colombia And Peru In The Late 20th And Early 21st Centuries, Charles A. Flowerday

Anthropology Department Theses and Dissertations

Peacebuilding in Colombia and Peru following their late-20th and early 21st century civil wars is a challenging proposition. In this study, it becomes necessary as indigenous peoples and peasants resist domination by extractive industries and governments in their thrall. Whether they protest nonviolently or rebel in arms, they are targeted for human-rights violations, especially murder, disappearance and displacement. The armed actors, state, insurgency, paramilitaries or drug traffickers, destroy civic institutions (local or regional government) and the civil (nonprofit) sector and replace them with their own authoritarian versions. Therefore, peacebuilding has emphasized rebuilding civic institutions, civil society and local ...


Defining Scavenger-Actors: Understanding A Global Menace, James Harrold Dec 2013

Defining Scavenger-Actors: Understanding A Global Menace, James Harrold

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This article introduces a new international actor, the 'scavenger-actor', as a replacement for warlords and pirate gangs. The article first reviews literature on both piracy and warlordism in historical and modern contexts in order to provide a basis for its argument of a new definitional term encompassing both groups. A negative binomial regression model is then applied to data on pirate attacks and measurements of state health to show that piracy is as closely tied to state failure as is warlordism. Finally, the article presents its argument for the new term, 'scavenger-actor', as a needed reform to political science discourse ...


Military Strategy: Theory And Concepts, Randall G. Bowdish Jun 2013

Military Strategy: Theory And Concepts, Randall G. Bowdish

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Military strategy was long described as atheoretical—an art that could only be fully comprehended by military genius. This contention is no longer held, as military staffs, comprised of experts and specialists, are able to formulate strategy aided by mini-theories of strategy and a process that takes advantage of collective wisdom rather than singular genius. But the mini-theories of strategy remain underdeveloped and an overarching theory of military strategy does not yet exist. In this dissertation I build a grand theory of military strategy, consisting of a simple two-pole, physical and psychologically oriented framework, mini-theories of military strategy, and additionally ...


Testing Two Explanations Of The Liberal Peace: The Opportunity Cost And Signaling Arguments, Nam Kyu Kim May 2013

Testing Two Explanations Of The Liberal Peace: The Opportunity Cost And Signaling Arguments, Nam Kyu Kim

Faculty Publications: Political Science

Considerable evidence suggests that economic interdependence and integration reduce the likelihood of militarized conflict. However, scholars have devoted remarkably scant attention to testing different explanations of the liberal peace. This article offers an empirical test that can help adjudicate the two main arguments on the liberal peace: the opportunity cost and signaling arguments. Under the incomplete information assumption, I derive different observable implications of the competing arguments regarding how target states respond when challenged. By estimating selection models comprising dispute initiation and reciprocation, I find that, as challengers are more dependent on bilateral trade, targets are less likely to reciprocate ...


Private Soldiers In Africa: A Look At The Effects Of Private Military Contractors And Mercenaries On The Duration Of Civil Wars In Africa From 1960 To 2003., Seth H. Loven May 2013

Private Soldiers In Africa: A Look At The Effects Of Private Military Contractors And Mercenaries On The Duration Of Civil Wars In Africa From 1960 To 2003., Seth H. Loven

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This thesis examines the effect of private soldiers, both Mercenaries and Private Military Contractors (PMC), on the duration of civil wars in Africa from 1960 to 2003. Linear regression is used to determine if private soldiers increase or decrease the duration of civil wars. Ultimately it is found they have little to no statistical impact. This is contrary to the expectations of the theoretical literature on private military contractors, some of which expects private soldiers to profit from war and seek to lengthen duration, and some of which expects the use of additional private soldiers to shorten the duration of ...


Suicide Attacks In Afghanistan: Why Now?, Ghulam Farooq Mujaddidi May 2013

Suicide Attacks In Afghanistan: Why Now?, Ghulam Farooq Mujaddidi

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Why, contrary to their predecessors, did the Taliban resort to use of suicide attacks in the 2000s in Afghanistan? By drawing from terrorist innovation literature and Michael Horowitz’s adoption capacity theory—a theory of diffusion of military innovation—the author argues that suicide attacks in Afghanistan is better understood as an innovation or emulation of a new technique to retaliate in asymmetric warfare when insurgents face arms embargo, military pressure, and have direct links to external terrorist groups. The findings of my in-depth case study of Afghanistan between 1978 and 2010 support the proposition and show that it ...


Deterring The Democratic People’S Republic Of Korea: The Role Of Japan’S Ballistic Missile Defense, Jonathan Trexel May 2013

Deterring The Democratic People’S Republic Of Korea: The Role Of Japan’S Ballistic Missile Defense, Jonathan Trexel

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This dissertation explores the role of Japan’s ballistic missile defense (BMD) program and its deterrent effect upon North Korean behavior. A mixed-methods approach is employed to analyze the topic. Empirical quantitative data included tabulated monthly cooperative-conflictual behavioral interaction between Japan and North Korea spanning a 22-year timeframe (1990-2011). In addition, a strategic profile developed from deterrence theory provided essential qualitative background to compliment the quantitative analysis. Japan’s BMD program was divided into four periods reflecting decision points or phases of program development. Results indicated varied BMD deterrence effectiveness, with two periods indicating Japan’s BMD program strengthened deterrence ...


Regional Regimes For The Defense Of Democracy And Coups D'Etat, Jacob P. Wobig Apr 2013

Regional Regimes For The Defense Of Democracy And Coups D'Etat, Jacob P. Wobig

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Does international law work, and if so, how? In the last twenty years eight regional intergovernmental organizations have adopted treaties requiring all participants to be democracies and specifying sanctions to be leveled against members that cease to be democracies. In this work I examine to what extent these agreements are helping protect the governments of their members from coups. I find that, between 1991 and 2008, states subject to these treaties were less likely to experience attempted coups d’etat, and were less likely to be overthrown when coups were attempted, but that the evidence varies widely in particular cases ...


Understanding Africa’S China Policy: A Test Of Dependency Theory And A Study Of African Motivations In Increasing Engagement With China, Nkemjika E. Kalu Dec 2012

Understanding Africa’S China Policy: A Test Of Dependency Theory And A Study Of African Motivations In Increasing Engagement With China, Nkemjika E. Kalu

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

African states are increasingly engaging with China--politically, socially and economically--especially through the machinations of the Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). This dissertation asserts that Africans are willing partners of the Chinese, motivated by their state-centric belief that engagement with China is in their national interest. This assertion contradicts the assumption of most literature to date that appears to borrow from the logic of dependency theory and presents African nations as pawns, subject to the demands of a dominant and exploitative China, who is benefiting at Africa’s expense. Economic trends from the decade before the launch of the FOCAC and ...


All Good Things Must Come To An End: China Beat’S 1,000th Post, Maura Cunningham, Kate Merkel-Hess, Ken Pomeranz, Jeff Wasserstrom Jul 2012

All Good Things Must Come To An End: China Beat’S 1,000th Post, Maura Cunningham, Kate Merkel-Hess, Ken Pomeranz, Jeff Wasserstrom

The China Beat Blog Archive 2008-2012

With much gratitude, the China Beat editors say goodbye.

What a difference four years can make—for a blog, a country, and a planet. (“Blog, country, planet” might have made a nice coat of arms if we’d thought of it…) When China Beat launched early in 2008, blogs seemed like relatively new kids on the block, at least to academics. Four years later, the genre is old hat, sharing a landscape with newcomers like Tumblr, Twitter, and other microblogging platforms, and we’re increasingly catching up on China news not on computers but on devices that fit in our ...


Book Review: A Passion For Facts By Tong Lam, Maggie Clinton Jun 2012

Book Review: A Passion For Facts By Tong Lam, Maggie Clinton

The China Beat Blog Archive 2008-2012

Tong Lam’s engaging new study A Passion for Facts analyzes the processes by which modern modes of apprehending and ordering the social world were forced upon and ultimately embraced by Chinese political and intellectual elites during the late Qing and Republican periods. Lam focuses on the rise of the “social survey” (shehui diaocha) as a means of knowing and constituting a new object called “society” (shehui), as well as the epistemological violence of imperialism that rendered the social survey a seemingly natural way of investigating the world. By the time the Nationalists assumed state power in 1927, Lam argues ...


Book Review: Superstitious Regimes By Rebecca Nedostup, Stefania Travagnin Jun 2012

Book Review: Superstitious Regimes By Rebecca Nedostup, Stefania Travagnin

The China Beat Blog Archive 2008-2012

Superstitious Regimes is an interdisciplinary work that sheds new light on the interaction between the state-body and the religion-body in early twentieth-century China, with a focus on the Nanjing Decade (1927-1937). Nedostup develops her analysis from both a diachronic and synchronic perspective. The author underlines shifts and continuities between a few historical periods: Sun Yat-sen’s time, the early years of the Nanjing Decade, the late years of the Nanjing Decade, and the post-Nanjing Decade.

Nedostup’s interdisciplinary study is of interest for a large readership: students and scholars of Chinese studies, Chinese politics, Chinese religions, and Chinese history would ...


Book Review: Dream Of Ding Village By Yan Lianke, Mike Frick May 2012

Book Review: Dream Of Ding Village By Yan Lianke, Mike Frick

The China Beat Blog Archive 2008-2012

Unsurprisingly, the Chinese government levied a “three nos” ban—no sales, no distribution, and no promotion—against Dream of Ding Village after its publication in 2005. Though the storytelling relies heavily on dream sequences, Yan takes little poetic license when exposing the depth of the state’s culpability in spreading HIV among poor, medically-naïve farmers. He is just as uncompromising when detailing how officials denied responsibility for the ensuing AIDS epidemic, even as they profited from its human tragedy. No one in Ding Village receives medical care, mental health counseling, food assistance, or a chance to hold the blood heads ...


Changsha: Photographs By Rian Dundon, Rian Dundon Apr 2012

Changsha: Photographs By Rian Dundon, Rian Dundon

The China Beat Blog Archive 2008-2012

Rian Dundon, whose photographs have previously appeared at China Beat, will soon be releasing a new book of photography on China, Changsha. Dundon’s book will feature a forward written by friend of the blog Gail Hershatter and includes his photos of and essays on the Hunan province city of Changsha. For more information, and to pre-order a copy of the book, see the book’s website (pre-sales of the book are part of a crowd-funding campaign raising funds for its first run with the publisher, Emphas.is). Below is a special teaser of Changsha material that Dundon has prepared ...


Human Rights And U.S. Foreign Policy In The Multilateral Development Banks, Daniel Braaten Feb 2012

Human Rights And U.S. Foreign Policy In The Multilateral Development Banks, Daniel Braaten

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Promoting human rights is an important foreign policy goal for the United States. There are many foreign policy areas through which the U.S. promotes human rights including voting against countries which violate human rights in the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs). Promoting human rights, however, is not the only foreign policy goal of the U.S. in the MDBs. The U.S. also seeks strategic goals such as supporting allies and promoting domestic economic prosperity as well in the MDBs. Realist international relations theory posits that strategic interests will trump promoting human rights in the MDBs. For the U.S ...