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Pacifying The Peacekeepers: How State Involvement In U.N. Peacekeeping Reduces Military Threats To Democracy, Timothy James Alexander Passmore Jan 2019

Pacifying The Peacekeepers: How State Involvement In U.N. Peacekeeping Reduces Military Threats To Democracy, Timothy James Alexander Passmore

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What explains why countries undergoing transitions to democracy are major contributors of personnel to United Nations peacekeeping operations? In recent decades, the provision of such personnel has been adopted largely by weak or nascent democracies. In the same period, the world has witnessed a decline in military coup activity. I argue that new democracies use peacekeeping to reduce the threat posed by the military during the years of transition and thereby increase the likelihood of democratic consolidation. In the short term such governments can credibly commit to maintaining the military since peacekeeping offers a variety of private benefits, while its ...


Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel Jan 2019

Crashing Waves: Policies And Opportunities In The Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Hannah Daniel

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research seeks to understand migration, by asking the question, what shapes migration patterns in a crisis? To answer this question, the Venezuelan Migration Crisis, a situation emerging in 2014 and continuing to cause large flows of migration throughout Latin America into 2018, is used as a case study. This research presents unique policies and opportunities in Peru and Colombia, showing that migrants and policymakers have a cyclical relationship, which dictates flows of migration. Finding that policy strongly influences the opportunities available in a country, migrants have preferences to move toward countries that have crafted emergency-specific responses. The level to ...


Gilded Realities: The Political Art Of Framing Immigrants, Rachel Ensign Jan 2019

Gilded Realities: The Political Art Of Framing Immigrants, Rachel Ensign

Undergraduate Honors Theses

As immigration in the United States (U.S.) becomes an increasingly polarizing topic, questions concerning the legal status of immigrants are often reduced to black and white answers: they are either legal or illegal. Policymakers specifically position immigrants as deserving members of society or as unwelcomed foreigners for political profit (Tirman, 2015). This research posits that the identity of policymakers explains why some policymakers frame immigrants differently than other policymakers. Policymakers have role identities, their identity based on the positions they assume in society, and group identities, their identity based on their demographic characteristics. This research specifically analyzes the effect ...


World Leaders A-Twitter: Communication Platforms And Agenda-Building During The 2018 Nato Summit, Katja Walton Jan 2019

World Leaders A-Twitter: Communication Platforms And Agenda-Building During The 2018 Nato Summit, Katja Walton

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Twitter is a thriving microblogging service with growing prominence in the political sphere. In this study, I examine the differences between Twitter communications and verbal communications by three heads of state and government in relation to the most recent NATO Summit in July 2018. Through a three-step analysis, including descriptive statistics, content and tone analysis, and comparative analysis, the study investigates Twitter’s influence on content and tone and its agenda-building capacity for face-to-face summits. After hand-coding over 2,000 tweets and 15 verbal communications, I find that Twitter does not support more negative content and tone among world leaders ...


Explaining Attitudes Towards The U.S. In Latin America, Lilith Gamer Jan 2019

Explaining Attitudes Towards The U.S. In Latin America, Lilith Gamer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Foreign policymakers have long since agonized over how citizens of foreign countries perceive the United States, and why. In the face of alleged American hegemonic decline, fears of so-called “anti-Americanism,” a term first popularized during the Cold War, have been rekindled by politicians, TV anchors, and students of international affairs alike. Does the world like Americans, how much or how little, and why? What determines mass attitudes towards the United States? While largely focused on Latin America in the ‘80s, research on the subject has since shifted to explaining hostility in the Middle East. This sea change has left contemporary ...


What Unites The States? Examining Modernity And American Nationhood Through The Eyes Of The European New Right, Sara Canetto Jan 2019

What Unites The States? Examining Modernity And American Nationhood Through The Eyes Of The European New Right, Sara Canetto

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis uses the lens of the European New Right to analyze the development of American nationhood in the era of reinvigorated nationalism and identity politics. To do so, this project uses the 5 processes of modernity (individualization; rationalization; massification; desacralization; universalization) which the New Right describes as the systems that together threaten authentic community and meaning. By using the grounding texts of Against Democracy and Equality and Homo Americanus, this thesis analyzes the points of view of the New Right as well as their contribution to the appeal of nationalism and anti-liberalism.


One Belt, One Road: Explaining The Destination Of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment, Angela Peterson Jan 2019

One Belt, One Road: Explaining The Destination Of Chinese Foreign Direct Investment, Angela Peterson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

What explains foreign direct investment (FDI) from China? It has been assumed by many scholars that investment climate matters when selecting a location of FDI. Factors such a level of corruption, quality of government, and strength of political institutions, tend to attract more FDI. Despite this, China’s One Belt, One Road initiative (BRI) is pouring billions of dollars into some of the most politically unstable and corrupt countries in the world. The goal of this paper is to understand why China invests into these corrupt countries, while many other actors do not. I argue that China has the confidence ...


Signaling Illiberalism: Democratic Backsliding. A Case Study Of Germany And Hungary., Emily Schweitzberger Jan 2019

Signaling Illiberalism: Democratic Backsliding. A Case Study Of Germany And Hungary., Emily Schweitzberger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the past decade, the decline, or backsliding, of democracy has reemerged as a concern in international affairs with many leaders overstepping constitutional restraints to accumulate power in their hands. While democratic backsliding occurs in various ways and in regions all over the world, Europe has struggled to control its spread as populist parties become closer and closer to taking power with each election cycle. In this paper, I examine the cases of Germany and Hungary, which share similar historical and cultural backgrounds yet differ in their democratic strengths: Germany remains a strong beacon of Western, liberal democracy, but Hungary ...


Liability, Responsibility, And Sexual Exploitation And Abuse: The Problematic Implications Of United Nations Discourse For Addressing Sexual Exploitation And Abuse By Un Personnel, Mallory C. Hale Jan 2019

Liability, Responsibility, And Sexual Exploitation And Abuse: The Problematic Implications Of United Nations Discourse For Addressing Sexual Exploitation And Abuse By Un Personnel, Mallory C. Hale

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I examine how the United Nations (UN) discourse regarding sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) by UN personnel constructs the problem of SEA and distances the UN from institutional liability and responsibility. The documents analyzed are from 2002 to 2018.

I make the argument that the UN discourse depicts SEA as being a problem of military personnel as opposed to civilian personnel. This attribution of the problem to military personnel is done through the deployment of racialized, gendered tropes regarding Global South masculinities. The use of tropes is made possible because military personnel are overwhelmingly men from the ...


When Party Policies Do Not Matter: Examining The Ambivalence Of Voting Behaviors In The Zambian Presidential Elections, Gregory Gondwe Jan 2018

When Party Policies Do Not Matter: Examining The Ambivalence Of Voting Behaviors In The Zambian Presidential Elections, Gregory Gondwe

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Debates on whether people in Zambia cast their votes for a presidential candidate based on the good policies of the party or the qualifications of their candidate are peppered with tales of ethnicity, tribalism, corruption, and the education levels of the voters. These problems have undermined the credibility of the winning candidates as being put into office based not on their qualifications, but on the desire for individual voters to have someone of their tribe as president. While some scholars have argued that people are not naïve to vote for a candidate irrationally, others hanker on the fact that ...


Political Freedoms And Productive Firms: Exporters And Their Effect On Trade Policy In Democracies And Autocracies, Megan Elizabeth Roosevelt Jan 2018

Political Freedoms And Productive Firms: Exporters And Their Effect On Trade Policy In Democracies And Autocracies, Megan Elizabeth Roosevelt

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

What explains variation in trade policy openness across countries? Past explanations have hinged on individual-level preferences expressed through a voting channel, especially to account for more liberal trade policy in democracies, but recent survey data calls the plausibility of this mechanism into question. In this three-paper dissertation, I focus on firm-level variation in preferences for free trade or protection, rooted in a New New Trade Theory (NNTT) framework. This theoretical response to classic and new trade theories emphasizes the heterogeneity of firms, and particularly the fundamental differences between exporting firms and domestically-oriented or import-competing firms.

Before proceeding with a firm-level ...


Another Pathway To Foreign Direct Investment: Diaspora Engagement Policies, Seungbin Park Jan 2018

Another Pathway To Foreign Direct Investment: Diaspora Engagement Policies, Seungbin Park

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In the post-Washington consensus world, developing countries consider foreign direct investment (FDI) economically beneficial. Although these capital-scarce countries have competed for FDI to promote economic development, they have not attracted much FDI. Instead, FDI has been concentrated in certain countries. Recently, an increasing number of developing countries have employed various diaspora engagement policies (DEPs) for the promotion of FDI, yet these policies' impact on FDI is not well understood. Hence, in this dissertation, I examine the role of DEPs in promoting FDI. I propose three questions. First, do DEPs increase FDI into developing countries? Second, how do DEPs increase FDI ...


Globalizing Media And International News, Francis A. Beer, G. Robert Boynton Jan 2018

Globalizing Media And International News, Francis A. Beer, G. Robert Boynton

Political Science Faculty Contributions

A project summary, listing all articles.


Studies Of War And Peace: Summary Of An Academic Career, Francis A. Beer Jan 2018

Studies Of War And Peace: Summary Of An Academic Career, Francis A. Beer

Political Science Faculty Contributions

A personal profile that summarizes the academic career and research findings of the author.


Here Comes The Sun: Constraining Russian Aggression And Ambition In The Arctic Through The Analysis Of Structural Realism, Samantha Battey Jan 2018

Here Comes The Sun: Constraining Russian Aggression And Ambition In The Arctic Through The Analysis Of Structural Realism, Samantha Battey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper is a broad case study attempting to reconcile how structural realism can use different liberal theories and concepts to accomplish realist ends. That being said, the current situation in the Arctic has real-world significance that draws equal importance with the theoretical implications of this thesis. As climate change is opening the Arctic to economic exploitation in the near future, this paper addresses the rising importance of the Arctic and the issue of how the U.S. and its allies should respond to Russian militarization of the Arctic while ensuring their own interests. By the utilization of structural realism ...


National Competent Authorities As The Reference Member State: Understanding The Variables Affecting Their Regulatory Decisions, Christian Martin Jan 2018

National Competent Authorities As The Reference Member State: Understanding The Variables Affecting Their Regulatory Decisions, Christian Martin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The pharmaceutical medicines in one member state of the European Union do not belong in any other member state unless that member state’s national medicines agency has approved them. In this paper I look at the two procedures that exist, the mutual recognition procedure and the decentralized procedure. I ask what affects the variation in ease and stringency within the regulatory decisions of the national competent authorities when acting as the reference member state. I hypothesize that institutions and economic political ideology influence the regulatory decisions, leading to more or less finalized procedures. Multi-variate regressions confirm the permeability of ...


External Negotiations, Internal Credibility: Investment Treaties And Autocratic Decision Making, Frank Hannigan Jan 2018

External Negotiations, Internal Credibility: Investment Treaties And Autocratic Decision Making, Frank Hannigan

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis seeks to understand why some policymakers sign international agreements governing the rights of investors by looking at the effects of winning coalitions on state leaders. The two empirical sections of this thesis examine the mechanisms through which political institutions, and the policymakers within them, shape executive level policy toward bilateral investment treaties in autocratic states. I find that signing agreements with highly developed OECD states contributes to the credibility of policymakers within the regime, which ultimately incentivizes the signing of international agreements.


Here Comes The Sun: Constraining Russian Aggression And Ambition In The Arctic Through The Analysis Of Structural Realism, Samantha B. Battey Jan 2018

Here Comes The Sun: Constraining Russian Aggression And Ambition In The Arctic Through The Analysis Of Structural Realism, Samantha B. Battey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper is a broad case study attempting to reconcile how structural realism can use different liberal theories and concepts to accomplish realist ends. That being said, the current situation in the Arctic has real-world significance that draws equal importance with the theoretical implications of this thesis. As climate change is opening the Arctic to economic exploitation in the near future, this paper addresses the rising importance of the Arctic and the issue of how the U.S. and its allies should respond to Russian militarization of the Arctic while ensuring their own interests. By the utilization of structural realism ...


What Determines The Political Focus Of Right-Wing Populist Parties In Europe? A Case Study Of Norway And Switzerland, Michael Johnson Jan 2018

What Determines The Political Focus Of Right-Wing Populist Parties In Europe? A Case Study Of Norway And Switzerland, Michael Johnson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the past several decades right-wing populism has reshaped European politics. The late 20th and early 21st centuries are experiencing the rise of several right-wing populist parties in countries including France, Norway, Switzerland, Finland, Poland, Britain, and many others. This rise in right-wing populism is not a new phenomenon, and many of these parties trace their roots back to the 1970s as globalization permeated Europe. In this paper, I will examine the peculiar phenomena regarding the varying levels of success these right-wing populist parties have experienced. Specifically, I focus on the success of both the Norwegian and Swiss populist parties ...


The Impact Of Third-Generation Biofuels Versus Fossil Fuels On Interstate And Intrastate Conflicts, Ursula Grunwald Jan 2018

The Impact Of Third-Generation Biofuels Versus Fossil Fuels On Interstate And Intrastate Conflicts, Ursula Grunwald

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Oil is the most traded item in the world, and previous research has shown a link between oil and the intensity and duration of conflicts. However, work has not compared and contrasted the impact of oil on interstate versus intrastate conflict. Additionally, the world's fuel demands will increase in the coming decades. As a way to encourage more peaceful relations, the question was posed if third-generation biofuels could solve some of the problems of fuel demand and conflict over fossil fuel resources. The research found that oil serves as different motivation in interstate and intrastate conflict. In interstate conflict ...


Publicly Available Information On The Private Military And Ngo Relationship: A Case Study, Kayla Malcy Jan 2018

Publicly Available Information On The Private Military And Ngo Relationship: A Case Study, Kayla Malcy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) arose as part of a larger phenomenon of privatizing security after the Cold War. These companies operate all over the world and are even active in areas such as humanitarian aid. Increasing concerns over NGO security have led NGOs to contract with PMSCs. Concerns over how these relationships are carried out and how they affect the administration of aid exist, in part to the lack of information on such relationships. This paper will look at two NGOs and two PMSCs and the information publicly available on their contracts in security and humanitarian aid.


From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger Jan 2018

From The Rhineland To Czechoslovakia: How The Policies Of Appeasement In The British Government Led To The Second World War, Tyler Berger

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis's goal is to better explain how the appeasement policies of the British government between 1936 and 1939 brought about the Second World War. This thesis looks at the British government's response to the remilitarization of the Rhineland by Germany in 1936, the Anschluss, the Munich Conference, and the German invasion of Czechoslovakia.


Insulating For Investment: Regulatory Institutions And The Multinational Firm In Infrastructure Industries, Andrew Frazer Hart Jan 2017

Insulating For Investment: Regulatory Institutions And The Multinational Firm In Infrastructure Industries, Andrew Frazer Hart

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Why do some countries obtain more foreign direct investment (FDI) in infrastructure industries than others? Previous explanations for FDI have emphasized that host states mustprovide foreign investors with a credible commitment to alleviate concerns about political risks. Building on this insight, this project argues that countries’ sectoral regulatory institutions – a frequently overlooked factor in FDI research – can help states produce this commitment. The main argument is that sectoral regulatory agencies that are designed to be politically independent insulate foreign investors in the telecommunications and electricity industries from political risks, thereby increasing FDI into these sectors. I also identify that the ...


Border Corridors: Mobility, Containment, And Infrastructures Of Development Between Nepal And China, Galen Murton Jan 2017

Border Corridors: Mobility, Containment, And Infrastructures Of Development Between Nepal And China, Galen Murton

Geography Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines infrastructure development between Nepal and China to argue that infrastructure is a symbol of national development imaginaries, a process and practice of state making, and a vector for the spatial operations of geopolitical power. Starting with the construction of a small trans-border road in Nepal’s northern district of Mustang, I examine how a local infrastructure project has evolved into and been incorporated within larger, international transportation networks, border regimes, trade and tax policies, and humanitarian programs. In making this analysis, I introduce the concept of border corridors to examine how highways, fences, bureaucracies, and aid are ...


Transboundary Integrated Conservation And Development Projects In Latin America: Exploring The Complexities Of Stakeholder Participation, Sheamus Croke Jan 2017

Transboundary Integrated Conservation And Development Projects In Latin America: Exploring The Complexities Of Stakeholder Participation, Sheamus Croke

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the past thirty years, nation-states, inter-governmental, and non-governmental organizations have implemented numerous integrated conservation and development projects (abbreviated as ICDPs) across Central and South America. These initiatives have sought to conserve natural environments while simultaneously improving socioeconomic conditions through development. Within these ICDPs, stakeholder participation – defined for the purposes of this paper as the active participation of local and community actors who are directly affected by or can affect project activities – served as a representative element of the successes and complexities of an ICDP. This paper focuses on transboundary ICDPs (projects that are implemented within multiple nation-states), and asks ...


International Social Support And Intervention: The Uyghur Movement -Xinjiang Province, China, Isabella Steinhauer Jan 2017

International Social Support And Intervention: The Uyghur Movement -Xinjiang Province, China, Isabella Steinhauer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), locally and historically recognized as East Turkestan, in northwestern China has been experiencing rising ethnic tension between the ethnically Turkic-Muslim Uyghur population and the Chinese majority population, the Han. Due to China's means to fully integrate the region and silence opposition, the Uyghurs have been severely harmed by China's accelerated repressive policies, human rights violations, rapid infrastructure development, and incentivized Han migration. Just south of Xinjiang in Tibet, the Tibetan population has been experiencing similar circumstances of oppression inflicted by the Chinese state and have been able to obtain international social support ...


Anti-Muslim Sentiment In Developed Nations: A Comparative Study, Eman Bensreiti Jan 2017

Anti-Muslim Sentiment In Developed Nations: A Comparative Study, Eman Bensreiti

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper is a comparative study that aims to explore why anti-Muslims sentiment varies among 32 developed, democratic nations. I delve into the theory that the presence of more Muslims in developed nations leads to a higher anti-Muslim Sentiment. I also delve into the theory that a country with a poor state of economic well-being leads to a higher presence of anti-Muslim sentiment. Anti-Muslim sentiment can be measured numerous ways. A lot of previous research examines anti-Muslim sentiment in developed nations solely on the basis of public opinion polling. This paper will look at three different indicators of anti-Muslim sentiment ...


A National Security Threat: Washington's Conflicting Response To Climate Change In Northern Pakistan, Katherine Henjum Jan 2017

A National Security Threat: Washington's Conflicting Response To Climate Change In Northern Pakistan, Katherine Henjum

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Developing countries such as Pakistan are particularly susceptible to the negative implications of changing climates as they face regional and in-country terrorism and violence, as well as infrastructure and government institutions that are still evolving. This thesis examines the intersection of climate change and national security through an analysis of shifting monsoon patterns and the subsequent impacts on vulnerable and displaced populations in northern Pakistan.

Over the past decade, the United States has chosen to act through two primary foreign policy methods: a military oriented approach focused on drone strikes and a humanitarian approach focused on foreign aid and development ...


Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley Jan 2017

Measuring Vulnerability: Addressing The Prevention Of Trafficking And Forced Labor Of Refugees In Jordan, Allison K. Dudley

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The intersection of trafficking, forced labor, and refugees is well-cited in the international human rights community yet is rarely studied academically, especially in the Middle East. Given the massive Syrian refugee crisis that began in 2011, which increased the total global population of refugees to the largest total in history, it is more important than ever to study and better understand how refugees are vulnerable to trafficking and forced labor, particularly in impacted countries. The purpose of this research is to answer the question why refugees are vulnerable and how anti-trafficking and anti-forced labor initiatives can use vulnerability indicators as ...


Economic Empowerment For Women In Francophone Africa, Raleigh Sneeringer Jan 2017

Economic Empowerment For Women In Francophone Africa, Raleigh Sneeringer

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper explores the relationship between microfinance and women, specifically in the case of Senegal and how being a predominantly Muslim country relates to microfinance and women. I focus on how microfinance can improve the lives of women and help alleviate poverty around the world. I show that women are more likely to make investments that improve both their own and their children’s lives than men. Further, women are reliable borrowers with high repayment rates and less risk than men. The social and macroeconomic structures in francophone Africa are shown to provide a fruitful environment for microfinance ventures. These ...