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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

‘Going Out’ Or Staying In? The Expansion Of Chinese Ngos In Africa, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Timothy Hildebrandt, Reza Hasmath Dec 2015

‘Going Out’ Or Staying In? The Expansion Of Chinese Ngos In Africa, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Timothy Hildebrandt, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article examines the overseas behaviour of Chinese non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in two African nations, Ethiopia an Malawi, with varying political regime types. Our inding suggest that, irrespective of regime type, Chinese NGOs have yet to make a substantial impact in either nation. We argue that, espite the strength o the Chinese state an high level of international development assistance given, domestic politics and regulatory frameworks in host nations still matter a great deal. Our study suggests that the Chinese model of international development will continue to be one in which temporary one-off projects are favoured; and, insofar as social ...


Communities, Wildlife Conservation, And Tourism-Based Development: Can Community-Based Nature Tourism Live Up To Its Promise?, Robin L. Turner Mar 2015

Communities, Wildlife Conservation, And Tourism-Based Development: Can Community-Based Nature Tourism Live Up To Its Promise?, Robin L. Turner

Robin L Turner

This paper analyzes the opportunities and tensions generated by efforts to use conservationbased tourism as a catalyst for economic development. By exploring how historical legacies position actors and influence relationships between them, characterizing the nature tourism sector and its logic, and examining how liberalizing states are likely to engage with community-based tourism. I situate community-based nature tourism ventures in a broader political economic context. The paper draws from research on the Makuleke Region of Kruger National Park, South Africa to illustrate how these factors influence prospects for community benefit from protected area tourism. Like many other protected areas in Africa ...


同构压力,认知群体,政府-Ngo 合作在中国, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2013

同构压力,认知群体,政府-Ngo 合作在中国, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

该论文指出,中国政府与非政府组织(NGO)之间合作的缺乏并不能完全归咎于政府对该领域发展的限制,或是出于对一个潜在的政府反对者的害怕。与北京和上海的NGO 访谈显示, 政府与NGO 之间缺乏有意义的合作的部分原因是同构压力,以及政府对于NGO 活动认知的缺乏。事实上,证据显示,一旦政府获得了对NGO 工作的认知,它将会更加愿意与NGO 建立联系。当然必须说明的是,政府想要利用的是NGO 的物质资源,而非他们的象征性,阐释性,或是地理上的资本。


Isomorphic Pressures, Epistemic Communities And State-Ngo Collaboration In China, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2013

Isomorphic Pressures, Epistemic Communities And State-Ngo Collaboration In China, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

This article suggests that a lack of meaningful collaboration between the state and NGOs in China is not solely a result of the state seeking to restrict the development of the sector, or fear of a potential opposing actor to the state. Instead, interviews with NGOs in Beijing and Shanghai suggests that a lack of meaningful engagement between the state and NGOs can be partially attributed to isomorphic pressures within state-NGO relations, and insufficient epistemic awareness of NGO activities on the part of the state. In fact, the evidence suggests that once epistemic awareness is achieved by the state, they ...


The Local Corporatist State And Ngo Relations In China, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

The Local Corporatist State And Ngo Relations In China, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article examines the Chinese state’s interactions and influences on the development of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) through a corporatist framework. It suggests that not only is the central state actively involved in the development of NGOs, but increasingly the successes of NGOs are determined by their interactions with the local state. We profile NGOs in Shanghai, of varying sizes, budgets, and issue-areas, as a case study to understand the interplay between NGOs and the local state. The article further discusses reasons behind the growing shift from central to local state influences, and the potential future implications for state-NGO relations ...


中国统和主义地方政府与非政府组织关系, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath Dec 2013

中国统和主义地方政府与非政府组织关系, Jennifer Yj Hsu, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

该论文利用统和主义的理论框架来研究中国政府对非政府组织(NGOs)发展的影响及两者的互动。文章指出,中国中央政府积极参与非政府组织的发展之余,地方政府与NGO之间的互动越来越成为决定非政府组织成功与否的关键因素。我们以上海的众多规模、预算、活动范围各不相同的非政府组织为案例,试图理解NGO与地方政府的相互联系。该论文进一步讨论了政府影响力不断从中央向地方转移这一趋势的原因及后果。


Examining The Distinct Effects Of Emotive Triggers On Public Reactions To International Terrorism, Cigdem V. Sirin, Nehemia Geva Oct 2013

Examining The Distinct Effects Of Emotive Triggers On Public Reactions To International Terrorism, Cigdem V. Sirin, Nehemia Geva

Cigdem V. Sirin

In recent years, a growing body of research has set out to examine the role that emotions play in shaping political attitudes and behaviors regarding terrorism. However, one major issue that is generally overlooked is whether the thematic relevance of emotive triggers leads to differential effects on people's reactions to international terrorism. Specifically, does anger—regardless of its source—tend to drive people towards supporting an aggressive foreign policy option to counter terrorism, or do the thematic underpinnings of anger (i.e., the specific contents that trigger this particular emotion, such as watching a news story about a recent ...


Analyzing The Determinants Of Group Identity Among Alevis In Turkey: A National Survey Study, Cigdem V. Sirin Dec 2012

Analyzing The Determinants Of Group Identity Among Alevis In Turkey: A National Survey Study, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study systematically explores the factors that affect collective identity associations within the Alevi community in Turkey by employing the social identity approach and examining survey data collected through fieldwork. The results show that Kurdish Alevis express lower levels of attachment to their religious identity as compared to Turkish Alevis. The results also indicate that personal experiences of discrimination tend to increase one's prioritization of Alevi identity. Last, no significant differences are observed regarding group identity between Alevis who reside in urban areas and those who live in rural areas.


Deterring The ‘Boat People’: Explaining The Australian Government's People Swap Response To Asylum Seekers, Jaffa Mckenzie, Reza Hasmath Dec 2012

Deterring The ‘Boat People’: Explaining The Australian Government's People Swap Response To Asylum Seekers, Jaffa Mckenzie, Reza Hasmath

Reza Hasmath

This article examines why Australia has taken a tough stance on ‘boat people’, through an analysis of the Malaysian People Swap response. The findings support the view that Australia’s asylum seeker policy agenda is driven by populism, wedge politics and a culture of control. The article further argues that these political pressures, in sum, hold numerous negative implications for the tone of Australia’s political debate, the quality of policy formulation, as well as for asylum seekers and refugees themselves.


Public Support For Military Interventions Across Levels Of Political Information And Stages Of Intervention: The Case Of The Iraq War, Cigdem V. Sirin Mar 2012

Public Support For Military Interventions Across Levels Of Political Information And Stages Of Intervention: The Case Of The Iraq War, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study examines the effect of political information levels and intervention stages on the formation and continuity of public support for military interventions by analyzing survey data pertaining to the 2003 military intervention in Iraq. The results show that before and immediately after the launch of the intervention, politically uninformed individuals expressed higher support for the war compared to politically informed ones. However, as the intervention proceeded and casualties were incurred, higher rates of decrease in support were observed among the politically uninformed. Politically informed individuals, on the other hand, demonstrated more stable levels of support throughout the course of ...


Examining The Role Of Identity In Negotiation Decision Making: The Case Of Cyprus, Cigdem V. Sirin Dec 2011

Examining The Role Of Identity In Negotiation Decision Making: The Case Of Cyprus, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study examines the effects of ethnic and social identities on negotiation decision making in the context of the Cyprus conflict. I conduct a theory-driven case study of the 1959 Zurich-London agreements on Cyprus, analyzing the positions of Turkey, Greece, Britain, and the Turkish and Greek Cypriot communities during the negotiation process. I find that even in the presence of adversarial ethnic ties, decision makers who have a shared (and salient) social identity are more likely to employ collective-serving decision strategies and seek evenhanded solutions that will not jeopardize their mutual interests. In contrast, decision makers with severe ethnic fragmentation ...


From Nixon’S War On Drugs To Obama’S Drug Policies Today: Presidential Progress In Addressing Racial Injustices And Disparities, Cigdem V. Sirin Nov 2011

From Nixon’S War On Drugs To Obama’S Drug Policies Today: Presidential Progress In Addressing Racial Injustices And Disparities, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study investigates presidential progress in addressing racial injustices and disparities within the context of the war on drugs. I argue that racial inequalities emanating from the war on drugs have been largely overlooked and at times aggravated by previous administrations. Although there have been some improvements in this regard since President Obama took office, more extensive policy reforms are needed to better remedy such inequalities. I also argue that the viability of a progressive presidency for racial justice vis-à-vis U.S. drug policies depends not only on the personal agenda of the president but also on a supportive public ...


Examining The Effects Of Political Information And Intervention Stages On Public Support For Military Interventions: A Panel Experiment, Cigdem V. Sirin Aug 2011

Examining The Effects Of Political Information And Intervention Stages On Public Support For Military Interventions: A Panel Experiment, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study examines the formation and continuity of public support for military interventions as a function of political information levels and intervention stages using a panel experiment. The results demonstrate that politically informed individuals express less support for a military intervention at the beginning of that intervention compared to uninformed ones. However, as the intervention proceeds and casualties are incurred, the support of politically uninformed people decreases at a higher rate than does the support of the politically informed. As such, politically informed individuals demonstrate more stable levels of support across intervention stages. In addition, success or failure of an ...


Data Sharing By Scientists: Practices And Perceptions, Carol Tenopir, Suzie Allard, Kimberly L. Douglass, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Lei Wu, Eleanor Read, Maribeth Manoff, Mike Frame Jun 2011

Data Sharing By Scientists: Practices And Perceptions, Carol Tenopir, Suzie Allard, Kimberly L. Douglass, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Lei Wu, Eleanor Read, Maribeth Manoff, Mike Frame

Kimberly L Douglass

Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time ...


Data Sharing By Scientists: Practices And Perceptions, Carol Tenopir, Suzie Allard, Kimberly L. Douglass, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Lei Wu, Eleanor Read, Maribeth Manoff, Mike Frame Jun 2011

Data Sharing By Scientists: Practices And Perceptions, Carol Tenopir, Suzie Allard, Kimberly L. Douglass, Arsev Umur Aydinoglu, Lei Wu, Eleanor Read, Maribeth Manoff, Mike Frame

School of Information Sciences -- Faculty Publications and Other Works

Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers – data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time ...


Is It Cohesion Or Diversion? Domestic Instability And The Use Of Force In International Crises, Cigdem V. Sirin Apr 2011

Is It Cohesion Or Diversion? Domestic Instability And The Use Of Force In International Crises, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study asserts that cohesionary—rather than diversionary—motives primarily influence the propensity of political leaders to use external force in international crises in times of domestic turmoil. Specifically, I contend that mass violence leads political leaders to engage in cohesionary tactics to achieve and maintain social order in their country for political survival. Employing random effects probit analyses with International Crisis Behavior (ICB) data for one-hundred and thirty-nine countries from 1918 to 2005, I find that increased mass violence is more likely than other forms of domestic problems (be it an economic downturn or government instability) to instigate the ...


Scarcity-Induced Domestic Conflict: Examining The Interactive Effects Of Environmental Scarcity And ‘Ethnic’ Population Pressures, Cigdem V. Sirin Apr 2011

Scarcity-Induced Domestic Conflict: Examining The Interactive Effects Of Environmental Scarcity And ‘Ethnic’ Population Pressures, Cigdem V. Sirin

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study argues that environmental scarcity is more likely to result in civil conflict in countries that experience ‘ethnic’ population pressures (i.e. where the size of the largest minority group is close to parity with the majority group). I refer to this argument as the ‘parity-threat’ approach to the study of scarcity-induced domestic conflict. I empirically test my argument by analysing time-series cross-section data for the period 1979–2000 using four alternative environmental indicators: (1) ecological footprint, (2) biocapacity, (3) scarcity of ecological reserves and (4) water scarcity. The results demonstrate that environmental scarcity increases the probability of civil ...


Political Information And Emotions In Ethnic Conflict Interventions, Cigdem V. Sirin, José D. Villalobos, Nehemia Geva Jan 2011

Political Information And Emotions In Ethnic Conflict Interventions, Cigdem V. Sirin, José D. Villalobos, Nehemia Geva

Cigdem V. Sirin

This study explores the effects of political information and anger on the public’s cognitive processing and foreign policy preferences concerning third-party interventions in ethnic conflict. Our study employs an experimental design wherein we manipulate policy-specific information by generating ad hoc political information related to ethnic conflict. The statistical methods of analysis are logistic regression and analysis of covariance. The results demonstrate that both political information and anger have a significant impact on an individual’s cognitive processing and policy preferences regarding ethnic conflict interventions. Specifically, political information increases one’s proclivity to choose non-military policy options, whereas anger instigates ...


Ngos In China: Issues Of Good Governance And Accountability, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2007

Ngos In China: Issues Of Good Governance And Accountability, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

Drawing on interviews conducted among leading local and international NGOs operating in China, this article examines how NGOs understand and implement good governance and accountability principles and practices. It also examines how Chinese constituents and the general public perceive local and international NGOs. The discussion provides a basis on which to assess ways of improving governance and accountability practices for NGOs operating in China.


对中国公民社会组织良好治理的研, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2007

对中国公民社会组织良好治理的研, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

本文研究中国公民社会组织(CSOs)在良好治理方面的作为,比 如在诚信和透明方面的表现。通过对主要的国际及国内公民社会组织的访问,本文将关注中国的公民社会组织是如何理解和实施良好的治理的.此外,本文还将关注中国的乡官人群和公众是如何看待在中国工作的国际和国内公民社会组织.最后,将通过以上方面的研究为中国公民社会组织在未来实现良好治理提出建议.


Social Development In The Tibet Autonomous Region: A Contemporary And Historical Analysis, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu Dec 2006

Social Development In The Tibet Autonomous Region: A Contemporary And Historical Analysis, Reza Hasmath, Jennifer Yj Hsu

Reza Hasmath

This paper will historically examine social development outcomes in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) in respect to poverty eradication, education and employment, health care and social integration. Moreover, it will offer tangible advice for improving future social development work in TAR. The main theoretical approach is a literature and policy review of social development in TAR from 1951 to present. Seemingly Tibet’s social development strategy has been achieved through a strong top-down approach. However, the road ahead for TAR once basic needs are satisfactorily met, is a move towards a participatory approach, whereby Tibetans can directly contribute and have ...