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The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes Sep 2019

The Origins Of The Jones Act Of Puerto Rico, Stephanie Mercedes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

After the Spanish-American War that ended in 1898, Puerto Rico was given to the United States by Spain as a war booty, becoming a US colony. The first law ever created by the United States to control Puerto Rico was the Foraker Act (also known as the Organic Act of 1900). This established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. It also extended the federal government rulings to the island. After its creation, the Puerto Rican population began to wonder what their political status was since nothing was concretized until the Jones Act was signed. The Merchant Marine Act of 1920 ...


Cosmopolitan Democracy: Re-Evaluation Of Globalization And World Economic System, Muhammad Dalhatu May 2019

Cosmopolitan Democracy: Re-Evaluation Of Globalization And World Economic System, Muhammad Dalhatu

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis examines cosmopolitan democracy theory as a method of addressing the problems of globalization. I begin by introducing the concept of “cosmopolitan democracy.” I then proceed to discuss contemporary political climate and its relation to critiques of globalization. Finally, I conclude by examining the elaborations of cosmopolitan democracy by various theorists as a way of addressing these problems. Chapter 1 introduces the work of David Held who introduced the concept in his book, Cosmopolitan Democracy and the Global Order: Reflections on the 20th Anniversary of Kant’s “Perpetual Peace.” Cosmopolitan democracy refers to global governance through democratic theory ...


The Role Of The Intelligentsia In The Collapse Of The Ussr: Soviet Intellectuals And The Idea Of The West, Alma Boltirik May 2019

The Role Of The Intelligentsia In The Collapse Of The Ussr: Soviet Intellectuals And The Idea Of The West, Alma Boltirik

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A lot of scholars wrote about the causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union, paying close attention to economic, social, political, institutional, and external forces, which are undoubtedly important. Yet, almost none of them sufficiently addresses the essential cultural and ideological aspects, which gave rise to the new thinking embraced by Gorbachev and ultimately influenced his policies of glasnost and perestroika. This thesis argues that the revival of a particular social stratum known as the Soviet intelligentsia developed new critical ways of thinking about the country’s present, future, and its domestic problems. The main claim is that the ...


Between Politics And Morality: Hans Kelsen's Contributions To The Changing Notion Of International Criminal Responsibility, Jason Kropsky May 2019

Between Politics And Morality: Hans Kelsen's Contributions To The Changing Notion Of International Criminal Responsibility, Jason Kropsky

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The pure theory of law analyzes the legal normative basis of jurisprudence. According to its author, Hans Kelsen (1881-1973), the study of law as a science can only arise once “alien elements” associated with sociology, politics, ethics and psychology are extracted from strict legal cognition. But what happens when the international sphere of law that possesses the special quality of holding state officials accountable for core international crimes requires intrusion by extra-legal sources? Does Kelsen’s structural edifice collapse? Or is it reconstituted? In examining how international criminal responsibility, a test case for Kelsen’s positive law claims derives its ...


The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar May 2019

The Role Of Women In Terrorism, Zeynep Bayar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The main purpose of this paper is to understand what motivate women to join terrorist groups and why these organizations prefer to work with female terrorists. Although each woman has different reasons to involve in terrorist groups, this research demonstrates 'religious, political and personal' reasons as the major motivating factors. This study also focuses on the question of why women are the targets of terror recruiters. In order to answer these, the research analysis examines 'psychological, gender, and media' factors as major recruitment reasons of terrorist organizations. This study also analyzes the similarities and differences between female terrorists' profiles of ...


Refugees From Somalia, Burma/Myanmar And Iraq: Navigating New Lives In The Us In Post-9/11 Context, Ivona Boroje Feb 2019

Refugees From Somalia, Burma/Myanmar And Iraq: Navigating New Lives In The Us In Post-9/11 Context, Ivona Boroje

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis engages with the relationship of the US with refugees, with a focus on the reception and perception of refugees resettled in the US after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Three groups that have resettled in the US in large numbers after 9/11, namely refugees from Somalia, Burma/Myanmar and Iraq groups have had divergent experiences, shaped by factors such as race and/or ethnic identity, religion, cultural norms, expectations about life in the US, histories of their places of origin and the relationship of the US with that place of origin. This thesis attempts to ...


Afghanistan: The Crossroads Of Conflicting Regional Interests, Sabera Azizi Feb 2019

Afghanistan: The Crossroads Of Conflicting Regional Interests, Sabera Azizi

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Despite 45 years of conflict, violence still thrives unwaveringly in Afghanistan. In a war charged with ambitious domestic actors and destructive regional states, peace is nowhere in sight in Afghanistan. The interaction between the actors of a conflict play a significant role in shaping the course of a war. Likewise, the interaction between the Taliban and Afghanistan’s regional states play an important role in intensifying the war. How are regional actors emboldening the Taliban? What roles do hostile regional states play in the Afghan war? This paper answers these questions by unprecedentedly identifying and examining all of the regional ...


The Jihadist Marketplace: Understanding Competition Between Al Qaeda And Isis, Hristo Voynov Feb 2019

The Jihadist Marketplace: Understanding Competition Between Al Qaeda And Isis, Hristo Voynov

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

ISIS and al Qaeda are the world’s preeminent transnational jihadist organizations. Following a public schism, the two started competing, even though they previous cooperated to accomplish their shared goals. This split divided the movement, which was previously united under the leadership of al Qaeda. Now the two must compete with one another for the limited resources of the global jihadist movement as the loser of the competition risks losing their standing within the movement, which may lead to irrelevancy, or even organizational demise, for the loser. This competition requires study because it is necessary to explain why the two ...


The Curious Case Of Will Brooke, Adam Muro Dec 2018

The Curious Case Of Will Brooke, Adam Muro

Capstones

William Wade Brooke, an Alabama businessman with ties to state and national Republican Party politics and scandal, was for over one year a registered foreign agent working for the office of Saad Hariri, Prime Minister of Lebanon. He was the only registered lobbyist for Hariri while he was active, and stranger yet he stated on his Foreign Agent Registration Act forms that he was working for free. An investigation into his background and ties to Lebanon revealed that he lobbied for free in recognition of favors that Hariri did, and continues to do, for a christian missionary group Brooke is ...


Oil Pollution On The High Seas: The Establishment Of An International Regime To Deal With Public International Law And Private Law Issues And The Role Of Non-State Actors In Their Resolution Prior To And At The 1969 International Legal Conference On Marine Pollution Damage (“Brussels Conference”), Milton Ottensoser Sep 2018

Oil Pollution On The High Seas: The Establishment Of An International Regime To Deal With Public International Law And Private Law Issues And The Role Of Non-State Actors In Their Resolution Prior To And At The 1969 International Legal Conference On Marine Pollution Damage (“Brussels Conference”), Milton Ottensoser

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

On March 18, 1967, the Torrey Canyon, an oil tanker flying the flag of Liberia and carrying thirty million gallons of crude oil, smashed onto rocks off the coast of the United Kingdom. The oil spill metastasized into an environmental catastrophe, and this event became the first major environmental disaster of the electronic media age. As a direct result of the Torrey Canyon catastrophe, two treaties were signed in November 1969, at a conference in Brussels sponsored by the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), a United Nations Specialized Agency. The first treaty (the public law treaty) dealt with the right ...


We Refugees, Again, Aaron Linas Sep 2018

We Refugees, Again, Aaron Linas

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Dramatic shifts in climate have generated a new form of global displacement. These ‘climate migrants’ challenge the notion of state sovereignty by introducing a new paradigm for global responsibility. I seek to address this emerging demand of sovereignty by outlining the normative mechanisms of state institutions when encountering displaced persons. The extreme cases of disappearing island nations creates stateless population incompatible with standard liberal values of humanitarianism and border security. My claim is that current normative institutions and principles of assistance to migrating people are insufficient to manage the international crisis of climate change. To be able to aid migrants ...


The Rise Of Right-Wing Populism In Poland: Comparative Analysis Of Social Structure And Party Strategy, Patrycja J. Koszykowska May 2018

The Rise Of Right-Wing Populism In Poland: Comparative Analysis Of Social Structure And Party Strategy, Patrycja J. Koszykowska

Student Theses

Under the puzzling circumstances of a strong domestic economy and the relatively stable mainstream policymaking of the incumbents, Law and Justice (PiS), a right-wing populist party, momentously won the 2015 presidential and parliamentary elections in Poland. Using a comparative approach, the thesis examines the structural forces and policy dimensions/goals, which have provided the necessary conditions for the populist right-wing program to appeal to a wide variety of demographic groups, resulting in an electoral victory and to some degree in the redrawing of political and social boundaries. The conducted field study served as a hypothesis-generating exercise to gauge the voter ...


(Dis)Unity In The Un Security Council: Voting Patterns In The Un's Peace And Security Organ, Paul M. Romita May 2018

(Dis)Unity In The Un Security Council: Voting Patterns In The Un's Peace And Security Organ, Paul M. Romita

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The conventional wisdom is that the international system in the Cold War was defined by the struggle between East and West. While this was certainly the case, voting patterns in the UN Security Council present a more nuanced picture. Counterintuitively, France, the United Kingdom and the United States—three of the five permanent members of the Security Council (the Permanent 3 or P3) and members of the NATO alliance—voted apart on Council resolutions far more frequently in the Cold War, when they faced the common threat of the Soviet Union, than in the post-Cold War era. This dissertation observes ...


The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro May 2018

The Dictators’ Dilemma: Repression Or Concessions In The Face Of Resistance, Chris Massaro

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Arab Spring revolts of late 2010 and 2011 were a profound moment in the history of a region troubled by decades of authoritarianism. Years of economic mismanagement and security force repression trammeled on the rights and aspirations of people striving for a better life. When social movements and anti-government protests erupted throughout the region, each country responded to the uprisings with different methodologies. This research closely examines why autocratic regimes of the region chose such divergent responses, with some opting to use violent repression, others attempting to make concessions and most combined repression with concessions. I will make the ...


The Study Of Soft Power: China’S Presence In African Region, Jessica Huang May 2018

The Study Of Soft Power: China’S Presence In African Region, Jessica Huang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The Western media and policy analyses frequently give negate give portrayals of China’s presence in developing countries. This study, however, explores why China’s soft power succeeds in developing regions of the world. In particular, why is it that while China’s soft power is not quite universally accepted, it works in developing nations such as those in Africa? This paper makes the argument that the constructivist idea of identity is instrumental in understanding Chinese soft power within Africa. That is, the key components of China’s soft power reflect shared identities with the developing world and especially Africa ...


Merging Subsistence Perspective And Buen Vivir: An Alternative To Damming The Mekong, Aaron B. Eisenberg May 2018

Merging Subsistence Perspective And Buen Vivir: An Alternative To Damming The Mekong, Aaron B. Eisenberg

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This paper will examine the planned development on the Mekong by looking at the historical, political, and economic reasons why largescale hydroelectric dams are now being pushed upon the river. It will then critique the international state sovereignty system focusing directly on the Mekong River Commission and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) for their inabilities to mitigate environmental impact while pursuing development. I analyze how the “global city” discourse cannot rationally be applied to Southeast Asia and how the urban-rural divide in Southeast Asia creates only greater problems as dam production on the Mekong accelerates. I propose an alternative ...


Out Of The Shadows: Women Of The Fmln Guerrilla Army In El Salvador’S Civil War, 1979–1992, Erica Gonzalez May 2018

Out Of The Shadows: Women Of The Fmln Guerrilla Army In El Salvador’S Civil War, 1979–1992, Erica Gonzalez

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Over the course of a century, revolutionary movements have emerged every few years across the region of Central America, movements that fought for overturning dictatorships and confronting socio-economic inequalities. Women experience higher levels of poverty, human rights violations and discrimination due to gender inequalities. Representing 30% of the FMLN guerrilla army, women in El Salvador took a quantum leap into one of the most horrific and violent armed conflicts in the history of the country (Montgomery 123). Theorists have sought to explain why women became involved in the war. Experts of insurgent collective action agree that women's participation played ...


Which Wars Spread? Commitment Problems And Military Intervention, Zachary C. Shirkey Apr 2018

Which Wars Spread? Commitment Problems And Military Intervention, Zachary C. Shirkey

Publications and Research

This article argues that wars caused by commitment problems are more likely to experience outside military intervention than are wars with other causes. Wars caused by commitment problems are more likely to draw in outside states because they tend to be more severe and produce larger war aims. These larger stakes create both threats and opportunities for non-belligerent states thereby prompting military intervention. The greater stakes also generate incentives for belligerent states to seek outside aid. This relationship between commitment problems and intervention implies that while certain types of wars may be more likely to experience intervention, the same causes ...


Challenges To The Study Of Long Wars, Zachary C. Shirkey Mar 2018

Challenges To The Study Of Long Wars, Zachary C. Shirkey

Publications and Research

Rationalist, psychological, and domestic politics approaches have all generated internally consistent, plausible explanations for long wars. But sorting out which of these explanations is most valid is quite difficult, because definitional questions bedevil the study of war duration, and more importantly, because it is very hard to evaluate the evidence for competing explanations of war duration. The latter difficulty arises for three reasons. First, many state behaviors are consistent with multiple, competing explanations of long wars. Second, in most states, multiple people play important roles in crafting foreign policies, meaning different leaders may have different primary motives for continuing a ...


Introduction: The Puzzle Of War Duration, Zachary C. Shirkey Mar 2018

Introduction: The Puzzle Of War Duration, Zachary C. Shirkey

Publications and Research

Why do wars last as long as they do? Why do some rage for years, while others last only a few months or days? This piece introduces a symposium that addresses that question from rationalist, psychological, neurological, and domestic politics perspectives. The symposium also considers the challenges of researching war duration and the implications of understanding war duration on theories of war in general.


Gendered Violence: An Analysis Of State Legal Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence Amongst Refugee Women, Maria Sigalas Feb 2018

Gendered Violence: An Analysis Of State Legal Accountability For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence Amongst Refugee Women, Maria Sigalas

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sexual and gender-based violence is a rampant issue affecting women internationally. Its incidence is exacerbated by conflict and the disruption of social patterns caused by displacement. Refugee women are often at greater risk of violence, due to their transient status in their countries of refuge. There exist many challenges in the protection of refugee women. The erosion of the refugee regime through the securitization of displacement has led to the depiction of displaced populations as threats rather than populations in need of humanitarian assistance. Additionally, there remain systemic social and cultural barriers at both international and local levels based on ...


The Politics Of United States Army Doctrine, David C. Rasmussen Feb 2018

The Politics Of United States Army Doctrine, David C. Rasmussen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The US Army made four significant shifts in the content of its capstone operations doctrine, Field Manual (FM) 100-5 / FM 3-0, along a spectrum of war since the end of WWII: 1) in 1954 it made a shift from a doctrine focused almost exclusively on mid-intensity conventional warfare to a doctrine that added significant emphasis to high-intensity nuclear warfare; 2) in 1962 it made an even greater shift in the opposite direction toward low-intensity unconventional warfare doctrine; 3) in 1976 it shifted back to an almost exclusive focus on mid-intensity conventional warfare content; 4) and this is where Army doctrine ...


Nationalism, Soft Annexation And Hybrid Warfare: Putin's Recipe For Russian Resurgence, Brian E. Szlenk Straub Jan 2018

Nationalism, Soft Annexation And Hybrid Warfare: Putin's Recipe For Russian Resurgence, Brian E. Szlenk Straub

Dissertations and Theses

Over the last decades since the fall of the Soviet Union, The Russian Federation has struggled to reclaim its grasp over Eastern Europe and re-establish itself as a major player on the international scene. Increased NATO expansion towards its borders, and the “Westernization” of Eastern Europe has led to the country feeling it has been boxed into a corner. The feeling that the Russian nation has been encroached upon by the Western world has led to the rise of Vladimir Putin as President of Russia, and the marked rise in nationalism within the country. In this Master’s Thesis, I ...


Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer Jan 2018

Guyana-Venezuela Border Dispute: Seeking A Peaceful Solution, Aaron Marcus Homer

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to examine and evaluate the effectiveness of those dispute settlement mechanisms that are capable of resolving the Guyana-Venezuela border dispute. This thesis will analyze those legal principles and/or techniques of the International Court of Justice, mediation and the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which are indispensable for dispute resolution. I argue that a resolution is significant for the stability of the international community.

Guyana and Venezuela possess economic and political interests in the disputed Essequibo region. Venezuela’s predilection for bilateral negotiations contradicts Guyana’s request for a judicial solution. These extreme positions are ...


Flap Of A Butterfly's Wings, Gary E. Rotter Ii Jan 2018

Flap Of A Butterfly's Wings, Gary E. Rotter Ii

Dissertations and Theses

The goal of this thesis is to draw attention to the often overlooked work that is done by activists and their networks when it comes to influencing international policy and law. The case study looks at the “Comfort Women” issue, an unresolved conflict from when the Japanese Imperial Army forced women from its colonies into sexual slavery during World War II. It is a fiercely debated topic throughout Asia, specifically between South Korea and Japan. Here I argue that not only do non-state actors have great influence over the debate and direction this issue takes in international forums, but that ...


An Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Post 9/11 Security Policy In Countering Violent Extremism And Reducing Acts Of International Terrorism, Omaima Khan Jan 2018

An Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Post 9/11 Security Policy In Countering Violent Extremism And Reducing Acts Of International Terrorism, Omaima Khan

Dissertations and Theses

Terrorism is a phenomenon that baffles even the most experienced of researchers within academia. Understanding what constitutes terrorism is important to the field of international relations because combatting terrorist violence yields no straightforward method of prevention and protection. This paper examines four measures of counterterrorism taken by the U.S. government after the September 11th attacks. The methods included in this study and the framework in which they are congruent with are: The War on Terror as a defense strategy, torture and “enhanced interrogation techniques” as a deterrence method, targeted drone attacks in Pakistan and Afghanistan as a compellence ...


Media Coverage Of Human Rights In The Us And Uk: The Violations Still Won’T Be Televised (Or Published), Shawna M. Brandle Jan 2018

Media Coverage Of Human Rights In The Us And Uk: The Violations Still Won’T Be Televised (Or Published), Shawna M. Brandle

Publications and Research

This article analyzes American television and American and British print news coverage of human rights using a combination of manual and machine coding. The data reveal that television and print news cover very few human rights stories, that these stories are mostly international and not domestic, that even when human rights are covered, they are not covered in detail, and that human rights issues are more likely to be covered when they are not framed as human rights. This suggests that human rights is simply not a frame that journalists employ, and provides support for government-leading-media theories of newsworthiness.


Crime On The High Seas: What Conditions Are Necessary To Achieve Effective Maritime Governance Regime?, Michael A. Celic Jan 2018

Crime On The High Seas: What Conditions Are Necessary To Achieve Effective Maritime Governance Regime?, Michael A. Celic

Dissertations and Theses

This thesis explores why international maritime governance regimes have inconsistent rates of success. The global community relies on the world’s oceans for food, trade, and resources. Therefore, the regulation of these oceans is necessary to provide adequate passage through its waters and the management of all the resources they supply for the mutual benefit of all. Although there are international laws such as the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), many of these laws fail to address current global threats and have proven inadequate in forming proactive collective responses. It is particularly problematic addressing transnational ...


From The Humanitarian Impact Initiative To The Treaty On The Prohibition Of Nuclear Weapons: A Novel Approach To Nuclear Disarmament, Elisabeth Szeli Jan 2018

From The Humanitarian Impact Initiative To The Treaty On The Prohibition Of Nuclear Weapons: A Novel Approach To Nuclear Disarmament, Elisabeth Szeli

Dissertations and Theses

The present thesis analyzes current developments in nuclear disarmament, specifically the humanitarian impact initiative that culminated in the adoption of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW, the Treaty) by 122 members of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in July 2017. Through academic research and six interviews with people directly involved in the process, I traced the humanitarian initiative from its first conference in Oslo in 2013 all the way to the Treaty negotiations in 2017. My argument is that the humanitarian initiative constitutes a novel approach to nuclear disarmament, spearheaded by small and medium-sized states, with ...


Education And Civil Conflict: The Negative Effects Of Intolerant Curricula In Kosovo, Pakistan, And Sudan, Nicholas A. Jaspers Jan 2018

Education And Civil Conflict: The Negative Effects Of Intolerant Curricula In Kosovo, Pakistan, And Sudan, Nicholas A. Jaspers

Dissertations and Theses

Education has long been used as a tool for national identity formation and social cohesion. However, in diverse communities across the globe, the question must be asked: are educational institutions creating citizens with a narrow view of “us vs. them” or an identity built on multiculturalism and acceptance? Through past research, it is obvious that education has either acted as an instigator or mitigator of civil conflict, though to what extent is still largely unknown. In this thesis, I argue that both the extent and quality of education in a country can instigate or, at least, exacerbate the outbreak of ...