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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Jews And The Culture Wars: Consensus And Dissensus In Jewish Religious Liberty Advocacy, Michael A. Helfand May 2019

Jews And The Culture Wars: Consensus And Dissensus In Jewish Religious Liberty Advocacy, Michael A. Helfand

San Diego Law Review

In the recent culture wars, traditionalists and progressives have clashed over dueling conceptions of family, sexuality and religion—manifested in debates over abortion, contraception, and same-sex marriage. Caught in this conflict has been a political and cultural reassessment of religious liberty; a doctrine originally seen as necessary to protect faith commitments from majoritarian persecution, the public salience of religious liberty has waned as it has clashed with the rights of women and LGBT people. And these evolving commitments to dueling rights have triggered religious, political, and ideological realignments, generating new alliances across political and faith communities.

In this new environment ...


Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau Apr 2019

Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper offers an interpretation of Plato’s Lesser Hippias, about which I make several original claims. First, I contend that the dialogue takes place in front of an unnamed audience composed of Socrates’ students and the dialogue is therefore for their benefit, not that of Hippias or Eudicus. I then argue that Socrates juxtaposes himself to Hippias to show the superiority of philosophy to sophistry; I accomplish this through an examination of the cultural significance of Socrates’ physical description of Hippias at 368 and following. I also claim that the central argument of the dialogue is used to demonstrate ...


For Or Against The People? Republican Violence In Arendt And Machiavelli, Samantha Trudeau Apr 2019

For Or Against The People? Republican Violence In Arendt And Machiavelli, Samantha Trudeau

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper explores and analyzes Hannah Arendt's and Niccolò Machiavelli's treatment of violence in republics. It seeks to answer the question: what is the proper role of violence in republican governments? After an examination of the author's arguments, it concludes that violence should be avoided whenever possible and extremely limited in scope when it must be used. Given historical developments, Arendt's solution is judged superior to Machiavelli's.


Democratic Self-Determination And The Intentional Building Of Consensus, Valeria Ottonelli Apr 2019

Democratic Self-Determination And The Intentional Building Of Consensus, Valeria Ottonelli

Journal of Public Deliberation

This paper defends two fundamental but under-theorized insights coming from the theory of deliberative democracy. The first is that consensus is valuable as a precondition of democratic collective self-determination, since it ensures that democratic decisions display an adequate degree of integrity and consistency and therefore that the polity can act as a unified agent. The second is that consensus in this integrity-building role is essential if citizens need to act as decision-makers; it ensures that the decisions that issue from the exercise of their political rights are meaningful, and that they are so as the intended result of their joint ...


Recognition And Deliberation: A Deliberative Corrective To Liberal Multicultural Policies, Nicolas Pirsoul Apr 2019

Recognition And Deliberation: A Deliberative Corrective To Liberal Multicultural Policies, Nicolas Pirsoul

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article establishes theoretical and practical distinctions between the theory of recognition and liberal multiculturalism. Five potential issues with multicultural policies are identified. The article argues that an increase in deliberative practices could solve many pitfalls of liberal multicultural policies and highlights how a “deliberative turn” could reconcile identity-related policies with the philosophical roots of the theory of recognition. The paper also highlights some challenges arising from a deliberative approach to recognition.


Civic Virtue In The Deliberative System, Daniel Hutton Ferris Apr 2019

Civic Virtue In The Deliberative System, Daniel Hutton Ferris

Journal of Public Deliberation

The normative stability of a deliberative and democratic political order and the creativity and quality of the decisions its produces depend on citizens developing civic orientations and capacities through participation in deliberative events aiming at the cooperative solution of political problems. That, at least, is the claim made by critics of the systems approach to deliberative democracy, who argue that its proponents have lost sight of the educative function that respectful public reasoning plays for citizens. In this article I offer a response to this line of argument. There is no good philosophical reason to suppose that only unitary deliberation ...


The Decline Of Tradition & Civilization: Mishima And The West, Suan Sonna Apr 2019

The Decline Of Tradition & Civilization: Mishima And The West, Suan Sonna

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

On November 25, 1970, the prolific Japanese author and right-wing nationalist Yukio Mishima performed ritual suicide. His demonstration disturbed the literary, political, and intellectual world of Japan and has had far-reaching implications for the world. In this analysis, I offer a brief biographical sketch of Mishima’s life and how he became one with his philosophy, politics, and literature. My ultimate aim is to show how the hyper-“modernization” and westernization of Japan parallels many of the same conflicts Western Civilization is currently facing with the collapse of both modernity and tradition. To do this, I examine five themes of ...


Aristotle's Quarrel With Socrates: Friendship In Political Thought, John Boersma Mar 2019

Aristotle's Quarrel With Socrates: Friendship In Political Thought, John Boersma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Friendship played an outsized role in ancient political thought in comparison to medieval and modern political philosophies. Most modern scholarship has paid relatively little attention to the role of friendship in ancient political philosophy. Recently, however, scholars are increasingly beginning to investigate classical conceptions of friendship. My dissertation joins this growing interest by examining the importance of friendship in the political thought of Socrates and Aristotle. Specifically, I analyze the divergent approaches that Socrates and Aristotle take to politics and trace these distinct approaches to their differing conceptions of friendship. Through an examination of two Platonic dialogues—the Lysis and ...


Slogans Appropriate To The Legacy Of Martin Luther King Jr., Theodore Walker Jan 2019

Slogans Appropriate To The Legacy Of Martin Luther King Jr., Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

For printing signs, banners, posters, tee shirts, and bumper stickers (and for preaching sermons) that are appropriate to the legacy of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., please consider the following slogans: ABOLISH WAR, ABOLISH POVERTY, AMEND THE CONSTITUTION, SUPPORT AN ECONOMIC BILL OF RIGHTS, JOBS FOR ALL, GUARANTEED INCOME FOR ALL, SUPPORT UNIVERSAL BASIC INCOME, and GOOD NEWS TO THE POOR - Luke 4:14-19.


Beyond “Good Behaviour”: A Plan To Restructure The Supreme Court Of The United States, Ross Mcnearney Jan 2019

Beyond “Good Behaviour”: A Plan To Restructure The Supreme Court Of The United States, Ross Mcnearney

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Supreme Court of the United States truly decides what the law is. It is the final say in any legal battle, and as a result, it is in many ways more powerful than either the legislative or executive branches of the United States government. It performs an important check on both of those branches and serves a vital function in the democracy of the United States. But its current structure leaves something to be desired. There are too few justices, and life tenure is a mistake. Plus those justices represent a very geographically narrow selection of the country’s ...


Reconsidering Judicial Independence: Forty-Five Years In The Trenches And In The Tower, Stephen B. Burbank Jan 2019

Reconsidering Judicial Independence: Forty-Five Years In The Trenches And In The Tower, Stephen B. Burbank

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Trusting in the integrity of our institutions when they are not under stress, we focus attention on them both when they are under stress or when we need them to protect us against other institutions. In the case of the federal judiciary, the two conditions often coincide. In this essay, I use personal experience to provide practical context for some of the important lessons about judicial independence to be learned from the periods of stress for the federal judiciary I have observed as a lawyer and concerned citizen, and to provide theoretical context for lessons I have deemed significant as ...


Debunking Human Prejudice And Blindness, Peter J. Li Jan 2019

Debunking Human Prejudice And Blindness, Peter J. Li

Animal Sentience

Human prejudice and blindness to animal suffering are shocking. Despite their differences in culture, politics, and religious beliefs, humans have one thing in common. They see nonhuman animals as inferior and have since time immemorial assumed a dominant position in an asymmetrical human-animal relationship. When it comes to human-animal relations, there is no “clash of civilizations.” Human prejudice and blindness are predicated on “common sense assumptions” about the natural world and nonhuman animals in particular. Marino & Merskin’s review is part of the growing effort to debunk the assumptions that have shaped human actions so as to end the injustice ...


The Eventualization Of Political Thinking: From The Arab Revolutions To The Trump Era, Oscar Barroso Dec 2018

The Eventualization Of Political Thinking: From The Arab Revolutions To The Trump Era, Oscar Barroso

CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture

In his article, "The Eventualization of Political Thinking: From the Arab Revolutions to the Trump Era", Óscar Barroso maps out some of the most important contemporary philosophies of the Event: those of Rancière, Badiou, Hardt and Negri and Žižek. These philosophies of the event are defined as post-humanist political proposals that entrust emancipation not to the realization of anthropological ideas but to the emergence of difference. Examining the pessimistic interpretation that these authors make of what has happened since the events of 2011, the author questions whether too much trust has been placed in the supposed virtue of difference and ...


“A New Way Of Thinking”: Frantz Fanon’S True Opinion On Violence, Caroline D. Renko Dec 2018

“A New Way Of Thinking”: Frantz Fanon’S True Opinion On Violence, Caroline D. Renko

The Downtown Review

In an attempt to clear Frantz Fanon’s name, on account of his opinion on the role of violence in decolonizing a nation, this paper focuses on two important chapters in his last book, The Wretched of the Earth. By closely reading his articulation of the Algerian war and the wounds brought on by mental illness at such a time, Fanon’s true opinion concerning violence becomes clear. For too long, he has been seen and used as a proponent for inciting violence, but this is a misconception that has been perpetuated by devaluing the importance of his descriptions of ...


Rights And Retrenchment In The Trump Era, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang Oct 2018

Rights And Retrenchment In The Trump Era, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Our aim in this essay is to leverage archival research, data and theoretical perspectives presented in our book, Rights and Retrenchment: The Counterrevolution against Federal Litigation, as a means to illuminate the prospects for retrenchment in the current political landscape. We follow the scheme of the book by separately considering the prospects for federal litigation retrenchment in three lawmaking sites: Congress, federal court rulemaking under the Rules Enabling Act, and the Supreme Court. Although pertinent data on current retrenchment initiatives are limited, our historical data and comparative institutional perspectives should afford a basis for informed prediction. Of course, little in ...


The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash Aug 2018

The Politics Of Wounds, Jonathan Nash

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

What configuration of strategies and discourses enable the white male and settler body politic to render itself as simultaneously wounded and invulnerable? I contextualize this question by reading the discursive continuities between Euro-America’s War on Terror post-9/11 and Algeria’s War for Independence. By interrogating political-philosophical responses to September 11, 2001 beside American rhetoric of a wounded nation, I argue that white nationalism, as a mode of settler colonialism, appropriates the discourses of political wounding to imagine and legitimize a narrative of white hurt and white victimhood; in effect, reproducing and hardening the borders of the nation-state. Additionally ...


The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig M. White May 2018

The Morality Of National Defense: An Aristotelian-Thomist Account, Craig M. White

Political Science Graduate Theses & Dissertations

In current just war theory debates, some scholars claim that a moral right to defend a nation cannot be demonstrated. Others claim that any case for the morality of even defensive war must reflect standards of interpersonal morality. This dissertation goes back to the natural law tradition behind just war theory to offer a moral argument in favor of national defense that is not based on an individualist account, but also rejects absolute accounts of national sovereignty, with its attendant problems. National defense is usually but not always just.

I defend arguing from “a tradition” in MacIntyre’s sense, and ...


The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin May 2018

The Presbyterian Enlightenment: The Confluence Of Evangelical And Enlightenment Thought In British America, Brandon S. Durbin

Masters Theses

Eighteenth-Century British American Presbyterian ministers incorporated covenantal theology, ideas from the Scottish Enlightenment, and resistance theory in their sermons. The sermons of Presbyterian ministers strongly indicate the intermixing of enlightenment and evangelical ideas. Congregants heard and read these sermons, spreading these ideas to the average colonist. This combination helps explain why American Presbyterians were so apt to resist British rule during the American Revolution. Protestant covenantal theology, derived from Protestant reformers like John Calvin and John Knox, emphasized virtue and duty. This covenant affected both the people and their rulers. When rulers failed to uphold their covenant with God, the ...


Politics As Loot: Reflections On Theories Of Decline In Political Thought, Milo Ward May 2018

Politics As Loot: Reflections On Theories Of Decline In Political Thought, Milo Ward

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis responds to the perennial theories of political decline in Western political thought by reimagining politics as a part of the loot plundered by the victors of history. It unpacks and critiques prognostications of the impending end of politics, specifically those of theorists Wendy Brown and Hannah Arendt, by dredging up the colonial and the capitalist logics that covertly underpin assumptions that politics is something that can be exclusively possessed. The forensic treatment of narratives of political decline reveals the unmistakable tracks of the rationality of property relations behind laments over the fate of political traditions that also withhold ...


J.S. Mill The Democrat: Connecting Mill, Athens, And Election Reform, Devon Wolfe May 2018

J.S. Mill The Democrat: Connecting Mill, Athens, And Election Reform, Devon Wolfe

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this paper, I examine John Stuart Mill's views on representative government in an effort to show his support for democracy. In order to accomplish this, I examine his relationship to the Ancient Athenian direct democracy. I argue that Mill’s appreciation for the guiding principles of the participatory democracy in Athens implies that his own beliefs regarding the principles of democracy are positive and supportive.


Deliberation Or Simulated Deliberation?, Peter Levine Apr 2018

Deliberation Or Simulated Deliberation?, Peter Levine

Democracy and Education

The work of Crocco and her colleagues, "Deliberating Public Policy Issues with Adolescents," combines two important fields—deliberative democracy and discussion as a pedagogy—with a study of policy deliberations in three classrooms. Their article yields valuable insights. As the authors note, the results are disappointing. This may be because the students were not actually asked to deliberate, if "deliberation" means discussing in order to make a decision. After all, the students could not decide US policy on immigration. Their discussion was a kind of simulated deliberation. Evidence suggests that we may see better results from real deliberations that occur ...


Martin Luther King, Jr.: Jeffersonian; Champion Of Natural Law Philosophy, James M. Masnov Mar 2018

Martin Luther King, Jr.: Jeffersonian; Champion Of Natural Law Philosophy, James M. Masnov

PURE Insights

Martin Luther King, Jr. is celebrated in mainstream American culture as a champion of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. He is also lauded in the halls of academia for his growing political radicalism prior to his assassination in 1968. Neither view of the man, however, generally acknowledges his deep-rooted political philosophy of Natural Law. This aspect of King, which informed his civic protest, speeches, and political ideology, has been given short shrift in recent decades. While popular culture credits his integrity and intellectuals admire his advocacy for significant reforms in domestic and foreign policy, Martin Luther King, Jr ...


Rescinding Rancière: An Investigation Into The Conservative Tendencies Of A Leading Proponent Of Radical Democracy, And A Reconstruction Of The Participatory Democracy Of Ancient Athens, Tyler J. Olsen Feb 2018

Rescinding Rancière: An Investigation Into The Conservative Tendencies Of A Leading Proponent Of Radical Democracy, And A Reconstruction Of The Participatory Democracy Of Ancient Athens, Tyler J. Olsen

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis advances a critique of the political theory of Jacques Rancière, focusing on the problems that arise as a result of its rigid form combined with its narrow content. I argue that Rancière gets caught in a practice of immanent critique that merely presupposes bourgeois abstract right; and that his ontological and pragmatic commitments prohibit him from projecting a norm that would transcend the liberal order. I trace these ontological and pragmatic commitments in detail by examining the intellectual milieu from which Rancière’s project emerged, the post-foundational political philosophy of the 1980s, with particular attention given to Claude ...


Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess Jan 2018

Sources Of Moral Authority: Thinking Beyond Religion And Politics, Rhiannon B. Sturgess

Power, Voice, Mandate: Moral Authority in the Contemporary Age

Religion and politics served as sources of moral authority for centuries, but are limited as such, especially in modern, diverse societies like the United States. Many people feel as though they are not understood, and that their traditional beliefs are not considered when moral decisions are made. Such feelings can incite contempt between people who would otherwise be friends. This lack of harmony can lead to civil unrest and an unhappy society. Therefore, it is important that we strive for a source of moral authority that treats all people as equals. Because not all people can be assumed to operate ...


Our Principled Constitution, Mitchell N. Berman Jan 2018

Our Principled Constitution, Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Suppose that one of us contends, and the other denies, that transgender persons have constitutional rights to be treated in accord with their gender identity. It appears that we are disagreeing about “what the law is.” And, most probably, we disagree about what the law is on this matter because we disagree about what generally makes it the case that our constitutional law is this rather than that.

Constitutional theory should provide guidance. It should endeavor to explain what gives our constitutional rules the contents that they have, or what makes true constitutional propositions true. Call any such account a ...


On The Military’S Normative Commitment To Assist In Revolution, Sebastian Awatramani Jan 2018

On The Military’S Normative Commitment To Assist In Revolution, Sebastian Awatramani

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Locke held that the People reserve a right of revolution in the case that a government egregiously violates the social contract to such an extent that it renders itself illegitimate. At the time of his writing, revolution was a potentially feasible endeavor insofar as the technological war making capabilities of a citizenry were on, or at least on something close to, equal footing with those of the government. As technology advanced over the following centuries, however, a disparity between the war making capability of advanced states and their citizenry arose, wherein the governments of modern, advanced states gained access to ...


Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, Jacob H. Solbrig, Jacob Hagen Solbrig Dec 2017

Stasi Brainwashing In The Gdr 1957 - 1990, Jacob H. Solbrig, Jacob Hagen Solbrig

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the methods used by the Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS), more commonly known as the Stasi, or East German secret police, for extraction of information from citizens of the German Democratic Republic for the purpose of espionage and covert operations inside East Germany, as it pertains to the deliberate brainwashing of East German citizens. As one of the most efficient intelligence agencies to ever exist, the Stasi’s main purpose was to monitor the population, gather intelligence, and collect or turn informants. They used brainwashing techniques to control the people of the GDR, keeping the populace paralyzed with ...


Explaining Abortion Attitudes: Competing Reproductive Strategies And The Welfare State, Dong-Eun (Dara) Lee Nov 2017

Explaining Abortion Attitudes: Competing Reproductive Strategies And The Welfare State, Dong-Eun (Dara) Lee

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou Nov 2017

Sins Against Democracy, David Marcou

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

No abstract provided.


American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola Nov 2017

American Populism Shouldn’T Have To Embrace Ignorance, Daniel R. Denicola

Philosophy Faculty Publications

Public ignorance is an inherent threat to democracy. It breeds superstition, prejudice, and error; and it prevents both a clear-eyed understanding of the world and the formulation of wise policies to adapt to that world.

Plato believed it was more than a threat: He thought it characterized democracies, and would lead them inevitably into anarchy and ultimately tyranny. But the liberal democracies of the modern era, grudgingly extending suffrage, have extended public education in parallel, in the hope of cultivating an informed citizenry. Yet today, given the persistence and severity of public ignorance, the ideal of an enlightened electorate seems ...