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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman May 2019

Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The last several decades of health law and policy have been built on a foundation of economic theory. This theory supported the proliferation of market-based policies that promised maximum efficiency and minimal bureaucracy. Neither of these promises has been realized. A mounting body of empirical research discussed in this Article makes clear that leading market-based policies are not efficient — they fail to capture what people want. Even more, this Article describes how the struggle to bolster these policies — through constant regulatory, technocratic tinkering that aims to improve the market and the decision-making of consumers in it — has produced a massive ...


They Sold Our Park! How Local Governments Fail At Democracy, Zandria Michaud May 2019

They Sold Our Park! How Local Governments Fail At Democracy, Zandria Michaud

Global Honors Theses

In 2016 the city of Kent, Washington sold a public park to a housing developer. While this sale may seem typical, what was disconcerting to Kent residents was not only that they were losing a park, but also that they knew nothing of the sale. The entire process of selling the park to a housing developer had been in the works for more than ten years, and yet, no one thought to ask the residents about it. From this sale, several issues arose regarding city level government democracy and the role of citizens in policy decision-making. By critically examining the ...


Is Authoritarianism Bad For The Economy? Ask Venezuela – Or Hungary Or Turkey, Nisha Bellinger, Byunghwan Son Feb 2019

Is Authoritarianism Bad For The Economy? Ask Venezuela – Or Hungary Or Turkey, Nisha Bellinger, Byunghwan Son

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Democracy is at risk worldwide. And the economy may be, too.

Seventy-one out of the world’s 195 countries saw their democratic institutions erode in recent years, according to the 2018 year-end report by democracy watchdog Freedom House, a phenomenon known as “democratic backsliding.” Signs of backsliding include elected leaders who expand their executive powers while weakening the legislature and judiciary, elections that have become less competitive and shrinking press freedom.


A Coordination-Based Approach To Subnational Variations In Split-Ticket Voting: The Case Of Ghana 1996-2016, Samuel Kofi Darkwa Jan 2019

A Coordination-Based Approach To Subnational Variations In Split-Ticket Voting: The Case Of Ghana 1996-2016, Samuel Kofi Darkwa

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

This dissertation seeks to explain the causes of split-ticket voting (skirt and blouse voting) in emerging democracies like Ghana. The analysis carried out here has been approached at three levels. This is because voters’ decisions in the voting booth are affected by factors within the larger political environment which are often beyond the individual voter. Thus, the three approaches employed here consider individual-level, constituency-level, and elite-level factors that affect the phenomenon. In each case different datasets were used to examine split-ticket voting. The analysis reveals that the individual-level factors (demographic characteristics and political information variables) are weak in explaining ticket ...


Rwu First Amendment Blog: David Logan's Blog: Recognizing The Free Press In The Crosshairs Across The Globe 12-12-2018, David A. Logan Dec 2018

Rwu First Amendment Blog: David Logan's Blog: Recognizing The Free Press In The Crosshairs Across The Globe 12-12-2018, David A. Logan

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Political Accountability And Determinants Of Governance Under Principal-Agent Theory, Matthew Bluem May 2018

Political Accountability And Determinants Of Governance Under Principal-Agent Theory, Matthew Bluem

Dissertations

This study examines the theory that quality of governance is largely dependent upon political accountability, and that the effect of political accountability on governance varies based on three main determinants: level of democracy, level of information available to the public, and diversification of the economy (Adserà et al. 2003). With quality of governance, represented by the World Bank’s World Governance Indicators (WGI), as the dependent variable, this study considers how these three independent variables, and several control variables, affect governance quality. Incorporating data from 2010 – 2015 for 143 countries in both cross-sectional OLS and fixed effects panel regression analysis ...


Unequal Democracies: Economic Sanctions' Impact On Human Rights In Democratic Systems, Daniel Partin May 2018

Unequal Democracies: Economic Sanctions' Impact On Human Rights In Democratic Systems, Daniel Partin

Masters Theses

In the past, research into the field of human rights has treated regime as a dichotomous variable and divided the type of governmental structure into either autocracies or democracies. By lumping all democracies into one category, all variation between different categories of governmental composition is discarded and it is difficult to examine the differences between types of democratic governments and their human rights capacities. Due to their tendency to accrete power centrally, presidential democracies are thought to repress the rights of citizens more often and severely than parliamentary systems. Further, an exogenous shock to the political system, such as the ...


Tracking Public Support For Japan's Remilitarization Policies: An Examination Of Elitist And Pluralist Governance, Cory S. Madison Apr 2018

Tracking Public Support For Japan's Remilitarization Policies: An Examination Of Elitist And Pluralist Governance, Cory S. Madison

Student Publications

Has Japan’s post-Second World War transformation into one of the most militarily capable nations been the result of 60 years of truly representative government? This research compares government-collected opinion polls to policy trends and actions, to determine whether the case of Japan’s remilitarization argues for or against the country’s democratic quality. For the purpose of this research, the size of Japan’s military and its legislative freedom to act as a more conventional military were considered the most pertinent militarization policies. Results indicated that those policies were consistently unjustified by measured opinion, suggesting elitist policy formation. However ...


Is “This Guy” A Dictator? On The Morality Of Evaluating Russian Democracy Under Vladimir Putin, Amir Azarvan Jan 2018

Is “This Guy” A Dictator? On The Morality Of Evaluating Russian Democracy Under Vladimir Putin, Amir Azarvan

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

Is it morally defensible to single Russian president, Vladimir Putin, out as a dictator? The popular impression that he is a dictator has been used to legitimize a dangerously adversarial policy towards what a U.S. Army general described as “the only country on earth…that could “destroy the United States.” I argue that this perception is in some ways misleading, and has contributed to escalating tensions with Russia, which is both unnecessary and harmful both to Russia and the U.S.


Government And The Intelligence Community: A Case Study On Russia And The United States Government's Effect On Intelligence Systems, Jessica M. Lago Jan 2018

Government And The Intelligence Community: A Case Study On Russia And The United States Government's Effect On Intelligence Systems, Jessica M. Lago

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The United States and Russia are two major superpowers with governments that are run in different manners. Central to a government's and country's defense is their intelligence systems. The intelligence systems of these two countries are run as part of the government and are integral to its functioning. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss how both the governments and intelligence systems are structured and do they coincide with their respective systems. Using a case study on the United States and Russia, their intelligence systems and governments a comparison was drawn. While looking at the history of ...


What We Bring With Us And What We Leave Behind: Six Months In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Virginia Casper, Donna Futterman, Evan Casper-Futterman Nov 2017

What We Bring With Us And What We Leave Behind: Six Months In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Virginia Casper, Donna Futterman, Evan Casper-Futterman

Occasional Paper Series

The authors, a family, reflect on their experiences living, volunteering, and going to school in South Africa for six months. They sought to live in a society in which white people were not the majority and to experience the transformation of the new South Africa, not as tourists, but as participants.


Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner Apr 2017

Why Have Youth From Different Neighborhoods Of Durban, South Africa Developed Different Opinions Regarding The Role And Importance Of Voting In The Current State Of South African Democracy?, Anthony L. Wagner

Student Publications

The field of political science has become increasingly interested in the electoral participatory habits of young people in recent decades, and in post-apartheid South Africa more specifically in light of the recent and ongoing #feesmustfall movement within the nation's tertiary institutions. Since 1994, South Africa has made a great deal of progress towards dismantling the apartheid system; however, vast inequalities remain and many, mostly black African communities have not yet reaped the rewards of a democratic South Africa. Using qualitative data gathered from three focus groups, this paper examines why youth from black African township communities of Durban, South ...


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard Nov 2016

The Politics Of Democratization: Jean-Bertrand Aristide And The Lavalas Movement In Haiti, Dimmy Herard

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As the 29-year Duvalier dictatorship ended in 1986, the emergence of Mouvement Lavalas out of the grassroots organizations of Haiti's poor majority, and election of charismatic priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide in 1990, challenged efforts by Haitian political parties and the U.S. foreign policy establishment to contain the parameters of Haiti's democratic transition. This dissertation examines the politics of Lavalas to determine whether it held a particular conception of democracy that explains the movement's antagonistic relationship with the political parties and U.S. democracy promoters.

Using the qualitative methodology of process-tracing outlined in the works of Paul F ...


Youth Participatory Democracy And Political Choices: Views From Ethekweni, Anthony L. Wagner Oct 2015

Youth Participatory Democracy And Political Choices: Views From Ethekweni, Anthony L. Wagner

Student Publications

In this research project I am seeking to gauge youth participation in and attitudes towards the South African democratic process. As in many democratic societies, there is a perception by some that the youth of South Africa are apathetic to issues related to politics and government. In this study I seek to evaluate youth perspectives of democracy based on what they have been taught in school and at home, levels of youth political participation, attitudes towards the African National Congress’s (ANC) dominance of South African politics, perceptions of political alternatives to the ANC, young people’s engagement with nongovernmental ...


The Political Consequences Of Party System Change, Riccardo Pelizzo, Zim Nwokora Aug 2015

The Political Consequences Of Party System Change, Riccardo Pelizzo, Zim Nwokora

riccardo pelizzo

This article engages one of the important gaps in the literature on party system effects: the consequences of party system change. We discuss how existing empirical approaches to party system change do not actually capture the changeability of patterns of party competition, which is the most direct understanding of the term “party system.” We propose a measure that does exactly this: the index of fluidity. Applying this measure to countries in South East Asia, we show that party system change is associated with harmful effects, including lower foreign direct investment and deterioration of the rule of law


Introduction: Perspectives On The World's Search For Stable Democracy, Rodney A. Smolla, Darlene P. Bradberry Jul 2015

Introduction: Perspectives On The World's Search For Stable Democracy, Rodney A. Smolla, Darlene P. Bradberry

Rod Smolla

No abstract provided.


Coup D'État And International Trade, Brian Alan Childers May 2015

Coup D'État And International Trade, Brian Alan Childers

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Millennial Identity Within The U.S. And India: Students' Identities And Role In Democracy, Diana K. Elhard, Bridget N. Barry, Justin M. Markon, Erin M. Kelso Apr 2015

Millennial Identity Within The U.S. And India: Students' Identities And Role In Democracy, Diana K. Elhard, Bridget N. Barry, Justin M. Markon, Erin M. Kelso

Celebrating Scholarship & Creativity Day

Research began in January, 2014 in Calcutta, India, in the peak of that country’s parliamentary campaign season. It also coincided with the beginning of the U.S. midterm election season. Our objective was to gauge the similarities and differences between political perceptions and engagement in Indian and U.S. college students. Our sample population included six students from each group; the Indian students were from St. Xavier’s College and U.S. students from CSB/SJU. This qualitative study focused on students’ own perception of how their political participation and role in democracy was affected by their local- and ...


Regime Type And Female Health In The World: A Study Of The Effects Of Democracy On Women's Access To Health Care, Maxwell Nathanson Jan 2015

Regime Type And Female Health In The World: A Study Of The Effects Of Democracy On Women's Access To Health Care, Maxwell Nathanson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper studies the relationship between maternal access to health care and democracy. Access to female health services is a critical metric in measuring the overall quality of health care globally, and is an indicator of a state’s cultural, social, and political development. Likewise, the degree of political freedom in a country is correlated with the amount of funding social welfare programs receive (Brown and Hunter, 1999; Navarro et al., 2006).

In this paper, I examine how states ranging from democratic to authoritarian provide health care for their female populations. Using data provided by the World Bank and Freedom ...


Regional Integration And Democratic Conditionality: How Democracy Clauses Help Democratic Consolidation And Deepening, Gaspare Genna, Taeko Hiroi Dec 2014

Regional Integration And Democratic Conditionality: How Democracy Clauses Help Democratic Consolidation And Deepening, Gaspare Genna, Taeko Hiroi

Gaspare M Genna

How effective are democracy clauses of regional integration organizations (RIOs) in promoting democratization and democratic consolidation among member-states? RIOs are increasingly adopting "democracy only" clauses in their treaties, requiring democracy and political stability as a condition of membership. Stable democracy is a collective good for RIO members; without political stability, uncertainty regarding economic exchange increases, undermining the promise of integration. The presence of powerful countries may be necessary for the RIOs to legalize democratic conditionality. In this book, the authors argue that once established democracy clauses exert an independent influence in promoting and defending democratic norms and institutions within the ...


How Secular Should Democracy Be? A Cross-Disciplinary Study Of Catholicism And Islam In Promoting Public Reason, David Ingram, David Ingram Oct 2014

How Secular Should Democracy Be? A Cross-Disciplinary Study Of Catholicism And Islam In Promoting Public Reason, David Ingram, David Ingram

Philosophy: Faculty Publications and Other Works

I argue that the same factors (strategic and principled) that motivated Catholicism to champion liberal democracy are the same that motivate 21st Century Islam to do the same. I defend this claim by linking political liberalism to democratic secularism. Distinguishing institutional, political, and epistemic dimensions of democratic secularism, I show that moderate forms of political and epistemic secularism are most conducive to fostering the kind of public reasoning essential to democratic legitimacy. This demonstration draws upon the ambivalent impact of Indonesia’s Islamic parties in advancing universal social justice aims as against more sectarian policies.


The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas May 2013

The Democracy Cluster Classification Index, Mihaiela R. Gugiu, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Using hierarchical cluster analysis, a new measure of democracy, the DCC index, is proposed and constructed from five popular indices of democracy (Freedom House, Polity IV, Vanhanen's index of democratization, Cheibub et al.'s index of democracy and dictatorship, and the Cingranelli-Richards index of electoral self-determination). The DCC was used to classify the regime types for twenty-four countries in the Americas and thirty-nine countries in Europe over a thirty-year period. The results indicated that democracy is a latent class variable. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for the five existing democracy indices as well as the newly proposed Unified ...


Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah May 2013

Consensus Democracy And State Performance: Evaluating The Impact Of Coalition Government On Indian States, Vandit D. Shah

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The question of whether a majoritarian setup is optimal in terms of broad representation takes up on paramount importance in the context of power-sharing in deeply divided places, whereby unqualified exclusion of segment(s) of the population from government can have potentially disastrous consequences. Governance in deeply-divided places presents a rather intriguing question --- who governs the people, how are they elected, what mandates do they have? What form of government works best - a single-party majoritarian system that by popular belief leads to more effective governance or a consensus-based government that allows for better protection of minority interests? More broadly then ...


Citizenship Education In Egypt, Madeline Waddell Jan 2013

Citizenship Education In Egypt, Madeline Waddell

Summer Research

The Arab Spring brought hope of a democratic Middle East to many in the international community. While the literature on democratic transitions includes an array of components, scholars on the region have concentrated on institutional developments such as elections and constitutions. While these structural components are essential, this paper advocates for citizenship education as another crucial element in democratic transitions. Although not typically part of this literature, citizenship education entails building an informed and active populace able to contribute to a total culture of democracy. This paper analyzes these pedagogic efforts in transitional Egypt by contrasting the State’s role ...


Democratic Peace Theory As Applied To Europe And The Middle East, Patrick G. Rear Jan 2013

Democratic Peace Theory As Applied To Europe And The Middle East, Patrick G. Rear

Global Tides

Peace has been the goal of many leaders throughout history, and recent democratic movements in the Middle East have made the first steps toward a democratic peace in the region. This paper compares the European experience of Germany and France in the transition to democracy with the recent developments in the Middle East through November 2012. The impact of democratic revolution in Egypt is compared with the government established in Iraq following the U.S. invasion. Already, notable changes can be seen in the bilateral relations between Egypt and Israel, and between Iraq and Iran, which this paper attempts to ...


The Effects Of The Norm Of International Election Monitoring On Voters' Confidence Levels In Francophone West Africa's Presidential Elections 1990-2011, Lauren E. Gilliss Jan 2013

The Effects Of The Norm Of International Election Monitoring On Voters' Confidence Levels In Francophone West Africa's Presidential Elections 1990-2011, Lauren E. Gilliss

Senior Independent Study Theses

International election monitoring is a phenomenon that began to spread rapidly in the 1990s and has since become an essential element of elections in the developing world. This study assesses the relationship between the presence of international election monitors during presidential elections and levels of voters' confidence in the electoral process. Several questions guide the study: How did the norm of international election monitoring develop and how widely do governments adhere to this norm? Are citizens more confident in the efficacy and transparency of presidential elections when international monitors are present? I hypothesize that when governments adhere to the norm ...


Populism, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser Dec 2012

Populism, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser

Cas Mudde

No abstract provided.


Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser Dec 2012

Exclusionary Vs. Inclusionary Populism: Comparing The Contemporary Europe And Latin America, Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser

Cas Mudde

Although there is a lively academic debate about contemporary populism in Europe and Latin America, almost no cross-regional research exists on this topic. This article aims to fill this gap by showing that a minimal and ideological definition of populism permits us to analyse current expressions of populism in both regions. Moreover, based on a comparison of four prototypical cases (FN/Le Pen and FPÖ/Haider in Europe and PSUV/Chávez and MAS/Morales in Latin America), we show that it is possible to identify two regional subtypes of populism: exclusionary populism in Europe and inclusionary populism in Latin America.


Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden Dec 2012

Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden

Bridgewater Review

Economic discontent fueled the political dissatisfaction that erupted in the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen in 2011. Demonstrators blamed repressive authoritarian governments for slow economic growth, increasing poverty and social inequality, high youth unemployment and rampant corruption. Alongside demands for increased political freedom, greater participation in politics, and an end to repression were calls for economic freedom and improved well-being. The uprisings, which spawned democracy in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, continue to reverberate across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by opening up previously closed public spaces to wider popular participation in national debates over ...