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Economics

2008

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Articles 1 - 30 of 72

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Jogelmélet Jog Nélkül? [Legal Theory Without Law?], Péter Cserne Dec 2008

Jogelmélet Jog Nélkül? [Legal Theory Without Law?], Péter Cserne

Péter Cserne

No abstract provided.


Can Public Debt Enhance Democracy?, Clayton P. Gillette Dec 2008

Can Public Debt Enhance Democracy?, Clayton P. Gillette

William & Mary Law Review

This Essay draws on historical and current examples to examine the extent to which public creditors can enhance democracy by monitoring public officials in a manner that compensates for the failures of the government debtor's constituents to monitor public officials. Creditors and constituents may share significant interests, depending on the structure of security arrangements for public debt and the identity of the debtors. Where interests overlap, the capacity of creditors to overcome collective action problems suffered by constituents may transform creditors into surrogates for constituents. Whether creditors are willing to play this role, however, may depend on the existence ...


Models Of Historical Interpretation, Steven Alan Samson Nov 2008

Models Of Historical Interpretation, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

Every text has a context. Every vista has a viewpoint. As C. Gregg Singer contends: "It is impossible to understand completely the history of a nation apart from the philosophies and ideologies which lie at the heart of its intellectual life." What this means, as Richard Weaver has aptly expressed it, is that "ideas have consequences."


Covenant Origins Of The American Polity, Steven Alan Samson Nov 2008

Covenant Origins Of The American Polity, Steven Alan Samson

Steven Alan Samson

It is not uncommon for historians to view America as an experimental laboratory in political theory and practice in which the American character is represented as a triumph of common sense over ideology. This may help explain why history books often neglect to acknowledge the religious dimension of this experiment. Yet far from being inconsequential, religion—and particularly the Christian concept of vocation—is the wellspring of this spirit of practicality that gave substance to the desire for a greater degree of self-government and led to the development of greater religious and political liberty.


American Challenges, Jim Gomes Oct 2008

American Challenges, Jim Gomes

Mosakowski Institute for Public Enterprise

In the autumn of 2008, with the United States facing myriad problems both foreign and domestic and entering the final stage of a historic election, The Boston Globe asked Mosakowski Institute Director Jim Gomes to write a series of op-ed pieces about critical issues on the nation’s agenda. The result is the six columns collected here in American Challenges. “When I wrote these pieces,” said Gomes, “the country had entered a period of great uncertainty. So much of what had been taken as a given in the last half of the 20th century, from broadly shared prosperity to the ...


Vote For Charity's Sake, Aaron S. Edlin, Andrew Gelman, Noah Kaplan Sep 2008

Vote For Charity's Sake, Aaron S. Edlin, Andrew Gelman, Noah Kaplan

Aaron Edlin

In a battleground state like Colorado or New Mexico, voting in the presidential election may be equivalent to giving $30,000 - $50,000 to others in expected value, and as such is an extremely efficient form of charity.


Quashing The Financial Firestorm, Aaron S. Edlin Sep 2008

Quashing The Financial Firestorm, Aaron S. Edlin

Aaron Edlin

Start the financial rescue with containment, establish unlimited deposit insurance and continuous access to funds, then move to a well thought-out plan to quash the financial flames.


The Physical Basis Of Voluntary Trade, Karl Widerquist Aug 2008

The Physical Basis Of Voluntary Trade, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

The article discusses the conditions under which can we say that people enter the economic system voluntarily. “The Need for an Exit Option” briefly explains the philosophical argument that voluntary interaction requires an exit option—a reasonable alternative to participation in the projects of others. “The Treatment of Effective Forced Labor in Economic and Political Theory” considers the treatment of effectively forced interaction in economic and political theory. “Human Need” discusses theories of human need to determine the capabilities a person requires to have an acceptable exit option. “Capability in Cash, Kind, or Raw Resources” considers what form access to ...


Markets And Famine In North Korea, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks Aug 2008

Markets And Famine In North Korea, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks

Marcus Noland

In the 1990s, as many as a million North Koreans died in one of the worst famines of the 20th century. Unlike the dramatic recent natural disasters in Burma and China, North Korea’s current food crisis, a product of self-destructive policies, bad weather, and global food price increases, has metastasized largely beyond public view, abetted by Pyongyang’s penchant for secrecy. Permanent resolution of North Korea’s chronic food problems requires revitalization of its industrial economy. Genuine opening would enable the country to earn foreign exchange and import bulk grain on a commercially sustainable basis, just as South Korea ...


The Persistent Problem: Inequality, Difference, And The Challenge Of Development, Aseema Sinha, John Echeverri-Gent, Leslie Elliott Armijo, Marc Blecher, Daniel Brumberg, Valerie Bunce, Kiren A. Chaudhry, John W. Harbeson, Evelyne Huber, Bronwyn Leebaw, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Loren Ryter, Susan L. Woodward Jul 2008

The Persistent Problem: Inequality, Difference, And The Challenge Of Development, Aseema Sinha, John Echeverri-Gent, Leslie Elliott Armijo, Marc Blecher, Daniel Brumberg, Valerie Bunce, Kiren A. Chaudhry, John W. Harbeson, Evelyne Huber, Bronwyn Leebaw, Susanne Hoeber Rudolph, Loren Ryter, Susan L. Woodward

CMC Faculty Publications and Research

This report highlights the complex, multidimensional nature of inequality in the era of globalization. It documents that despite the impressive strides by nations like China and India, absolute inequality between the richest and poorest countries is greater than ever before in history. It demonstrates that the rise of China and India creates a new dimension to the persistent problem of inequality.


Bridging Politics And Science, Carl E. Marklund Jun 2008

Bridging Politics And Science, Carl E. Marklund

Carl Marklund

Dissertation Summary In this dissertation I have tried to map how the concept of “social engineering” has been used from its inception in the early 1890s to the beginning of its decline in the late 1940s. The study concentrates upon the 1930s. In particular, I have asked who used this concept, in what contexts, and against which adversaries. I have taken most of my material from Sweden and the USA since both of these countries have been seen as examples of successful “organization of modernity.” And social engineering is indeed often taken to be exactly that—an attempt at organizing ...


A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler Jun 2008

A Difusão Do Orçamento Participativo Brasileiro: ‘Boas Práticas' Devem Ser Promovidas?, Brian Wampler

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

The "third wave" of democratization has been accompanied by the spread of new institutions that allow citizens to deliberate and decide policy outcomes. Leading international organizations, such as the World Bank and the United Nations, have disseminated "best practice" programs identified with "good government" policy reform efforts. One of the most well-known programs, Participatory Budgeting (PB), was first adopted by Brazil's Workers' Party (PT) in 1989 as a means to promote social justice, accountability, and transparency. There has been widespread adoption of PB in Brazil, led by the PT. Yet, by 2001, nearly half of PB programs had been ...


Information Aggregation In Polls, John Morgan, Phillip C. Stocken Jun 2008

Information Aggregation In Polls, John Morgan, Phillip C. Stocken

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We study information transmission via polling. A policymaker polls constituents, who differ in their information and ideology, to determine policy. Full revelation is an equilibrium in a poll with a small sample, but not with a large one. In large polls, full information aggregation can arise in an equilibrium where constituents endogenously sort themselves into centrists, who respond truthfully, and extremists, who do not. We find polling statistics that ignore strategic behavior yield biased estimators and mischaracterize the poll's margin of error. We construct estimators that account for strategic behavior. Finally, we compare polls and elections.


North Korea On The Precipice Of Famine, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks May 2008

North Korea On The Precipice Of Famine, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard, Erik Weeks

Marcus Noland

North Korea is once again headed toward widespread food shortages, hunger, and famine. As of this writing, the prospect of hunger-related deaths occurring in the next several months is approaching certainty. The expectation is based on four pieces of evidence, which we outline in the policy brief: - Food balances are as precarious as at any time since the great famine. - Access to aid or commercial import is limited by diplomatic tensions and the word food crisis. - Domestic food prices show the kind of extreme price inflation that is typical of pre-famine or famine settings. - The domestic policy response to the ...


German Banks In The Global Economy: Global Pressures And Public Sector Banking, Jason A. Gorn May 2008

German Banks In The Global Economy: Global Pressures And Public Sector Banking, Jason A. Gorn

Pitzer Senior Theses

German banking is distinguished from neighboring European banking systems by the influence of its public sector banks. Nearly 50 percent of German banking is carried out by government owned state banks (ländesbanken) and regional savings banks (sparkassen) whose roots date from the 18 th century. German banks play a particularly important role in the economy and exert more control over firms and corporations than do their American counterparts. German banks tend to be less profitable than foreign counterparts. German public banks were originally founded to foster local and regional business. However, the operations of German public sector banks now extend ...


Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach May 2008

Economic Inequality In The New European Union: Are Monetary Policies In The European Union Unfair For Certain Countries?, Gregory Eric Banach

Dissertations

This research is focused on the affect one uniform monetary policy will have on the less developed countries that entered the European Union (EU) in 2004. One of the challenges facing the new entrants involves the required implementation of monetary policy goals, even though these new entrants do not have a vote on how the monetary policy is determined. Monetary policy in the EU is the responsibility of the European Central Bank (ECB) who has a stated goal price stability. It is possible to use the Taylor Rule to test whether the ECB focuses on price stability for both old ...


Getting Your Politics, Philosophy And Economics Wrong: An Institutional Understanding Of Zimbabwe’S Collapse, Rafael Burde May 2008

Getting Your Politics, Philosophy And Economics Wrong: An Institutional Understanding Of Zimbabwe’S Collapse, Rafael Burde

Honors Theses (PPE)

Once hailed as a triumph for black liberation movements in the region and a role model of peace and productivity, the Republic of Zimbabwe has since the turn of the millennium found itself spiraling into the depths of socio-economic and developmental decay. During such time, the Mugabe administration has tarnished Zimbabwe’s once admirable reputation as the ‘bread basket’ of Southern Africa, as well as the fortunes of the Zimbabwean people. Zimbabwe's current economic and food crises have been described by some observers as one of Africa’s worst humanitarian disasters and a sorrowing case of 21st century ...


A Security And Peace Mechanism For Northeast Asia: The Economic Dimension, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard Apr 2008

A Security And Peace Mechanism For Northeast Asia: The Economic Dimension, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard

Marcus Noland

In this brief, we explore the economic dimension of multilateral security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with a discussion of the purported security benefits of economic egnagement with North Korea. We then outline recent economic developments in North Korea, which provide a crucial background to any discussion of the issue. We raise some cautionary questions about the scope for multilateral economic cooperation in Northeast Asia before outlining how economic cooperation can complement long-run security and economic objectives on the peninsula, including economic reform in North Korea.


An Empirical Analysis Of Macroeconomic And Political Determinants Of Private Investment In Sub-Saharan Africa, Ralph Cann-Tamakloe Apr 2008

An Empirical Analysis Of Macroeconomic And Political Determinants Of Private Investment In Sub-Saharan Africa, Ralph Cann-Tamakloe

School of Public Service Theses & Dissertations

The general macroeconomic and political difficulties experienced by many Sub-Saharan African countries in the late 1980s has led to economic and political reforms to improve private investment performance. It has been estimated that Sub-Saharan African countries needed to boost private investment in gross domestic product some 25% in the 1990s to achieve sustainable growth and development (Pfefferman and Madarassy, 1989). However, private investment performance has fallen short of the estimated 25%, and remained stagnant between 12.4% and 14.1% per annum from 1993 to 2002.

The purpose of this study therefore is to examine the influence of macroeconomic factors ...


South Africa And The Arab World: Facing Common Challenges, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack Mar 2008

South Africa And The Arab World: Facing Common Challenges, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack

Marcus Noland

Today the Arab countries of the Middle East face a challenge familiar to all South Africans: to create jobs for the large cohort of young people reaching working age. Over the next decade or so, the region may experience population growth of 150 million people—the equivalent of adding two Egypts (table 1). In demographic terms, the task is similar to that facing South Africa—only larger. Rising labor force participation by women only increases the pressure. The task is immense, and the stakes are high.


Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos Mar 2008

Why Brazil Has Not Grown: A Comparative Analysis Of Brazilian, Indian, And Chinese Economic Management, Fernando Ferrari, Anthony Petros Spanakos

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

This paper does not aim to dispute that Brazil would benefit from reforms in any or all of these areas. Rather, the paper offers a skeptical perspective on reform menus and proposes an alternative explanation for the faster growth of Brazil’s peers India and China2. The paper begins by introducing (section 1) the idea of the BRICs countries, to establish the basis for comparisons of most similar cases. It then surveys the results of a generation of Washington Consensus era growth (section 2). Although there is a considerable amount of divergence over what causes growth, it seems that something ...


North Korea In 2007, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard Feb 2008

North Korea In 2007, Marcus Noland, Stephan Haggard

Marcus Noland

The year 2007 witnessed a gradual rapprochement between North Korea and the world, reflecting changes both in the country's external environment and domestic political economy. Key markers were the resumption of the Six-Party Talks and the second North-South summit. Whether these developments will endure depends largely on North Korean intentions.


The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White Jan 2008

The Argentine Financial Crisis: State Liability Under Bits And The Legitimacy Of The Icsid System, William W. Burke-White

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay examines the jurisprudence of the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) arbitral tribunals in a series of cases brought against the Republic of Argentina in the wake of the 2001-2002 Argentine financial collapse. The essay considers the ICSID tribunals' treatment of non-precluded measures provisions in Argentina's bilateral investment treaties (BITs) and the customary law defense of necessity and argues that the ICSID tribunals have sought to radically narrow the opportunities available to states to craft policy responses to emergency situations while strengthening investor protections beyond the intent of the states parties to the BITs ...


‘Housing As Social Right Or Means To Wealth? Comparing The Politics Of Property Booms In Australia And Denmark’, Jens L. Mortensen, Leonard Seabrooke Jan 2008

‘Housing As Social Right Or Means To Wealth? Comparing The Politics Of Property Booms In Australia And Denmark’, Jens L. Mortensen, Leonard Seabrooke

Leonard Seabrooke

Should housing be considered a social right or a means to wealth? This article compares changes to taxation and housing finance regimes in a liberal market for residential property, Australia, and a corporatist market, Denmark. During the last decade, regulatory changes to taxation and housing finance systems in Australia and Denmark facilitated residential property booms. These reforms, particularly those following financial deregulation, introduced new mortgage instruments and changed economic incentives for selecting residential property as an investment vehicle. The reforms may also be associated with a more general process of transforming taxation and housing finance regimes to favour conception of ...


‘Varieties Of Residential Capitalism In The International Political Economy: New Politics In Old Welfare States’, Herman M. Schwartz, Leonard Seabrooke Jan 2008

‘Varieties Of Residential Capitalism In The International Political Economy: New Politics In Old Welfare States’, Herman M. Schwartz, Leonard Seabrooke

Leonard Seabrooke

Comparative and international political economy are justifiably obsessed with finance as a source of power and as a key causal force for domestic and international economic outcomes. Yet both CPE and IPE ignore the single largest asset in people’s everyday lives and one of the biggest financial assets in most economies: residential property and its associated mortgage debt. This special issue argues that residential housing and housing finance systems have important causal consequences for political behavior, social stability, the structure of welfare states, and macro-economic outcomes. The articles examine specific instances across a range of countries. This introduction has ...


Space Settlements, Property Rights, And International Law: Could A Lunar Settlement Claim The Lunar Real Estate It Needs To Survive?, Alan Wasser, Douglas Jobes Jan 2008

Space Settlements, Property Rights, And International Law: Could A Lunar Settlement Claim The Lunar Real Estate It Needs To Survive?, Alan Wasser, Douglas Jobes

Alan Wasser

The settlement of space and the expansion of the habitat of humanity beyond Earth will benefit all mankind but will be astronomically expensive. Private enterprise would do it if there were a sufficient profit potential, something only Lunar and Martian real estate is valuable enough to provide. Utilization of this tremendous potential value as an incentive has been prevented by the mistaken assumption that the 1967 Outer Space Treaty's prohibition of "national appropriation" and requirement of national supervision of private activities prohibit private property in space. This paper attempts to demonstrate, by expert legal consensus, that the 1967 Outer ...


Partidos, Gobierno Y Congreso: Chile Y Perú, 1965-2005, Jose Luis Sardon Jan 2008

Partidos, Gobierno Y Congreso: Chile Y Perú, 1965-2005, Jose Luis Sardon

Jose Luis Sardon

En el presente artículo se argumenta que las diferencias en los niveles de desarrollo alcanzados por Chile y Perú en los últimos 40 años se explican no solo por las reformas económicas emprendidas en uno y otro país sino también por la reforma política realizada en Chile en 1988, mediante la cual se sustituyó el sistema de representación proporcional por un sistema binominal para la elección del Congreso. Esto habría brindado incentivos para la consolidación del sistema de partidos y la estabilización del proceso democrático en Chile. Por el contrario, Perú, al haber persistido y aún profundizado la proporcionalidad de ...


Los Retos Para El Sistema Político Del Perú, Jose Luis Sardon Jan 2008

Los Retos Para El Sistema Político Del Perú, Jose Luis Sardon

Jose Luis Sardon

No abstract provided.


An Introduction To Citizens Capital Accounts, Karl Widerquist Jan 2008

An Introduction To Citizens Capital Accounts, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Arab Economies At A Tipping Point, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack Jan 2008

Arab Economies At A Tipping Point, Marcus Noland, Howard Pack

Marcus Noland

The Arab world is experiencing an economic boom of historic proportions. The tiny Persian Gulf emirate of Dubai is emblematic. Boasting the world's only seven-star hotel, its massive land reclamation project, allegedly the only man-made structure visible from the moon, is whimsically creating parcels shaped like continents and palm trees. With oil hovering above $90 a barrel and the Egyptian stock market up 1,800 percent in the last five years, one might ask what problems World Bank President Robert Zoellick perceives that would justify making the economic revitalization of the Arab world one of the cornerstones of his ...