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International Relations

Portland State University

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo Mar 2019

Arctic Security: The Race For The Arctic Through The Prism Of International Relations Theory, Michael Gregory Morgan Trujillo

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of the thesis is to examine future international relations in the Arctic as a theoretical exercise based on realism and liberalism. As the ice cap shrinks, and the region's environment changes, developing costs will decrease allowing for resource-extraction while new transit routes emerge. The opportunities to develop resources and ship via the Arctic are economic and strategically valuable, altering the geopolitics of the region. This thesis seeks to explore how resource development and new transit routes will affect regional politics through the lens of two theories. The two theoretical approaches will examine states and actors' interests and ...


Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton Jun 2018

Building Climate Empire: Power, Authority, And Knowledge Within Pacific Islands Climate Change Diplomacy And Governance Networks, Ashlie Denée Denton

Dissertations and Theses

Transnational networks are growing in prevalence and importance as states, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental organizations seek to meet climate change goals; yet, the organizations in these networks struggle between the global, technical and local, contextual sources of power, authority, and knowledge used to influence decision-making and governance. This dissertation analyzes these contestations in Pacific Islands climate change diplomacy and governance efforts by asking: i) What do power relations look like among the Pacific Islands' networked organizations? ii) To what authority do organizations appeal to access sources of power? iii) What sources of knowledge are produced and reproduced by these organizations? and ...


Using The Syrian Civil War To Measure Hierarchy: Regional Power Transition In The Middle East, Eric Michael Clary Mar 2018

Using The Syrian Civil War To Measure Hierarchy: Regional Power Transition In The Middle East, Eric Michael Clary

Dissertations and Theses

In 2018, the Syrian Civil War will enter into its ninth year of conflict. From an international relations perspective there are few, if any, studies on state actors in regional sub-state systems. What can an intrastate conflict teach us about future dynamics of the regional interstate hierarchy? It is worthwhile to examine The Syrian Civil War for three reasons. First, Syria lies in the heart of the Middle East lending proximity to regional actors. Second, the breakdown of order in Syria represents a microcosm of the global anarchic environment. Third, Syrian Civil War is an intrastate war that encapsulates both ...


Diplomatic Remedies For Thaad Madness: The Us, China And The Two Koreas, Mel Gurtov Mar 2017

Diplomatic Remedies For Thaad Madness: The Us, China And The Two Koreas, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

This commentary assesses the geopolitical implications for war and peace in Northeast Asia of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense antimissile system that the US seeks to install in South Korea at a time of deep tensions in Northeast Asia.


How Has Religiosity Influenced The Restrictiveness Of Marriage Immigration Policy In Serbia, Denmark, And The United States?, Uros Prokic Jun 2016

How Has Religiosity Influenced The Restrictiveness Of Marriage Immigration Policy In Serbia, Denmark, And The United States?, Uros Prokic

Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs

The following paper draws attention and investigates the impact of religion, specifically religiosity, on the development of marriage immigration policy in Serbia, Denmark, and the United States. In directly comparing between the three states, significant evidence suggests that religiosity has clearly influenced the restrictiveness of marriage immigration policy altogether. Whether indirectly or indirectly, through a defined politico-religious institution or a call to cultural religious tradition, the fact remains that religion presents a powerful force in influencing the restriction of marriage immigration policy. Whether through its concern for ethnic purity, cultural homogeneity, or sexuality, religiosity remains a powerful factor when discussing ...


On The Poverty, Rise, And Demise Of International Criminal Law, Tiphaine Dickson Mar 2016

On The Poverty, Rise, And Demise Of International Criminal Law, Tiphaine Dickson

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation in four essays critically examines the emergence of international criminal courts: their international political underpinnings, context, and the impact of their political production in relation to liberal legalism, liberal political theory, and history. The essays conceive of international criminal legal bodies both as political projects at their inception and as institutions that deny their own political provenance. The work is primarily one of political theory at the intersection of history, international relations, international criminal law, and the politics of memory. The first essay questions Nuremberg's legacy on the United States' exceptionalist view of international law and its ...


The Europeanization Of Political Parties: A Study Of Political Parties In Poland 2009-2014, Dennis Jan Blew Sep 2015

The Europeanization Of Political Parties: A Study Of Political Parties In Poland 2009-2014, Dennis Jan Blew

Dissertations and Theses

On May 1st 2004, Poland entered the European Union (EU), introducing new variables into the domestic politics of the Polish Republic. Since gaining its independence from Soviet control in 1989, Poland’s political landscape can be described as a dynamic and ever changing force towards democratic maturation. With the accession of Poland to the EU, questions of European integration and Europeanization have arisen, most specifically with how these two processes effect and shape the behaviors of domestic political actors.

With Poland entering its second decade of EU membership, this study attempts to explain how, and if, further European integration ...


Nationalism In United States Foreign Policy In The Post 9/11 Era, Chris W. Baum Jun 2015

Nationalism In United States Foreign Policy In The Post 9/11 Era, Chris W. Baum

Dissertations and Theses

One year after the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, the administration of President George W. Bush introduced a revolutionary foreign policy strategy--the Bush Doctrine. Proponents of this strategy advocated the use of American 'hard power' as a tool to promote freedom and democracy, beginning with the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. Opponents of the doctrine saw it as dangerously nationalistic, with the potential to entangle the United States in a myriad of protracted international conflicts. This thesis will identify aspects of nationalism within post-9/11 American foreign policy and illuminate the incompatibility of nationalism and the fundamental tenets of ...


The Trans-Pacific Partnership: A Deeply Flawed Partnership, Mel Gurtov May 2015

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: A Deeply Flawed Partnership, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The American people have become used to government trickery in foreign affairs—wars and interventions based on lies and falsified evidence, “national security” used to justify the whittling away of privacy, classification of documents to hide embarrassing disclosures, massaging of budget figures to mask outrageous spending on arms, and demands for new weapons when already in possession of an unmatched conventional and nuclear arsenal.

Now comes trickery in a different domain: the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which has substantial bipartisan support and strong presidential endorsement. Eleven countries are awaiting the outcome in Congress as President Obama seeks approval to put the ...


China's Triangle Diplomacy 中国の三角外交, Mel Gurtov Dec 2014

China's Triangle Diplomacy 中国の三角外交, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Back in the days of Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger, the "strategic triangle" with the Soviet Union and China was the great game. The idea was to play off the two communist powers against one another, relying on their ideological warfare under Mao, deep cultural differences, and open conflict in border regions to sustain their mutual suspicions and fears of attack. Now the shoe is on the other foot, so to speak: China seems to be in charge of the game, using US-Russia enmity and its own on-again, off-again competition with the US to keep both those countries cooperative with ...


Time For The U.S. To Engage North Korea 米、本気で北朝鮮と関わりを持つ時期がきた, Mel Gurtov Aug 2014

Time For The U.S. To Engage North Korea 米、本気で北朝鮮と関わりを持つ時期がきた, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Sticks and carrots won't get North Korea to give up its nukes. But a willingness to negotiate a peace treaty and provide security guarantees might.


Xi Jinping Visits Seoul: The Bigger Picture 習近平のソウル訪問 大局をみすえて, Mel Gurtov Jul 2014

Xi Jinping Visits Seoul: The Bigger Picture 習近平のソウル訪問 大局をみすえて, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

China and Korea watchers jumped to attention when it was announced that Xi Jinping would visit South Korea from July 3-4, rather than visit North Korea first. Although the trip could have been seen as reciprocating ROK President Park Geun-hye’s visit to China in June 2013, the Chinese side surely was aware that the trip would be viewed abroad as a departure from standard Chinese protocol and would probably upset Kim Jong-un and his colleagues. But while the trip can be judged a success for China, the North Koreans may have less to worry about than might at first ...


The Impact Of Economic Integration Within The European Union As A Factor In Conflict Transformation And Peace-Building, John Umo Ette Jul 2014

The Impact Of Economic Integration Within The European Union As A Factor In Conflict Transformation And Peace-Building, John Umo Ette

Dissertations and Theses

This study examines economic integration within the European Union (EU) as a factor in conflict transformation and peace-building. European responses to causes of frequent conflicts and wars after the end of WWII focused on the search for peace, economic cooperation and prosperity. This thesis will focus on three elements: economic interdependence, the expansion of the free market, and economic integration. In-depth examination of these factors reveals that economic interdependence or the exchange of goods and services across inter-state and international boundaries only, is not sufficient to bring peace among states. Economic inter-dependence may reduce the impact of war, but cannot ...


The Uncertain Future Of A 'New Type' Of Us-China Relationship 不透明な「新型」米中関係の未来, Mel Gurtov Dec 2013

The Uncertain Future Of A 'New Type' Of Us-China Relationship 不透明な「新型」米中関係の未来, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

President Xi Jinping's call for a "new type of great-power relationship" in meetings in 2013 with President Obama raises important questions about the future of US-China relations. On the surface, it appeared that the two leaders were on the same page. At the June summit, Obama agreed with Xi that "working together cooperatively" and bringing US-China relations "to a new level" were sound ideas. When the G-20 countries convened at St. Petersburg in September, Obama said of Xi’s proposed new model: "we agreed to continue to build a new model of great power relations based on practical cooperation ...


A Dissatisfied Partner: A Conflict - Integration Analysis Of Britain's Membership In The European Union, Osman Goktug Tanrikulu Aug 2013

A Dissatisfied Partner: A Conflict - Integration Analysis Of Britain's Membership In The European Union, Osman Goktug Tanrikulu

Dissertations and Theses

Since 2009, the European Union has faced the worst economic crisis of its history. Due to the devastating impact of the Eurozone crisis on their economies, European countries realized the need to deepen the integration. Without a fiscal union, the Monetary Union would always be prone to economic crises. However, the efforts to reinforce the Union’s economy have been hampered by the UK due to its obsession with national sovereignty and lack of European ideals. In opposing further integration, the UK officials have started to speak out about the probability of leaving the EU.

The purpose of this paper ...


The Importance Of Choice: Political Intermediaries And Democratization In Egypt After The Arab Spring, Matthew Lacouture May 2013

The Importance Of Choice: Political Intermediaries And Democratization In Egypt After The Arab Spring, Matthew Lacouture

Student Research Symposium

Is post-revolution Egypt demonstrably different from the ancien régime? Where and between whom is political competition currently taking place? In the aggregative conception, democracy requires the presence of substantive political choice, differentiated through 'robust' competition between intermediaries – most often political parties – that serve to effectively aggregate and articulate political preferences. This produces an observable and genuine link between public preferences and government policies. In Egypt, the lack of a coheren and viable alternative to the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) – itself an amalgamation of conflicting and particularistic interests – has deprived the people of any substantive political choice. Further ...


Post-Revolution Language Change In The Libyan Media: Tamahaq News Broadcast, Ashour Abdulaziz May 2013

Post-Revolution Language Change In The Libyan Media: Tamahaq News Broadcast, Ashour Abdulaziz

Student Research Symposium

This paper examines segments from the very first Tamazight language TV news broadcast in the history of Libya in May 11, 2011. In the analysis, I focus on (a) Tamazight-Arabic code switching and (b) the profound influence of Arabic on the Tamazight spoken in this situation. Before the February 17 Revolution, such a broadcast was unthinkable, as the use of the language in such public contexts was outlawed during Gaddafi's rule. Post Feb. 17, the Tamazight language emerged in the media as a new linguistic spoken and written resource in the Libyan setting itself up as in contrast to ...


Political Performance, Leadership, And Regional Integration In Europe: An Examination Of The French And German Roles, Gaspare M. Genna, Birol Yesilada, Peter Andrew Noordijk May 2013

Political Performance, Leadership, And Regional Integration In Europe: An Examination Of The French And German Roles, Gaspare M. Genna, Birol Yesilada, Peter Andrew Noordijk

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Prior research on a regional leader’s role in the deepening of regional integration assumes that economic power translates directly into political capabilities. Relative political capacity among states is central to the creation and deepening of regional integration since it is this capacity that smoothes out the transition from a closed to an open economy. Should a state have low levels of this capacity but desire openness, it will partner with regional leaders given the leaders’ higher relative political capacity. However, the leaders’ subsidy of a partner’s capacity comes at a price. The leaders would trade political capacity for ...


The Strategic Effects Of Counterinsurgency Operations At Religious Sites: Lessons From India, Thailand, And Israel, Timothy L. Christopher Mar 2013

The Strategic Effects Of Counterinsurgency Operations At Religious Sites: Lessons From India, Thailand, And Israel, Timothy L. Christopher

Dissertations and Theses

With the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center buildings, the intersection of religious ideals in war has been at the forefront of the American discussion on war and conflict. The New York attacks were followed by the U.S. invasions of Afghanistan in October of 2001 in an attempt to destroy the religious government of the Taliban and capture the Islamic terrorist leader Osama bin Laden, and then followed by the 2003 invasion of Iraq, both in an attempt to fight terrorism and religious extremism. In both instances, American forces became embroiled in counterinsurgency operations against insurgent fighters ...


Stability And Instability In Third World Security Complexes: The Role Of Arms Transfers, David Todd Kinsella Jan 2013

Stability And Instability In Third World Security Complexes: The Role Of Arms Transfers, David Todd Kinsella

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Controversy surrounds the alleged effects of foreign arms transfers on belligerency: do they precipitate international conflict, as some critics suggest, or do they promote stability by reinforcing deterrence, as others maintain? This paper examines the connection between arms transfers to the Third World and the occurrence of interstate conflict, including militarized disputes, from the end of World War II until the early 1990s. My analysis indicates that, in the aggregate, arms transfers almost uniformly contributed to subsequent instability within security complexes located in various regions of the Third World, but that the effects of American versus Russian arms supplies often ...


Power Transition Theory And The Global Arms Trade: Exploring Constructs From Social Network Analysis, David Todd Kinsella Jan 2013

Power Transition Theory And The Global Arms Trade: Exploring Constructs From Social Network Analysis, David Todd Kinsella

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Structural dimensions of the international system are key elements in power transition theory. Most theoretical applications to date have examined the distribution of power, and fluctuations in that distribution, as a precursor to global and regional warfare. Somewhat less attention has been paid to the coalitional structure of the international system in applied research. In this paper I suggest that certain concepts from power transition theory, including those that rely on information about alliance membership, might also be operationalized by examining the global arms trade using tools developed for social network analysis (SNA). I focus in particular on the SNA ...


Preemption, Prevention, And Jus Ad Bellum, Craig L. Carr, David Todd Kinsella Jan 2013

Preemption, Prevention, And Jus Ad Bellum, Craig L. Carr, David Todd Kinsella

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

In The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, released one year after the 9/11 attacks, the Bush administration asserted that “we must adapt the concept of imminent threat to the capabilities and objectives of today’s adversaries.” The administration’s reconceptualization has triggered an intense debate within academic and policymaking circles about the legal and ethical distinction (if any) between anticipatory and precautionary self-defense, and thus preemptive and preventive warfare. We begin by examining the present status on international law on the question of anticipatory self-defense. We then consider how the formative texts on international law ...


Here, We Are Walking On A Clothesline: Statelessness And Human (In)Security Among Burmese Women Political Exiles Living In Thailand, Elizabeth Hooker Jan 2013

Here, We Are Walking On A Clothesline: Statelessness And Human (In)Security Among Burmese Women Political Exiles Living In Thailand, Elizabeth Hooker

Dissertations and Theses

An estimated twelve million people worldwide are stateless, or living without the legal bond of citizenship or nationality with any state, and consequently face barriers to employment, property ownership, education, health care, customary legal rights, and national and international protection. More than one-quarter of the world's stateless people live in Thailand. This feminist ethnography explores the impact of statelessness on the everyday lives of Burmese women political exiles living in Thailand through the paradigm of human security and its six indicators: food, economic, personal, political, health, and community security. The research reveals that exclusion from national and international legal ...


A Strategic Model For Ingo Accountability Systems, Sarah Elizabeth Wardwell Jan 2012

A Strategic Model For Ingo Accountability Systems, Sarah Elizabeth Wardwell

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis reconstructs the concept of International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO) accountability to beneficiaries through the development of a strategic model for INGO accountability to beneficiaries. It works through the history and arguments surrounding the rise of the debate around whether INGOs should be held accountable to their beneficiary populations. Unique definitions are developed for the terms and concepts related to this topic and a framework for understanding the strategic model for INGO accountability to beneficiaries is outlined: Accountable to whom? Accountable for what? Accountable how? A practical example of an internal assessment for measuring an INGO's accountability to beneficiaries ...


Ngos In The Transnational Development Network: Exploring Relational Resources In The Promotion Of Food Security, Mariah Kraner, David Todd Kinsella Jan 2012

Ngos In The Transnational Development Network: Exploring Relational Resources In The Promotion Of Food Security, Mariah Kraner, David Todd Kinsella

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Programming decisions by international NGOs operating in the area of development are a function of both humanitarian and pragmatic concerns. Helping communities establish sustainable agricultural cooperatives to address problems of undernutrition, for example, motivates programs implemented by NGOs in the food security sector. But NGOs are strategic actors and must also be attentive to organizational imperatives in regard to funding. These concerns relate to donor preferences and the reality that aid projects must demonstrate tangible results. This paper examines the network of organizations responding to the needs of the one billion people worldwide who live in food insecure environments. We ...


Jeopolitik Teoriler Acisindan Kibris'in Onemi (The Importance Of Cyprus Island In Geopolitical Theories), Soylap Tamcelik Aug 2011

Jeopolitik Teoriler Acisindan Kibris'in Onemi (The Importance Of Cyprus Island In Geopolitical Theories), Soylap Tamcelik

Center for Turkish Studies Occasional Paper Series

In this study, Cyprus has been evaluated according to geopolitical strategies as land, sea and air power and rimland theory. By this starting point, the main purpose of this study is to identify the importance of Cyprus according to these strategies. Mainly the geopolitical theories consist of four parts including land, sea, air and rimland theories. The discussion about which one of the air, land and sea powers are the main and which one is the sub power have not reach a definite conclusion yet. For this uncertainty, as an objective presentation a chronological line has been followed. According to ...


Former Soviet Bloc Locales In Africa's Illicit Arms Trade Network, David Todd Kinsella Mar 2011

Former Soviet Bloc Locales In Africa's Illicit Arms Trade Network, David Todd Kinsella

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Small arms and light weapons are the primary cause of death in the violent conflicts raging today, but the small arms trade is difficult to track, and the illicit trade in small arms is doubly so. Nevertheless, information is available and research institutes like the Small Arms Survey and the Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms Transfers are at the forefront of efforts to collect and distribute this information. This paper focuses on the illicit arms trade and draws on a database I am developing, the Illicit Arms Transfer Database, which systematizes information contained in journalistic reports on illicit small arms ...


Impact Of The Cyprus Problem On Cfsp And Regional Power Transition In Europe, Birol A. Yeşilada Mar 2011

Impact Of The Cyprus Problem On Cfsp And Regional Power Transition In Europe, Birol A. Yeşilada

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Mathematicians posited that a “butterfly effect”might be present in complex interactions. Relationships between Power Transition in Europe, the future of European Union’s (EU) Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and protracted Cyprus conflict are examples of this phenomenon. On the one hand, findings from Power Transition analysis indicate significant shift in global and regional hierarchies where the EU is expected to fall behind its global competitions –namely China, the United States, and India (Tammen et al, 2000; Yesilada, Efird, and Noordijk 2006). On the other hand, closer this “rising threat of China” can be postponed by a deeper ...


Averting War In Northeast Asia: A Proposal 東北アジアでの戦争勃発を防ぐ ––– 一提言, Mel Gurtov Jan 2011

Averting War In Northeast Asia: A Proposal 東北アジアでの戦争勃発を防ぐ ––– 一提言, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

While the United States and South Korea consider whether or not to accept North Korea’s call for an “unconditional” return to the Six Party Talks (6PT) or China’s call for multilateral negotiations, Northeast Asia is sliding in the direction of deepening conflict that could lead to war. China-Japan relations, which had been warming since the departure of Koizumi Junichiro, and especially since the victory of the Democratic Party of Japan in 2009, are again in a deep freeze over disputed territory. One consequence is a reorientation of Japan’s defense strategy southward, in the direction of the Senkakus ...


From Korea To Vietnam: The Origins And Mindset Of Postwar U.S. Interventionism 朝鮮からヴェトナムへ−−戦後米国の軍事干渉の起源と考え方, Mel Gurtov Oct 2010

From Korea To Vietnam: The Origins And Mindset Of Postwar U.S. Interventionism 朝鮮からヴェトナムへ−−戦後米国の軍事干渉の起源と考え方, Mel Gurtov

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The wars in Korea and Vietnam were of a piece, directly related by virtue of U.S. global strategy and China’s security concerns. This paper, focusing mainly on the U.S. side in these wars, argues that three characteristics of American policy had enduring meaning for the rest of the Cold War and even beyond: the official mindsets that led to U.S. involvement, the centrality of the China threat in American decision making, and the common legacy of intervention against nationalism and in support of authoritarian regimes. It is part of a continuing Asia-Pacific Journal series on the ...