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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Welfare And Democratic Legitimacy: The Impact Of Need-Based Welfare On Women’S Political Engagement In Latin America And The United States, Suzannah Ranzo Jan 2019

Welfare And Democratic Legitimacy: The Impact Of Need-Based Welfare On Women’S Political Engagement In Latin America And The United States, Suzannah Ranzo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Political engagement from a diverse populace is vital for the functioning of a legitimate democracy that proportionately represents the interests of the governed people. Impoverished women experience at least two forms of oppression due to their socioeconomic status and gender—and often other forms of oppression—which intersect to enhance their marginalization and exclusion from the political sphere. This research compares data from the United States and Latin America to discover if receiving welfare benefits from the government can mobilize or hinder low income women from engaging in politics. This research analyzes welfare’s impact on three forms of political ...


Perceptions Of Fairness And Political Support In The Face Of Economic Inequality, Gregory W. Saxton Jan 2019

Perceptions Of Fairness And Political Support In The Face Of Economic Inequality, Gregory W. Saxton

Theses and Dissertations--Political Science

In this dissertation, I investigate two key questions: 1) What are the specific conditions under which economic inequality undermines democratic legitimacy; and 2) How does inequality map onto individuals’ perceptions of fairness and subsequently affect satisfaction with democracy and trust in political institutions? I first argue that individuals’ perceptions of distributive unfairness are key factors whereby economic inequality undermines democratic legitimacy. Inequality - and subsequent perceptions that the economic distribution is unfair - undermine political support by signaling that the democratic process is not functioning properly and by challenging people’s normative expectations about what democracy should do in practice.

I next ...


Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn Jan 2019

Pro-Government Militias And The Legacy Of Military Rule In Latin America, Alexander Mendelsohn

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Currently Latin America experiences a phenomenon of widely varying levels of violence across the region. Many countries, such as El Salvador and Honduras, have exceptionally high murder rates upwards of 40 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). Other countries, such as Uruguay and Argentina, have relatively low rates, below 10 homicides per 100,000 people (UNODC 2015). I believe this variation stems from the use of pro-government militias specifically employed in the past by military governments as tools of suppression. Under the guise of combating subversive elements within their countries, these groups were used to silence and repress those ...


From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy Jan 2018

From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In Mexico and Argentina, the localization of Shakespeare marks the crystallization of a new nationalist, political identity rooted in a reshaped collective memory. The development of this identity and the role of memory form a new kind of national citizenship. This group citizenship gives an individual a connection to a nation established around the collective memory of events, or what I term the memory-nation. The localization of Shakespeare, then, marks the complete formation of a citizenship in a new memory-nation. In Mexico, the localization of Shakespeare and its use in cinema was part of a larger process of defining post-Revolutionary ...


Trust In The Police In Latin America: Understanding The Urban And Rural Divide, Abigail J. Sewall Jan 2018

Trust In The Police In Latin America: Understanding The Urban And Rural Divide, Abigail J. Sewall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Trust in the police is low throughout Latin America, particularly among residents of urban areas. The principle aim of this investigation is to determine why people in rural areas exhibit higher levels of trust in the police than their urban counterparts. This study focuses on the instrumental perspective of explaining trust, which emphasizes the importance of the performance of the police. Measures of negative experiences with the performance of the police are used to explain the difference in trust between urban and rural areas. The analyses find that people in urban areas are more frequently victimized by crime and solicited ...


You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners Jan 2018

You've Got A Friend In Me: The Effects Of Lgbtqia+ Legislators On Same-Sex Partnership Rights In Latin America, Danica Genners

Senior Independent Study Theses

Scholars have debated how descriptive representation might operate as a vehicle for furthering minority rights. Rarely discussed in this literature is the role that the election of LGBTQIA+ politicians can have on overall approval of LGBTQIA+ rights within a country. This study aims to identify the various effects that LGBTQIA+ sexual minority federal representatives in Latin America have on public opinion on pro-LGBTQIA+ policies. Using a multi-year, cross-national survey of eleven Latin American countries my study tests whether the election of a LGBTQIA+ representative is related to more progressive views on same-sex marriage. This study finds that the election of ...


Unequal Influence: The Impact Of Inequality On Trade Policy, Brian William Fitzpatrick Jan 2018

Unequal Influence: The Impact Of Inequality On Trade Policy, Brian William Fitzpatrick

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Trade was a central issue in the 2016 US presidential election, with both major party candidates debating how trade impacts American workers. However, the current literature on trade policy outcomes and inequality has insufficient measures of public opinion on trade. I examine the varying roles the public and interest groups play in the trade policy formation process as inequality changes in democratic societies. I expect, as inequality increases, the public and mass based interest groups will have less resources to expend on influencing policymakers. Also, as inequality increases economic elites’ and business interest groups’ resources will increase, and they will ...


The Path To 'Never Again': Human Rights Protest In Latin America, James Franklin Nov 2017

The Path To 'Never Again': Human Rights Protest In Latin America, James Franklin

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The systematic study of political repression and human rights violations has found a number of factors that consistently explain political repression. These especially include domestic structural and institutional factors, such as civil war, democracy, a youth population bulge, aspects of the legal and judicial system, and the role of oil in the economy.

These findings do not chart a clear path for human rights advocates, as it is difficult to change a country’s institutions or demographics or to end a civil war (Toft 2010). This growth of scholarly interest followed an expansion in international human rights advocacy, evidenced by ...


Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie May 2017

Latin American Gender Politics: Examining The Relationship Between Gender And Political Participation, Haley B. Lawrie

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Political participation highlights a great deal about the political system in a given country and how the system responds in turn. Women have a distinct way of participating in politics, particularly in the culture of machismo in contemporary Latin America. In this thesis, I examine the relationship between gender and political participation within two Latin American countries, Peru and Argentina. Through an analysis of voter turnout, political interest, cabinet participation, and political movements, I examine how gender impacts the political sphere. I ultimately argue that gender by itself is not distinctly tied to levels of participatory action for the average ...


Cicig In Guatemala: The Institutionalization Of An Anti-Corruption Body, Greg M. Morano Jan 2017

Cicig In Guatemala: The Institutionalization Of An Anti-Corruption Body, Greg M. Morano

Honors Theses

When is the institutionalization of anti-corruption bodies possible in Latin America? Central America’s Cold War era internal conflicts destabilized the Northern Triangle’s governments and greatly weakened judicial institutions. The legacy of these conflicts led to the creation of parallel corrupt networks that infiltrated state institutions and perpetuated impunity and violence. However, in Guatemala, the institutionalization of the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (Comisión Internacional Contra la Impunidad en Guatemala, CICIG) has improved the country’s ability to prosecute high-level corruption against the threat of powerful and corrupt state actors. A comparative analysis of the tenures of CICIG ...


The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard Nov 2016

The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the 29-year Duvalier dictatorship ended in 1986, the emergence of Mouvement Lavalas out of the grassroots organizations of Haiti's poor majority, and election of charismatic priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1990, challenged efforts by Haitian political parties and the U.S. foreign policy establishment to contain the parameters of Haiti's democratic transition. This dissertation examines the politics of Lavalas to determine whether it held a particular conception of democracy that explains the movement's antagonistic relationship with the political parties and U.S. democracy promoters.

Using the qualitative methodology of process-tracing outlined in the works of Paul F ...


The Rising Tide Of Indigenous Mobilization: Identity And The Politics Of Refusal In Mexico And Ecuador, Kelsey J. Freeman May 2016

The Rising Tide Of Indigenous Mobilization: Identity And The Politics Of Refusal In Mexico And Ecuador, Kelsey J. Freeman

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Mapuche Resilience: Environmental Justice In Chile, Hannah N. Lussier Jan 2016

Mapuche Resilience: Environmental Justice In Chile, Hannah N. Lussier

ENV 434 Environmental Justice

This paper presents a close analysis of the Mapuche Conflict and its implications from an Environmental Justice perspective. It serves to outline the plight of the Mapuche, a South American indigenous group, in their continued struggle to gain the rights to autonomic control over their ancestral territory from the Chilean government. By utilizing a holistic approach to research, this paper serves to provide a background on the conflict as well as to incorporate claims to justice. It chronicles the depth and breadth of media attention on the issue by incorporating perspectives from scholarly articles, news sources and social media platforms ...


Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen Oct 2015

Reproductive Rights In Latin America: A Case Study Of Guatemala And Nicaragua, Katherine W. Bogen

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

A lack of access to contraceptives and legal abortion for women throughout the nations of Nicaragua and Guatemala creates critical health care problems. Moreover, rural and underprivileged women in Guatemala and Nicaragua are facing greater limitations to birth control access, demonstrating a classist aspect in the global struggle for female reproductive rights. Although some efforts have been made over the past half-century to initiate a dialogue on the failure of medical care in these nations to adequately address issues of maternal mortality and reproductive rights, the women's reproductive health movements of Nicaragua and Guatemala have struggled to reach an ...


The Security Dilemma In South Asia, East Asia, And Latin America's Southern Cone: A Cross-Regional Comparison, Bibek Chand, Lukas Danner, Nicolas Terradas Mar 2014

The Security Dilemma In South Asia, East Asia, And Latin America's Southern Cone: A Cross-Regional Comparison, Bibek Chand, Lukas Danner, Nicolas Terradas

Lukas K. Danner

No abstract provided.


La Gobernabilidad Democrática En América Latina: Cuatro Ejes De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jan 2014

La Gobernabilidad Democrática En América Latina: Cuatro Ejes De Análisis, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

No abstract provided.


The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas May 2013

The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a new measure of democracy, the DCC index, is proposed and constructed from five popular indices of democracy (Freedom House, Polity IV, Vanhanen's index of democratization, Cheibub et al.'s index of democracy and dictatorship, and the Cingranelli-Richards index of electoral self-determination). The DCC was used to classify the regime types for twenty-four countries in the Americas and thirty-nine countries in Europe over a thirty-year period. The results indicated that democracy is a latent class variable. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for the five existing democracy indices as well as the newly proposed Unified ...


Social Policy And Redistribution: Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyn Huber Jan 2013

Social Policy And Redistribution: Chile And Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyn Huber

Political Science Faculty Publications

In this chapter we ask two questions: First, we ask whether these governments, exemplifying best-case scenarios in Latin America, have embarked on a viable path toward a sustainable social democratic welfare state. Second, we ask whether and why they differ in their approaches and progress on this path, paying close attention to how the parties' organizational characteristics influence this variation. In their introduction, Levitsky and Roberts classify the left parties in Chile and Uruguay as an "institutionalized partisan Left," distinguished between an "electoral-professional" Left and a "mass-organic" Left. Uruguay's FA is an example of a mass-organic left party, while ...


Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer Dec 2012

Elected Kings With The Name Of Presidents. On The Origins Of Presidentialism In The United States And Latin America, Josep M. Colomer

Josep M. Colomer

The leaders of the independence in the Americas chose their institutions in a context of high territorial tensions, which moved them to create a potential anchor in the figure of a powerful central executive. Presidential regimes were endogenously shaped as elected monarchies by rulers who were army chiefs. The military-presidential nexus is not accidental, but constitutive and substantial. Some legacies of those choices include the frequency of military rulers as chief executives and long-standing attempts at life appointments or indefinite reelections by incumbent presidents.


Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser Dec 2012

Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser

Cas Mudde

Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.


Technical Relevance And Social Opposition To E-Voting, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jun 2012

Technical Relevance And Social Opposition To E-Voting, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

This paper makes an assessment of the technical and social motivations that drive some governments to promote and implement e-voting mechanisms. Success stories mentioned, especially those in Latin America, and contrasted with those cases where e-voting implementation has failed, as has happened in some European countries. Finally, the relationship between new technologies that promote e-voting and the nature of the elections as a part of democracy is analyzed. It could be argued that voting is not solely a technical exercise, it is an element that merges different political and social elements that e-voting promoters should not ignore.


Modelos De Gestión Electoral En América Latina En Perspectiva Comparada, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Jun 2012

Modelos De Gestión Electoral En América Latina En Perspectiva Comparada, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

A través de un método comparativo se dan a conocer los diferentes modelos de gestión electoral desarrollados a partir de los procesos de democratización de las dos últimas décadas del siglo XX en América Latina. Los criterios más relevantes para realizar el estudio son el grado de independencia y la composición de los organismos encargados de la gestión electoral. Sin embargo, aclara, existen otros criterios que señalan diferencias centrales respecto al modelo de gestión adoptado por un país dado, puede ser un modelo unificado, permanente, con funciones de administración y justicia electoral, y además con una cobertura amplia. Hace hincapié ...


Where Is Local Government Going In Latin America? A Comparative Perspective, Robert Andrew Nickson Jan 2011

Where Is Local Government Going In Latin America? A Comparative Perspective, Robert Andrew Nickson

Robert Andrew Nickson

In the light of the decentralisation process now under way in Latin America, this paper seeks to address the direction of local government in the region. It proposes two Weberian ideal types of local government systems – ‘managerial’ and ‘governmental’. Ten basic features of local government systems are then used as a template to ‘situate’ Latin American local government within this typology. On the basis of this comparative framework, the paper tentatively concludes that the ‘managerial’ type of local government is gaining ground in the region.


Mujeres Y Bienestar: Un Estudio Comparativo De Chile Y Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble Jan 2011

Mujeres Y Bienestar: Un Estudio Comparativo De Chile Y Uruguay, Jennifer Pribble

Political Science Faculty Publications

Es ampliamente reconocido por economistas, cientistas políticos y sociólogos que las mujeres constituyen una proporción muy alta de la pobreza mundial. A pesar de las marcadas diferencias de género entre los pobres latinoamericanos, los análisis de los Estados de bienestar de Ia región se han concentrado primordialmente en explicar las diferencias en los niveles del gasto socialo total. Este enfoque ha dejado de lado una variable importante en los regímenes de bienestar latinoamericanos: el carácter de género en las políticas sociales. Este trabajo pretende cubrir esa brecha. Mediante un análisis comparativo de Chile y Uruguay, las páginas que siguen exploran ...


Gestión Electoral Comparada Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte Dec 2010

Gestión Electoral Comparada Y Confianza En Las Elecciones En América Latina, Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

Fernando Barrientos Del Monte

No se puede hablar de una buena elección si no existe una buena administración. Los organismos electorales, especialmente en América Latina, desempeñan un rol central en el proceso de legitimación de las principales autoridades políticas. A partir de los procesos de democratización en la región se ha privilegiado la gestión electoral encomendada a órganos electorales independientes del ejecutivo y legislativo, autónomos en su funcionamiento y altamente especializados para llevar a cabo procesos electorales eficaces y sobre todo para evitar fraudes electorales. Pero, comparativamente ¿Qué tan eficientes son estas instituciones? ¿En qué medida su arquitectura institucional y desempeño generan confianza de ...


Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla Dec 2009

Democracy And The Environment In Latin America, Javier Albert Escamilla

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the ability of democratic and non-democratic states alike to protect the environment. Democracy has long been an important concept in the study of politics and environmental protection is an increasingly important issue in world politics. Advocates of democracy claim democratic states are better able to protect the environment than non-democracies. In contrast there are those that argue democracy's emphasis on individual rights leads to excessive resource consumption. This thesis employs a mixed methods approach to determine if democratic countries protect the environment more than their non-democratic counterparts. In short democracies do protect the environment better than ...


Politics, Policies, And Poverty In Latin America, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyne Huber, John D. Stephens Jul 2009

Politics, Policies, And Poverty In Latin America, Jennifer Pribble, Evelyne Huber, John D. Stephens

Political Science Faculty Publications

Why do Latin American countries exhibit stark differences in their ability to protect citizens from falling into poverty? Analysis of poverty levels measured by ECLAC in eighteen countries shows that political factors-including the democratic record, long-term weight of left-of-center parties in the legislature, and investment in human capital-are significant and substantively important determinants of poverty. These findings contribute to the growing literature that emphasizes the importance of regime form, parties, and policies for a variety of outcomes in Latin America, despite the weaknesses of democracy and the pathologies of some parties and party systems in the region.


Political Parties And Institutional Design: Explaining Constitutional Choice In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto Jan 2009

Political Parties And Institutional Design: Explaining Constitutional Choice In Latin America, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

The formulas for electing presidents and the rules determining the legislative powers of presidents are important variables for explaining the performance of presidential democracies. This article develops a strategic choice model to explain variations in these institutional features. Based on this model, it is proposed here that constitution makers are likely to opt for more-than-plurality rules of presidential elections when the number of parties necessary to pass constitutional changes increases. It is also proposed that the makers of constitutions are likely to strengthen the legislative powers of the president when the number of parties necessary to pass constitutional changes increases ...


Beyond Corporatism And Liberalism: State And Civil Society In Cooperation In Nicaragua, Hannah Pallmeyer Jan 2009

Beyond Corporatism And Liberalism: State And Civil Society In Cooperation In Nicaragua, Hannah Pallmeyer

Hispanic Studies Honors Projects

The Nicaraguan state has historically attempted to control Nicaraguan civil society using corporatist and liberal-democratic frameworks. This has created a difficult organizing environment for civil society organizations to struggle for social change. In this thesis, I argue that civil society organizations, operating in 2008 in a corporatist or liberal framework, were less effective in achieving national social change than organizations that worked cooperatively with the state, yet maintained some autonomy. This hypothesis is developed using the case study of three water rights organizations, and is further tested using the case of corporatist-structured Citizen Power Councils, created in 2007.


Bonds, Stocks Or Dollars? Do Voters Care About Capital Markets In Brazil And Mexico, Anthony Petros Spanakos, Lucio Remuzat Renno Junior Jan 2009

Bonds, Stocks Or Dollars? Do Voters Care About Capital Markets In Brazil And Mexico, Anthony Petros Spanakos, Lucio Remuzat Renno Junior

Department of Political Science and Law Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

How does vote intention in presidential elections vary according to the economic conditions of a country, especially indicators of the financial market? Does the state of the economy, both its fundamentals as well as capital market, affect variation in candidates’ percentage of vote intention in national polls? This paper tests how economic indicators influence vote intention in presidential elections in two emerging markets: Brazil and Mexico. The presidential elections of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006 in Brazil and 2000 and 2006 in Mexico are analyzed using all poll returns for each electoral period and corresponding economic data. The paper finds ...