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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Trumping Development: Selective Delinking And Coercive Governmentality In Us–Africa Relations, Francis Owusu, Ricardo Reboredo, Padraig Carmody Oct 2019

Trumping Development: Selective Delinking And Coercive Governmentality In Us–Africa Relations, Francis Owusu, Ricardo Reboredo, Padraig Carmody

Community and Regional Planning Publications

Globalization is one of the most important socioeconomic processes of recent decades, but it has elicited a reactionary backlash in some countries, leading to calls for reform. President Trump's rise to power in the United States and his determination to rewrite his country's involvement in globalization have brought substantial changes to foreign policy, including the US–Africa relationship. His administration's policies appear undeveloped, but we can determine distinct trends and tendencies. This article examines the effects of these policies on Africa to argue that they go beyond a return to the benign neglect shown by many US ...


Bean Counters: The Effect Of Soy Tariffs On Change In Republican Vote Share Between The 2016 And 2018 Elections., Olga Chyzh, Robert B. Urbatsch Mar 2019

Bean Counters: The Effect Of Soy Tariffs On Change In Republican Vote Share Between The 2016 And 2018 Elections., Olga Chyzh, Robert B. Urbatsch

Political Science Publications

How do trade wars affect presidential support? President Trump's aggressive tariffs on China despite his largely rural electoral support base provide a unique opportunity to analyze the relationship between international trade policy and domestic support. If trade-related considerations were ever decisive to American voters, the stark decrease in soy prices, a direct effect of Trump-initiated tariffs immediately preceding the 2018 midterm election, serves as a critical test for studying their effect. This letter shows a robust inverse relationship between county-level soybean production and the change in Republican vote share between the 2016 and 2018 congressional elections.


The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp Jan 2019

The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis upset the traditional alliances of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of sponsoring terrorist organizations and compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council by strengthening relations with Iran. This article highlights the role of the Muslim Brotherhood within both Saudi Arabia and Qatar to demonstrate why the Islamist organization was an important piece in the initiation of the ongoing diplomatic crisis. Using two historical case studies, this paper reveals two divergent views of the MB in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The Saudi royal family views ...


Strategic Deferment: A Study Of The Rogue State, Status Quo State Relationship With A Focus On The United States And North Korea, Nathan Hoffman Jan 2019

Strategic Deferment: A Study Of The Rogue State, Status Quo State Relationship With A Focus On The United States And North Korea, Nathan Hoffman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The existing nuclear deterrence literature has, as a whole, overlooked rogue states, and especially North Korea. In the first half of this paper, I present a game-theoretic model that demonstrates the differences between how a rogue state acts with and without nuclear weapons. The second half of this paper is a case study focusing on North Korea, examining how North Korea fits into the model. My analysis of the model results in these conclusions: One, North Korea will respond with nuclear weapons if attacked; Two, a nuclear first strike by the U.S. on North Korea is possible if the ...


Peaceful Neighborhoods And Democratic Differences, Douglas M. Gibler, Mark D. Nieman Jan 2019

Peaceful Neighborhoods And Democratic Differences, Douglas M. Gibler, Mark D. Nieman

Political Science Publications

Democracies are thought to behave differently than other states when cooperating in alliances, organizations, trade, and a host of other international institutions. We contend, however, that these democratic differences largely depend upon geopolitical environments that make cooperation possible. Though studies have demonstrated endogeneity between democracy and peace, few analyze the effects of this joint relationship on democratic differences in cooperative foreign policy behavior. We address this using the alliance literature as an example. We argue that alliances are used to either deter aggression or serve as conduits to advance other goals. Alliances that deter occur in dangerous environments, while those ...


Interpersonal Communication In War Zones: The U.S. Marines’ Use Of Rhetorical Listening As A Communication Behavior, Angie Mallory Jan 2019

Interpersonal Communication In War Zones: The U.S. Marines’ Use Of Rhetorical Listening As A Communication Behavior, Angie Mallory

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Although much scholarship in the field of Technical Communication assents to the value of listening, little scholarship in the field actually studies it. Similarly, although the field accepts listening as a rhetorical act, no studies address how one might recognize or teach the external indicators of listening.

Krista Ratcliffe posits that rhetorical listening is so powerful that it can create a space for conversations that would not otherwise happen. I further her claim by asserting that the power is not in the listening itself, but in the demonstration of it, in a way recognizable to the interlocutor.

I investigated the ...


Health Behaviors Among Low-Income Hispanic And Non-Hispanic White Women, Donna M. Winham, Shelly M. Palmer, Traci L. Armstrong Florian, Mack C. Shelley May 2018

Health Behaviors Among Low-Income Hispanic And Non-Hispanic White Women, Donna M. Winham, Shelly M. Palmer, Traci L. Armstrong Florian, Mack C. Shelley

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Objectives: We determined relationships between food behaviors and health-risk factors by acculturation among limited-income Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Methods: Women aged 18-49 years were recruited from income-based programs in metro-Phoenix, Arizona. Self-administered surveys in English or Spanish included demographics, a 10-item food behavior checklist, health-risk factors, food security, and acculturation. Differences by 4 acculturation/ ethnicity categories were assessed with chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA). We created a food behavior scale. Results: Eighty-two percent self-identified as Hispanic (N = 358), with 45% Hispanic-dominant, 25% bicultural, 12% English-dominant, and 18% non-Hispanic white for acculturation status. Food behavior checklist results showed that ...


Assessing The Association Of Food Preferences And Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being Among Middle-Aged And Older Adults In Contemporary China-Results From The China Health And Nutrition Survey, Yen-Han Lee, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Ching-Ti Lu, Yen-Chang Chang Mar 2018

Assessing The Association Of Food Preferences And Self-Reported Psychological Well-Being Among Middle-Aged And Older Adults In Contemporary China-Results From The China Health And Nutrition Survey, Yen-Han Lee, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Ching-Ti Lu, Yen-Chang Chang

Political Science Publications

China has undergone rapid social transitions within the last few decades. However, mental health issues, challenges to psychological well-being, and poor dietary choices have gradually surfaced. These health concerns are related to the rapid growth of the aging population and of the fast-paced industrialized society. Nevertheless, there is little knowledge about food preferences and psychological well-being measurements in contemporary China. Applying the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) with a cross-sectional study design (n = 7970), we conducted multinomial logistic regression models to investigate the associations of food preferences, including fast food, salty snacks, fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages, with ...


Xenophobia And Its Implications For Refugee Policies: A Cross-National Study, Elisa A. D'Amico Jan 2018

Xenophobia And Its Implications For Refugee Policies: A Cross-National Study, Elisa A. D'Amico

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Refugee policy matters, both for academic researchers and real-world policy debates. The topic of refugee integration is just as relevant. Xenophobia has been on the rise and is an important theme in the realm of refugee policy discussion as well. Does xenophobia lower the likelihood of a nation’s policies helping to integrate refugees with the rest of society? If host-nation citizens fear that refugees will harm the economy, increase terrorism and heighten crime rates, lawmakers will have little reason to prioritize integrative refugee policies. These factors suggest that when a country is more xenophobic, integrative refugee policies will not ...


The Great Game’S New Player: China’S Belt And Road Strategy For Central Asia, Darrell James Carter Jan 2018

The Great Game’S New Player: China’S Belt And Road Strategy For Central Asia, Darrell James Carter

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Under the leadership of President Xi Jinping China is taking ambitious strides towards greater economic and political influence globally, seeking to establish itself as great power by all definitions. Recently, one policy pushing towards that goal is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) initiative which will expand on trade routes and resource pipelines over land and sea reaching to Africa, the Middle East, and even Europe. The land leg of BRI is the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) which passes through Central Asia before reaching the desired destinations, making the region critical to China’s goals for BRI. Through an ...


Heating Up After The Cold War: The Effect The Cold War Had On Military Interventions, Johnathan Robert Vonderhaar Jan 2017

Heating Up After The Cold War: The Effect The Cold War Had On Military Interventions, Johnathan Robert Vonderhaar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the large body of literature produced by researchers attentive to the subjects of military intervention and the historical period known as the Cold War, little attention has been given to the effect that the tensions that existed during this time period on a global scale had on military interventions. Why have previous scholars missed this and why is it important? The body of existing literature looks at the effect the Cold War had on individual countries and examines individual conflicts, but overall trends are not examined in depth. This thesis proposes some theoretical propositions based on realist and constructivist ...


American Decline And Changing Global Hegemony, Addison Daniel Huygens Jan 2017

American Decline And Changing Global Hegemony, Addison Daniel Huygens

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the reoccurring themes in international relations scholarship over the last fifty years has been the idea that the United States has undergone a decline. The United States established itself as a hegemon in the years following World War 2 thanks to a preeminence in power. However, it has been argued that the hegemony of the United States may now be at risk and that the American power advantage is shrinking in the face of rising challengers. This thesis examines American decline through an extensive literature review followed by an analysis of fifteen metrics of power capabilities along with ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Food Aid On Conflict In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Disaggregate Approach, Elizabeth Christine Dippold Jan 2016

Evaluating The Effects Of Food Aid On Conflict In Sub-Saharan Africa: A Disaggregate Approach, Elizabeth Christine Dippold

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Despite the benefit to hungry people in recipient countries, the use of food aid as a form of international assistance has become a source of contention among policy makers and researchers. The accusation is that food aid promotes the onset of conflict and sustains conflict in already volatile areas. This paper examines the relationship between food aid and conflict at the disaggregate, local level, with the purpose of determining if the provision of food aid increases conflict in recipient areas. The geospatial analysis performed as part of this study focused on 346 individual food aid events across 17 African countries ...


The Spatial Dimensions Of State Fiscal Capacity The Mechanisms Of International Influence On Domestic Extractive Efforts, Cameron G. Thies, Olga Chyzh, Mark David Nieman Jan 2016

The Spatial Dimensions Of State Fiscal Capacity The Mechanisms Of International Influence On Domestic Extractive Efforts, Cameron G. Thies, Olga Chyzh, Mark David Nieman

Political Science Publications

This paper expands traditional predatory theory approaches to state fiscal capacity by adopting spatial analytical reasoning and methods. While previous work in the predatory theory tradition has often incorporated interdependent external influences, such as war and trade, it has often done so in a way that maintains a theoretical and empirical autonomy of the state. Theoretically, we suggest four mechanisms (coercion, competition, learning, and emulation) that operate to channel information through interstate rivalry and territorial contiguity, trade networks, and the political space associated with regime type and intergovernmental organization membership. We test our predictions using a multi-parametric spatio-temporal autoregressive model ...


Addressing Endogeneity In Actor-Speci Fi C Network Measures, Frederick J. Boehmke, Olga Chyzh, Cameron G. Thies Jan 2016

Addressing Endogeneity In Actor-Speci Fi C Network Measures, Frederick J. Boehmke, Olga Chyzh, Cameron G. Thies

Political Science Publications

The study of international relations (IR), and political science more broadly, has derived great benefits from the recent growth of conceptualizing and modeling political phenomena within their broader network contexts. More than just a novel approach to evaluating the old puzzles, network analysis provides a whole new way of theoretical thinking. Challenging the traditional dyad-driven approach to the study of IR, networks highlight actor interdependence that goes beyond dyads and emphasizes that many traditional IR variables, such as conflict, trade, alliances, or international organization memberships must be treated and studied as networks. Properties of these networks (e.g., polarization, density ...


Keeping Up With Which Joneses: Spatial Diffusion Of Rule Of Law Through Economic International Organizations, Olga Chyzh Jan 2016

Keeping Up With Which Joneses: Spatial Diffusion Of Rule Of Law Through Economic International Organizations, Olga Chyzh

Political Science Publications

I develop a theory of spatial diffusion of the rule of law, where “space” is conceptualized as shared memberships in economic international organizations (IOs). I argue that the rule of law diffuses as a result of economic competition and socialization. Outside evaluators, such as international leaders, activists, and most importantly, international firms and investors, often assess states’ attractiveness as a business venue by comparing them to similar states. The natural reference group for such comparisons is not just geographical neighbors, but also states with shared memberships in economic IOs. Responding to this evaluation, states identify members of their own reference ...


Dangerous Liaisons An Endogenous Model Of International Trade And Human Rights, Olga Chyzh Jan 2016

Dangerous Liaisons An Endogenous Model Of International Trade And Human Rights, Olga Chyzh

Political Science Publications

This article applies recent advances in network analysis to highlight a central tension faced by policymakers – balancing the benefits of engaging with the international system and the associated domestic policy costs. International trade rewards certain domestic practices, such as respect for human rights. Enforcing such practices, however, is politically costly and sometimes prohibitive to state leaders who rely on political repression to stay in power. In such cases, domestic elites often resort to an alternative strategy of securing the benefits of international trade – setting up indirect trade channels through intermediary states. These competing incentives are modeled within a single framework ...


Nato Membership And The Democratization Of Post-Communist Countries, M'Lyn Crawford Apr 2015

Nato Membership And The Democratization Of Post-Communist Countries, M'Lyn Crawford

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

I have always been interested in studying the influences international organizations can have on a country's domestic policy. Last summer I had the opportunity to study abroad in Brussels, Belgium and tour many headquarters of powerful international organizations, but the one that stood out most was NATO. After the Cold War ended and the Soviet Union disbanded, several countries formed new governments. Some became democracies and others did not. I looked at a potential explanation for a country’s democratization: NATO membership. Many post-communist countries became NATO members and with its last three expansions, the organization has nearly doubled ...


On The Determinants Of Internal Armed Conflict, Nicholas James Hasty Jan 2015

On The Determinants Of Internal Armed Conflict, Nicholas James Hasty

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study expands upon literature on the cross-national causes of civil war and terrorism by combining the two concepts into an aggregate variable called internal armed conflict. It applies relative deprivation theory to politically excluded ethnic groups and also separates those two entities to examine socioeconomic desperation and ethnic exclusion respectively. From a review of the literature I identify eight variables that were found to be statistically significant predictors of either civil war or terrorism in previous studies and I use them as control variables in my models. I find that countries with excluded ethnic groups are somewhat more likely ...


Peace Talks And Two-Level Games, Iman Hasan Jan 2015

Peace Talks And Two-Level Games, Iman Hasan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This paper analyses the peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that lasted over the period of nine-months (29 July 2013 – 29 April 2014), under the theoretical framework of Robert Putnam’s two-level games model. The model does not offer a solution to the decades-old conflict, however it draws our attention to different actors that influenced the negotiations. Thus, the model identifies the factors that possibly caused failure to the peace-process.


Does Sun Tzu's The Art Of War Influence China's Military Behavior? A Case Study Of The 1962 Sino-India War, Yifei Zhang Jan 2014

Does Sun Tzu's The Art Of War Influence China's Military Behavior? A Case Study Of The 1962 Sino-India War, Yifei Zhang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study has been developed to test the feasibility of using Sun Tzu's The Art of War to analyze and predict China's future military behavior. The author systematically introduces Sun Tzu's teachings as contained in his book, lists expectations of the Chinese army's performance in the 1962 Sino-Indian War under the assumption that it was influenced by the thoughts expressed in The Art of War, and compares what actually happened in that war with these expectations. Most of the expectations were borne out in the actual war, and this indicates that the thoughts expressed in The ...


Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer Jan 2013

Learning And Power In International Farmer Exchanges, Stephen August Lauer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The "Bridging the Gap" program provides an opportunity to explore the relationships between learning and power in international agricultural development partnerships. A USAID-funded partnership between Iowa State University and Volunteer Efforts for Development Concerns, this farmer-to-farmer program sent groups of Iowan women farmers to Uganda to teach Ugandan women farmers with the objectives that Ugandans would move from subsistence to commercial farming and that both groups would benefit from the cultural exchange. Data were collected primarily through semi-structured qualitative interviews of 28 Ugandan farmers, 7 Iowan farmers, and several program staff, and were analyzed using a grounded-theory approach. This thesis ...


Are You Better Off Than You Were Before The Disaster: Examining How Natural Disasters Impact Growth Rates, Matthew Paul Schwartzkopf Jan 2012

Are You Better Off Than You Were Before The Disaster: Examining How Natural Disasters Impact Growth Rates, Matthew Paul Schwartzkopf

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research on the impact of natural disasters, while young, is starting to take shape as a field of study in political science. Already, a range of studies and methods have been produced, examining the varying effects of different types of disasters on economic growth. This thesis investigates the relationship between disaster frequency and economic growth rates for 127 countries over a thirty year period (1975-2005). This thesis examines if countries with a higher frequency of natural disasters experience a negative change in growth rates. The panel data fixed effects model used in this paper shows that a higher frequency of ...


Caribbean Basin Partnership Act, 2000, Eugenio Matibag Jan 2012

Caribbean Basin Partnership Act, 2000, Eugenio Matibag

World Languages and Cultures Publications

The U.S.-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) was approved by the U.S. Congress on October I, 2000, and President Clinton signed the proclamation to implement the act on October 2, 2000, as Title II of the Trade and Development Act. The CBTPA constituted an expansion on the 1983 Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA), which was the initial form of the I983 Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI), and it sought to gain the advantage that had been lost with Mexico's entry into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).


Inter-American Commission On Human Rights, Eugenio D. Matibag Jan 2012

Inter-American Commission On Human Rights, Eugenio D. Matibag

World Languages and Cultures Publications

An institution of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, was crea'ted in 1959 and is an important part of the system designed to promote and protect human rights in OAS member states. The commission draws its mandate from two basic documents applicable to all OAS member states: the OAS Charter (1948) and the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948). Its duties expanded with the creation of the American Convention on Human Rights in 1969 and with subsequent human rights agreements. For those states that have signed and ratified these ...


Carlos Escude, Eugenio D. Matibag Jan 2012

Carlos Escude, Eugenio D. Matibag

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Carlos Escude ( 1948- ) , Argentine political scientist and government adviser, obtained his doctorate with the support of a Fulbright Fellowship at Yale University in 1981 and won a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1984. During the 1990s, he served as special adviser to Argentina's foreign minister, Guido de Tella, under the presidency of Carlos Menem (1989-1999). Escude is therefore not only the explicator but also the agent of a notable transformation of Argentina's foreign policy in its relations with the world's more powerful nations, especially the United States.


Viewing A World Of Disaster Through The Eyes Of Faith: The Influence Of Religious Worldviews On Community Adaptation In The Context Of Disaster-Related Vulnerability In Indonesia, Caleb M. Call Jan 2012

Viewing A World Of Disaster Through The Eyes Of Faith: The Influence Of Religious Worldviews On Community Adaptation In The Context Of Disaster-Related Vulnerability In Indonesia, Caleb M. Call

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Natural disasters pose a ubiquitous threat to communities around the world. Communities perceive, understand, anticipate, and make meaning of disaster risks through the lens of their worldview. In many regions of the world, religious beliefs and practices contribute to the shaping of worldview, hence affecting the attitudes, decisions, and behaviors of a particular community. This study examines the impact of religiously-derived worldviews on community response and adaptation in the disaster-prone nation of Indonesia. Using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey Fourth Wave, this study confirms that the "religiousness" of a worldview makes a difference in community-level action. The average ...


Freeing The World From The Free Market Economy: A Reexamination Of Nation-State Based Capitalism, Joshua Michael Malay Jan 2012

Freeing The World From The Free Market Economy: A Reexamination Of Nation-State Based Capitalism, Joshua Michael Malay

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The economy is discussed as a unified whole, but the machine that is the economy is nothing more than the sum of its parts and like any machine sometimes the parts fail and need to be replaced. In examining the role of currency and trade in perpetuating economic crisis we find that four main concerns arise:

1. Currency valuation leads to speculation and market volatility.

2. Ideologies of free trade and trade liberalization are routinely flaunted by developed nations through the use of subsidization and bilateral trade agreements.

3. Economic competition is depleted through the loss of creative destruction and ...


Beyond The ‘Posts’ In African Development Discourse: Exploring Real Solutions To Africa’S Problems, B. Ikubolajeh Logan, Francis Owusu, Ezekiel Kalipeni Jan 2012

Beyond The ‘Posts’ In African Development Discourse: Exploring Real Solutions To Africa’S Problems, B. Ikubolajeh Logan, Francis Owusu, Ezekiel Kalipeni

Community and Regional Planning Publications

This special issue attempts to further a line of critical inquiry in African politics, administration and development discourse, which we refer to here as the ‘posts’. In our terminology, the ‘posts’ constitute a body of narratives, which critique the heterogeneous assortment of orthodoxies in the mainstream African development discourse. The ‘posts’, although part of the mainstream thinking, interrogate themes within that discourse for their disingenuous intellectual and policy approaches to African problems (see Bourdieu and Wacquant, 1999 for a general discussion of the subject). The ‘posts’ charge that mainstream discourses, far from being beacons of enlightenment about Africa, often reflect ...


Responding To Civilian Bloodshed: Investigating The Relationship Between One-Sided Violence And Aid, Elizabeth Leigh Leuthauser Jan 2012

Responding To Civilian Bloodshed: Investigating The Relationship Between One-Sided Violence And Aid, Elizabeth Leigh Leuthauser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Do foreign aid flows respond to signals of need? This thesis explores the potential relationship between one-sided violence and foreign aid donations. I argue that one-sided violence operates as a signal to the international community, indicating that a state is in need of aid. Utilizing foreign aid as a means of understanding international response, I execute a series of empirical tests to establish if such a relationship can be confirmed. While conclusive determination of the relationship was not obtained, I provide the foundations for future avenues of research for one-sided violence and foreign aid.