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Comparative Politics

Democratization

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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Growing Middle Class And The Absence Of Democracy In China, Danni Mei May 2019

The Growing Middle Class And The Absence Of Democracy In China, Danni Mei

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Contrary to the prediction of modernization theory, the vibrant Chinese economy and its growing middle class have not brought democratic change to the authoritarian country. This work sheds light on the puzzle of the absence of democracy in China despite a fast-growing middle class. The study argues that the key to explaining the middle class’ inert political behavior is to be found in its fragmentation. It is necessary to disaggregate the political, economic, and social positions of different subgroups of the Chinese middle class—government officials and party cadres, private entrepreneurs of small or medium businesses, professionals, and white-collar employees ...


Reform And Democratization In Ukraine: My Service As A Peace Corps Volunteer With An Ukrainian Local Government Organization, Danielle Stevens Apr 2019

Reform And Democratization In Ukraine: My Service As A Peace Corps Volunteer With An Ukrainian Local Government Organization, Danielle Stevens

Capstone Projects – Politics and Government

This paper provides a micro-analysis of democratization and reform in an Ukrainian local government institution that was the site placement for the author's Peace Corps service. Through using a culturalist lens and applying open systems theory while working as a Peace Corps Volunteer, the researcher observed how one organization coped with implementing public administration reform that is the result of the Revolution of Dignity in 2013-2014. This paper contributes to existing research regarding reform efficacy in other post-Soviet spaces, and provides a foundation for furthering similar research in Ukraine.


The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay May 2017

The Fourth Wave Of Democratization: A Comparative Analysis Of Tunisia And Egypt, Ariel M. Dunay

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

In the years following the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings, Tunisia and Egypt began the process of creating a new government and constitution made by the people and for the people. However, their differing democratic outcomes begs the question of what factors led Tunisia to become a democracy and Egypt to remain stagnant. This thesis analyzes the democratic transition process through a side-by-side comparison of Tunisia and Egypt in the years since the Arab Spring. It will explore the thin lines between the military, economy, and social movements that all affect the state-building process. It will argue that Tunisia has achieved ...


Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka Oct 2016

Minority Protection And Democratic Consolidation: The Role Of European Integration In The Republic Of Macedonia, Eltion Meka

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The purpose of this article is to take stock of the European integration literature in reference to Eastern Europe in order to better understand how international forces affect minority rights. The article will focus on the status of the Albanian minority in the case of the Republic of Macedonia and attempt to illustrate how European integration has contributed to or hindered ethnic reconciliation between the ethnic Albanian minority and Macedonian majority through a historical-sociological analysis. Additionally, by linking the protection of minority rights to democratic consolidation, this article will show how the former is largely dependent on the latter.


Malaysia's Transitional Moment? : Democratic Transition Theory And The Problem Of Malaysian Exceptionalism., Jason P. Abbott Aug 2016

Malaysia's Transitional Moment? : Democratic Transition Theory And The Problem Of Malaysian Exceptionalism., Jason P. Abbott

Jason Abbott

Many theorists of democratization transition have, either explicitly or implicitly, a teleological concept of political progress, liberalization and reform. For such theorists, countries such as Malaysia are therefore in transition towards substantive 'full' liberal democracy. Taken in this light, the significant advances by opposition political parties in the 2008 federal and state elections in Malaysia represent a major advance towards this end goal. While many have highlighted that Malaysia may in fact be an exception to this rule, this paper contends instead that the Malaysian case study challenges the central tenets of democratic transition more profoundly. Indeed, since independence the ...


De La Gestión De Recursos Al Activismo Social: Los Caps Y La Gobernanza Del Agua Rural En Nicaragua, Sarah T. Romano Jun 2016

De La Gestión De Recursos Al Activismo Social: Los Caps Y La Gobernanza Del Agua Rural En Nicaragua, Sarah T. Romano

Faculty Publications

Asegurar el acceso sostenible al agua es un problema cada vez más agudo y de alcance global. De la gestión de recursos al activismo social: Los CAPS y la gobernanza de agua rural en Nicaragua, destaca como este problema es también uno que se entrecruza de formas cruciales con los procesos políticos democráticos. Con base en trece meses de trabajo de campo en Nicaragua, esta investigación examina cómo los administradores de recursos comunitarios y proveedores del servicio de agua trascienden sus comunidades rurales para involucrarse fundamentalmente en nuevas formas de participación política, incidencia y establecimiento de redes.

Después de treinta ...


Policy Dilemmas And Political Unrest In Poland, David Mason Jan 2016

Policy Dilemmas And Political Unrest In Poland, David Mason

David S. Mason

The recent unrest in Poland is not simply a struggle between the workers and the regime over political freedom and economic reform. A basic cause of the unrest, as in past years, is the failure of the regime to balance adequately the conflicting policies of promoting long-term investment in industry, raising the standard of living, and reducing social class inequalities. Each of these policies represents a major goal of the regime, and of socialist ideology. The regime has not been able to emphasize all three goals simultaneously, and has shifted resources and attention from one to the other over the ...


Regional Integration And Democratic Conditionality: How Democracy Clauses Help Democratic Consolidation And Deepening, Gaspare Genna, Taeko Hiroi Dec 2014

Regional Integration And Democratic Conditionality: How Democracy Clauses Help Democratic Consolidation And Deepening, Gaspare Genna, Taeko Hiroi

Gaspare M Genna

How effective are democracy clauses of regional integration organizations (RIOs) in promoting democratization and democratic consolidation among member-states? RIOs are increasingly adopting "democracy only" clauses in their treaties, requiring democracy and political stability as a condition of membership. Stable democracy is a collective good for RIO members; without political stability, uncertainty regarding economic exchange increases, undermining the promise of integration. The presence of powerful countries may be necessary for the RIOs to legalize democratic conditionality. In this book, the authors argue that once established democracy clauses exert an independent influence in promoting and defending democratic norms and institutions within the ...


Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman Dec 2012

Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article develops two conceptual models, based on empirical data, for assessing deliberation and decision making within United States adoptions of Participatory Budgeting (PB). The first model is results oriented whereas the second model is process oriented. The two models evince the tension between inclusiveness and efficiency that emerge as U.S. PB tries accommodating the dual goals of improved short-term service delivery and democratic deepening. Each model satisfies one of these deliberate goals better. Results oriented deliberation is more effective at producing viable projects whereas process oriented is better at ensuring that all participants’ voices are heard. Variation suggests ...


Democratic Opposition Parties And Democratic Outcomes In Hybrid Regimes, Jeremy M. Ladd Aug 2012

Democratic Opposition Parties And Democratic Outcomes In Hybrid Regimes, Jeremy M. Ladd

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Leading up to and following the end of the Cold War a new wave of democratisation commenced in Sub-Saharan Africa and around the world which, in both cases, has been characterized by “blocked transitions,” the “rise of competitive authoritarianism,” and the proliferation of hybrid regimes. This thesis is primarily concerned with “democratic” outcomes within these hybrid regimes. Excluding data from prior to the end of the Cold War in global investigations of democracy, this thesis utilizes a temporally truncated dataset to reanalyse dominant theories of democratisation both at the global and regional (Sub-Saharan Africa) level, finding that when contaminating effects ...


Hungary's Illiberal Turn: Can Outsiders Help?, Cas Mudde, Erin K. Jenne Jun 2012

Hungary's Illiberal Turn: Can Outsiders Help?, Cas Mudde, Erin K. Jenne

Cas Mudde

Since the conservative FIDESZ won the 2010 Hungarian elections, the new government under Premier Victor Orban has begun an unprecedented reform of the country's political system, strongly undermining the fundamentals of liberal democracy. With the opposition parties discredited, the only hope is in a slowly developing civil society. This article looks at what the international community (in particular the EU) can do to pressure the Hungarian government to respect liberal democracy and to strengthen the democratic opposition.


On The Evasion Of Executive Term Limits, Tom Ginsburg Jan 2011

On The Evasion Of Executive Term Limits, Tom Ginsburg

Tom Ginsburg

Executive term limits are pre-commitments through which the polity restricts its ability to retain a popular executive down the road. But in recent years, many presidents around the world have chosen to remain in office even after their initial maximum term in office has expired. They have largely done so by amending the constitution, or sometimes by replacing it entirely. The practice of revising higher law for the sake of a particular incumbent raises intriguing issues that touch ultimately on the normative justification for term limits in the first place. This article reviews the normative debate over term limits and ...


Revolutions Without Revolutionaries? Social Media Networks And Regime Response In Egypt, David Faris May 2010

Revolutions Without Revolutionaries? Social Media Networks And Regime Response In Egypt, David Faris

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Does the Internet change the balance of power between authoritarian regimes and their domestic opponents? The results of this case study of Egyptian digital activism suggest that the Internet has important effects on authoritarian politics, though not necessarily the kind we have come to expect from popular accounts of online activism. In this dissertation, I argue that what I call Social Media Networks can trigger informational cascades through their interaction effects with independent media outlets and on-the-ground organizers. They do so primarily through the reduction of certain costs of collective action, the transmission capabilities of certain elite nodes in social ...


Rethinking Judicialization: Towards A Better Empirical Model, Ryan J. Levan Apr 2010

Rethinking Judicialization: Towards A Better Empirical Model, Ryan J. Levan

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Since World War II, scholarly examination of countries in nearly every corner of the map has discovered the rampant growth of the power of judges and courts. I contend that this growth has been overstated by a tradition of recent scholarship that has at times demonstrated the tendency to brand courts as powerful prematurely. This fundamental error is the result of two chief difficulties. First, we have yet to arrive at a universally accepted definition of judicial power, which, in turn, contributes to the second problem: the inadequate number of reliable and universally applicable metrics of judicial power. The aim ...


From Undemocratic To Democratic Civil Society: Japan's Volunteer Fire Departments, Mary Alice Haddad Feb 2010

From Undemocratic To Democratic Civil Society: Japan's Volunteer Fire Departments, Mary Alice Haddad

Division II Faculty Publications

How do undemocratic civic organizations become compatible with democratic civil society? How do local organizations merge older patriarchal, hierarchical values and practices with newer more egalitarian, democratic ones? This article tells the story of how volunteer fire departments have done this in Japan. Their transformation from centralized war instrument of an authoritarian regime to local community safety organization of a full-fledged democracy did not happen overnight. A slow process of demographic and value changes helped the organization adjust to more democratic social values and practices. The way in which this organization made the transition offers important lessons for emerging democracies ...


From Undemocratic To Democratic Civil Society: Japan's Volunteer Fire Departments, Mary Alice Haddad Jan 2010

From Undemocratic To Democratic Civil Society: Japan's Volunteer Fire Departments, Mary Alice Haddad

Mary Alice Haddad

How do undemocratic civic organizations become compatible with democratic civil society? How do local organizations merge older patriarchal, hierarchical values and practices with newer more egalitarian, democratic ones? This article tells the story of how volunteer fire departments have done this in Japan. Their transformation from centralized war instrument of an authoritarian regime to local community safety organization of a full-fledged democracy did not happen overnight. A slow process of demographic and value changes helped the organization adjust to more democratic social values and practices. The way in which this organization made the transition offers important lessons for emerging democracies ...


Malaysia's Transitional Moment? : Democratic Transition Theory And The Problem Of Malaysian Exceptionalism., Jason P. Abbott Jul 2009

Malaysia's Transitional Moment? : Democratic Transition Theory And The Problem Of Malaysian Exceptionalism., Jason P. Abbott

Faculty Scholarship

Many theorists of democratization transition have, either explicitly or implicitly, a teleological concept of political progress, liberalization and reform. For such theorists, countries such as Malaysia are therefore in transition towards substantive 'full' liberal democracy. Taken in this light, the significant advances by opposition political parties in the 2008 federal and state elections in Malaysia represent a major advance towards this end goal. While many have highlighted that Malaysia may in fact be an exception to this rule, this paper contends instead that the Malaysian case study challenges the central tenets of democratic transition more profoundly. Indeed, since independence the ...


Upping The Odds: Deviant Democracies And Theories Of Democratization, Renske Doorenspleet, Cas Mudde Dec 2007

Upping The Odds: Deviant Democracies And Theories Of Democratization, Renske Doorenspleet, Cas Mudde

Cas Mudde

This concluding article tries to integrate the different insights of the individual case studies of this special issue into some comparative observations. The findings are related to debates and findings of the broader literature on democratization, with the aim of generating new insights that might help develop new studies on the topic. Importantly, our suggestions are to be considered as hypotheses complementary to the two dominant theories of democratization, rather than opposite to them, accepting both their key assumptions and stipulations. More specifically, two aspects of key concern to the study of democratization are discussed in more detail: the phasing ...


Democracy On Stilts: Bolivia's Democracy From Stability To Crisis, Miguel Centellas Apr 2007

Democracy On Stilts: Bolivia's Democracy From Stability To Crisis, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Bolivia’s recent political crisis starkly contrasts to the preceding two decades of relative democratic stability. Though a unique system of “parliamentarized” presidentialism together with lingering consensus on the national project inherited from the 1952 Revolution supported democratic stability, using qualitative and quantitative methods, this study shows that seemingly benign changes in institutional design made in the 1990s contributed to the acceleration of already existing tendencies towards divisive sectoral, regional, and ethnic politics. A key observation is that successful long-term democratization requires institutions for adequately channeling and representing social demands as well as a shared vision of a political “imagined ...


Globalization, The Developmental State, And The Politics Of Urban Growth In Korea: A Multilevel Analysis, Yooil Bae, Jefferey M. Sellers Jan 2007

Globalization, The Developmental State, And The Politics Of Urban Growth In Korea: A Multilevel Analysis, Yooil Bae, Jefferey M. Sellers

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This article explores the politics of urban growth in a transitional society. Korea, which is experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization and democratic transition exemplifies a set of conditions that may seem to favor the emergence of an urban growth politics and business-led growth coalition much like that found in urban areas at the time of industrialization, and still prevalent in much of the US and other western democracies today. Yet our multilevel case analyses show that the transformations in Korea as a late industrializer, late democratizer and late adopter of urban policy have helped to consolidate more restricted policies toward urban ...


Distrust Breeds Bureaucracy: Democratization And The Formal Regulation Of Electoral Governance In Mexico, Andreas Schedler Jan 2001

Distrust Breeds Bureaucracy: Democratization And The Formal Regulation Of Electoral Governance In Mexico, Andreas Schedler

Andreas Schedler

In contemporary Mexico, political parties have subject electoral authorities to tight legal regulation. Their reliance on “bureaucratic” control sheds light on a crucial premise of “post-bureaucratic” approaches: deregulation presupposes trust. The article describes the distrust-driven regulation of three areas of electoral governance: record keeping, the identification of voters and ballots, and time rules. It concludes with reflections on the potential costs of bureaucratizing electoral governance.


What Has Eastern Europe Taught Us About The Democratisation Literature (And Vice Versa)?, Petr Kopecky, Cas Mudde Dec 1999

What Has Eastern Europe Taught Us About The Democratisation Literature (And Vice Versa)?, Petr Kopecky, Cas Mudde

Cas Mudde

The relationship between Eastern Europe and democratisation studies so far has been highly asymmetric. In contrast to the vast contribution, both in data and theory, of Eastern Europe to the democratisation literature, the latter has been of only modest use to the understanding of the democratisation processes in post communist Europe. Despite the growing number of empirically grounded assessments, most notably of degrees of democratic consolidation within East-Central Europe, there is still very little agreement on what exactly is democratic transition and consolidation or on what explains the seemingly widening gap between East-Central Europe on the one hand and the ...


Explaining Different Paths Of Democratization: The Czech And Slovak Republics, Cas Mudde Dec 1999

Explaining Different Paths Of Democratization: The Czech And Slovak Republics, Cas Mudde

Cas Mudde

Since the ‘velvet split’ in January 1993, the Czech and Slovak Republics seem to have developed into completely different directions: towards a role model and a problematic case of post-communist democracy respectively. This supposedly sharp difference in development provides in itself a very interesting topic for study, but also makes for a very useful set-up to evaluate the many theories that have been offered to explain (un)successful processes of democratization in Eastern Europe. In this article, we compare the two countries in light of their degree of ‘democratic consolidation’, to establish in more detail in which way they actually ...


A Burguesia Contra O Estado? Crise Política, Ação De Classe E Os Rumos Da Transição, Adriano Codato Jan 1995

A Burguesia Contra O Estado? Crise Política, Ação De Classe E Os Rumos Da Transição, Adriano Codato

Adriano Codato

This article discusses the bourgeoisie struggles against "nationalization" (1975-1976), and for "democracy" (1977-1978) and their relation to the transformations of the state system in Brazil after 1974. My objective here is to determine in what way certain organizational formats promoted by the Geisel government (1974-1979) significantly altered the current system of representation of "private" interests, based on corporatism, and its relation to the political conflicts from the "distension" period and the "political opening".


Policy Dilemmas And Political Unrest In Poland, David S. Mason Jan 1983

Policy Dilemmas And Political Unrest In Poland, David S. Mason

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

The recent unrest in Poland is not simply a struggle between the workers and the regime over political freedom and economic reform. A basic cause of the unrest, as in past years, is the failure of the regime to balance adequately the conflicting policies of promoting long-term investment in industry, raising the standard of living, and reducing social class inequalities. Each of these policies represents a major goal of the regime, and of socialist ideology. The regime has not been able to emphasize all three goals simultaneously, and has shifted resources and attention from one to the other over the ...