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Comparative Politics

2012

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Articles 1 - 30 of 173

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Diffusion And Outcomes Across The World, Brian Wampler, Janette Hartz-Karp

Journal of Public Deliberation

In this special issue of the Journal of Public Deliberation, multiple faces of Participatory Budgeting programs are revealed. The articles demonstrate that there is no standardized set of “best practices” that governments are adopting, but there are a broader set of principles that are adapted by local governments to meet local circumstances. Adopt and adapt appears to be the logic behind many PB programs.


Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler Dec 2012

Participatory Budgeting: Core Principles And Key Impacts, Brian Wampler

Journal of Public Deliberation

This essay is a reflection piece. I identify key principles at the core of how PB functions and to discuss the scope of change we might expect to see generated by these institutions. I move beyond the idea that there is a specific model or set of “best practices” that define PB. Rather, it is most fruitful to conceptualize PB as a set of principles that can generate social change. The weaker the adherence to these principles, the less social change generated. The second purpose of the essay is to reflect on the impacts generated by PB. How do these ...


Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman Dec 2012

Transformative Deliberations: Participatory Budgeting In The United States, Hollie Russon Gilman

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article develops two conceptual models, based on empirical data, for assessing deliberation and decision making within United States adoptions of Participatory Budgeting (PB). The first model is results oriented whereas the second model is process oriented. The two models evince the tension between inclusiveness and efficiency that emerge as U.S. PB tries accommodating the dual goals of improved short-term service delivery and democratic deepening. Each model satisfies one of these deliberate goals better. Results oriented deliberation is more effective at producing viable projects whereas process oriented is better at ensuring that all participants’ voices are heard. Variation suggests ...


The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank Dec 2012

The World Bank And The Globalization Of Participatory Budgeting, Benjamin Goldfrank

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article addresses the long-standing controversy over the World Bank’s role in the promotion of participatory budgeting (PB). Some on the left have celebrated the Bank’s funding and advocacy for PB as signifying the legitimacy or mainstream success of the process, while others see the Bank’s endorsement of PB as a sign that participatory budgeting is becoming watered down and losing its transformative potential, if it ever had such potential. This debate has mostly been an ideological one, and little research has been done to provide evidence to either side. The article is the first to address ...


An Unlikely Success: Peru’S Top-Down Participatory Budgeting Experience, Stephanie Mcnulty Dec 2012

An Unlikely Success: Peru’S Top-Down Participatory Budgeting Experience, Stephanie Mcnulty

Journal of Public Deliberation

This article focuses on the unlikely success of Peru’s top-down participatory budget experience. As part of democratization and decentralization efforts in the early 2000s, Peruvians mandated participatory budgeting in all subnational governments. The article suggests that, while success is constrained in many ways, Peruvians can point to two important accomplishments: 1) engaging a significant number of civil society organizations in debating public resources; and 2) an increased focus on “pro-poor” projects. The article concludes that the current challenge in Peru is to improve the process and engage an even more diverse array of participants. Only then will the process ...


Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Dec 2012

Myth Of Indian Nuke Doctrine (Cpc Journal, No.1038, Us Air Force, Alabama, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

No abstract provided.


Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Dec 2012

Comparative Antitrust Federalism: Review Of Cengiz, Antitrust Federalism In The Eu And The Us, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This brief essay reviews Firat Cengiz’s book Antitrust Federalism in the EU and the US (2012), which compares the role of federalism in the competition law of the European Union and the United States. Both of these systems are “federal,” of course, because both have individual nation-states (Europe) or states (US) with their own individual competition provisions, but also an overarching competition law that applies to the entire group. This requires a certain amount of cooperation with respect to both territorial reach and substantive coverage.

Cengiz distinguishes among “markets,” “hierarchies,” and “networks” as forms of federalism. Markets are the ...


Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner Dec 2012

Wie Verändert Das Internet Die Demokratie?, Ralf Lindner

Ralf Lindner

Obwohl seit dem Aufstieg des Internets zum Massenmedium in den 1990er Jahren Ernüchterung über die Demokratisierungswirkung der neuen Medien eingetreten ist, werden regelmäßig weitreichende Erwartungen über der politische Transformationspotenzial des Internets formuliert. So wird häufig postuliert, dass das Internet demokratische Politik über kurz oder lang fundamental verändern werde, indem universeller Informationszugang ermöglicht, etablierte Machtstrukturen unterminiert und politische Partizipation gesteigert werde. Der Beitrag erörtert zunächst die Hintergründe für populäre Fehlschlüsse, die die Debatte um elektronische Demokratie begleiten. Auf der Grundlage einer kritischen Reflexion mit den ideologisch-normativ imprägnierten Erwartungen an das Internet werden theoretisch wie empirisch robustere Überlegungen zum Beitrag der neuen ...


Why Some Muslim Countries Are Democracies And Some Are Not, Shaheen Mozaffar Dec 2012

Why Some Muslim Countries Are Democracies And Some Are Not, Shaheen Mozaffar

Bridgewater Review

The transitions to democracy in Tunisia and Egypt shortly after the popular uprisings of the Arab Spring, and subsequently in Libya, provide an opportunity to test the empirical validity of the conventional wisdom that democracy cannot be established and sustained in Muslim countries. This article undertakes this task through a systematic comparative analysis of 56 countries classified as Muslim countries by virtue of their membership in the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC). It first maps variations in the incidence of democracy among the 56 Muslim countries based on the widely used Freedom House Rating (FHR, www.freedomhouse.org) of countries ...


Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden Dec 2012

Will The Arab Spring Succeed In Bringing Bread, Freedom, And Dignity?, Sandra Popiden

Bridgewater Review

Economic discontent fueled the political dissatisfaction that erupted in the Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen in 2011. Demonstrators blamed repressive authoritarian governments for slow economic growth, increasing poverty and social inequality, high youth unemployment and rampant corruption. Alongside demands for increased political freedom, greater participation in politics, and an end to repression were calls for economic freedom and improved well-being. The uprisings, which spawned democracy in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, continue to reverberate across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) by opening up previously closed public spaces to wider popular participation in national debates over ...


Social Media And Political Changes In Al-Alam Al-Arabi, Jabbar Al-Obaidi Dec 2012

Social Media And Political Changes In Al-Alam Al-Arabi, Jabbar Al-Obaidi

Bridgewater Review

The Arab countries are typically described as lacking democratic traditions, freedom of the press, human rights and civil liberties. The utilization of social media for political purposes became crucial to the widespread expression of pent-up social discontent that precipitated the Arab Spring. Uploaded videos, photos, and Twitter feeds served to outrage people in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, and Syria. This volatile combination of a young population, authoritarian rule, corruption and poverty is prompting youth to spearhead political demonstrations and the demand for regime change.


Deciding To Divert: Domestic And International Sources Of Constraints On Leader Decision-Making, Norris Thomas Feeney Dec 2012

Deciding To Divert: Domestic And International Sources Of Constraints On Leader Decision-Making, Norris Thomas Feeney

Doctoral Dissertations

Domestic unrest is a constant feature in the international system. Aside from the impact unrest has on domestic populations, political turmoil also has consequences for other states in the international system. A long-held belief, backed by anecdotal evidence, is that leaders use aggressive foreign policy to divert public attention in periods of declining domestic political fortunes. However, consistent evidence for this pattern of behavior has not emerged across large-N analyses in the extant diversionary literature. This dissertation advances the search for evidence of diversion by assessing the likelihood leaders of various regime types will divert, comparing not only non-democracies with ...


Varieties Of Politics, Varieties Of Capitalism: The Effects Of Political Institutions On Capitalist Diversity, Matthew P. Arsenault Dec 2012

Varieties Of Politics, Varieties Of Capitalism: The Effects Of Political Institutions On Capitalist Diversity, Matthew P. Arsenault

Dissertations

A strong correlation exists between varieties of political regimes and varieties of capitalism (VOC). Majoritarian political regimes are correlated with liberal market economies (LMEs) and consensus political regimes are correlated with coordinated market economies (CMEs). Still, correlation is not causation. The purpose of this project is to open the “black box” and identify mechanisms linking political institutions and variation in capitalist systems. Empirical findings illustrate that partisanship and policy legacies, the number of political parties, electoral rules, and constitutional constraints are significant indicators of LMEs and CMEs. I find that majoritarian institutions are conducive to an environment of adversarial politics ...


Radio As The Voice Of God: Peace And Tolerance Radio Programming’S Impact On Norms, Daniel P. Aldrich Nov 2012

Radio As The Voice Of God: Peace And Tolerance Radio Programming’S Impact On Norms, Daniel P. Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Observers have argued that radio programming can alter norms, especially through hate radio designed to increase animosity between groups. This article tests whether or not radio programming under the countering violent extremism (CVE) policy framework can reduce potential conflict and increase civic engagement and positive views of foreign nations. Data from surveys of more than 1,000 respondents in Mali, Chad, and Niger illuminate the ways in which peace and tolerance programming changed perspectives and altered behavior in statistically significant ways. Results show that individuals exposed to multi-level U.S. government programming were more likely to listen to peace and ...


Indebted Dragon, Lynette H. Ong Dr Nov 2012

Indebted Dragon, Lynette H. Ong Dr

Lynette H Ong, Dr

No abstract provided.


¿Qué Es El Populismo? Enfoques De Estudio Y Una Nueva Propuesta De Definición Como Un Estilo De Liderazgo, Flavia Freidenberg Nov 2012

¿Qué Es El Populismo? Enfoques De Estudio Y Una Nueva Propuesta De Definición Como Un Estilo De Liderazgo, Flavia Freidenberg

Flavia Freidenberg

No abstract provided.


Turkiye'nin Sahraalti Afrikasi Politikasi 2011, Mehmet Ozkan Oct 2012

Turkiye'nin Sahraalti Afrikasi Politikasi 2011, Mehmet Ozkan

Mehmet OZKAN

No abstract provided.


Government Documents On Rare Earth Minerals, Bert Chapman Oct 2012

Government Documents On Rare Earth Minerals, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Rare earth minerals contain unique chemical and physical properties such as lanthanum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise processes to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as Blackberries, and satellites. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from from Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant economic, military, and political implications. This presentation will highlight government information resources on rare earth minerals from agencies such as the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense ...


Confucian Influences On Popular Values In China And Taiwan, Lukas Danner Oct 2012

Confucian Influences On Popular Values In China And Taiwan, Lukas Danner

Lukas K. Danner

No abstract provided.


Yahudi Yerleşimleri: Postmodern Bir İşgal, Ali Balci Oct 2012

Yahudi Yerleşimleri: Postmodern Bir İşgal, Ali Balci

Ali Balci

No abstract provided.


Η Σύγχρονη Τουρκική Στρατηγική Κουλτούρα Μέσα Από Τις Αραβικές Εξεγέρσεις [Contemporary Turkish Strategic Culture Through The Arab Uprisings], Zenonas Tziarras Oct 2012

Η Σύγχρονη Τουρκική Στρατηγική Κουλτούρα Μέσα Από Τις Αραβικές Εξεγέρσεις [Contemporary Turkish Strategic Culture Through The Arab Uprisings], Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

Το παρόν άρθρο επιζητεί την σύντομη παρουσίαση της τουρκικής στρατηγικής κουλτούρας - ή κουλτούρας ασφάλειας - μέσα από την ανάλυση των αντιδράσεων της Τουρκίας απέναντι στις εξεγέρσεις του αραβικού κόσμου. Για την επίτευξη αυτού του σκοπού ορίζεται αρχικά η έννοια «στρατηγική κουλτούρα» και στη συνέχεια εξετάζονται στοιχεία και παράγοντες που επηρέασαν και επηρεάζουν την τουρκική εξωτερική πολιτική, περιφερειακή πολιτική και στρατηγική συμπεριφορά. Το θεωρητικό και ιστορικό πλαίσιο της τουρκικής στρατηγικής κουλτούρας θα εφαρμοστεί στην περίπτωση της πολιτικής της Τουρκίας απέναντι στις αραβικές εξεγέρσεις σε μια προσπάθεια επεξήγησης των κινήσεων της Άγκυρας και των παραγόντων που επηρεάζουν τις στρατηγικές της επιλογές.


The Law Of The Sea Convention, The Eastern Mediterranean, And Clinton’S Testimony, Zenonas Tziarras Oct 2012

The Law Of The Sea Convention, The Eastern Mediterranean, And Clinton’S Testimony, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

Since the U.S. is still the world’s sole superpower, its participation in international conventions is very important for both itself and the better function and implementation of the various International Legal Frameworks. As such, a possible future ratification of the [Law of the Sea] Convention by the U.S. would have broad politico-legal implications for other states and areas in the world, where the Treaty has not been signed or ratified and maritime disputes are in place. One such region is the Eastern Mediterranean. This paper firstly looks at the development of the Law of the Sea, the ...


Lessons From The Right’S Attacks On Acorn And Planned Parenthood, Peter Dreier, John Atlas Oct 2012

Lessons From The Right’S Attacks On Acorn And Planned Parenthood, Peter Dreier, John Atlas

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Immigration Through The Lens Of Coloniality: Comparing Georgia Anti-Latino And Israeli Anti-African Discourses And Practices, Jesse Benjamin Sep 2012

Immigration Through The Lens Of Coloniality: Comparing Georgia Anti-Latino And Israeli Anti-African Discourses And Practices, Jesse Benjamin

Jesse Benjamin

No abstract provided.


Turkiye’Nin Afrika’Da Artan Rolu: Pratik Cabalar Ve Soylem Arayislari, Mehmet Ozkan Sep 2012

Turkiye’Nin Afrika’Da Artan Rolu: Pratik Cabalar Ve Soylem Arayislari, Mehmet Ozkan

Mehmet OZKAN

No abstract provided.


Pak Nukes: Frenzy In Western Media (Cpc Journal, No.1025, Us Air Force, Alabama), Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Sep 2012

Pak Nukes: Frenzy In Western Media (Cpc Journal, No.1025, Us Air Force, Alabama), Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

Focus on the reports published in the US media against Pakistani nuclear capability.


Paraguay Y Las Crisis Presidenciales En América Latina, Augusto Reina, Lucas Jolias Sep 2012

Paraguay Y Las Crisis Presidenciales En América Latina, Augusto Reina, Lucas Jolias

Augusto Reina

La elección de Lugo en el 2008 dio comienzo a una primavera de esperanza para la democracia paraguaya. Luego de 60 años de hegemonía del Partido Colorado, la oposición logró llegar al poder y se comenzó a abrir la puerta a la estabilización del régimen democrático. A solo 10 meses de la próxima elección presidencial y 3 años y medio de la elección de Lugo, esa primavera se diluyo con un destitución express. La debilidad de la coalición gobernante formada por Lugo y la hegemonía de la Alianza Nacional Republicana-Partido Colorado (ANR-PC), que cuenta con 9 de las 17 gobernaciones ...


Building Resilience: Social Capital In Post-Disaster Recovery, Daniel Aldrich Aug 2012

Building Resilience: Social Capital In Post-Disaster Recovery, Daniel Aldrich

Daniel P Aldrich

Each year, natural disasters threaten the strength and stability of communities worldwide. Yet responses to the challenges of recovery vary greatly and in ways that aren’t explained by the magnitude of the catastrophe or the amount of aid provided by national governments or the international community. The difference between resilience and disrepair, as Daniel P. Aldrich shows, lies in the depth of communities’ social capital. Building Resilience highlights the critical role of social capital in the ability of a community to withstand disaster and rebuild both the infrastructure and the ties that are at the foundation of any community ...


Review Of "Foreign Policy After Tahrir Revolution: (Re)-Defining The Role Of Egypt In The Middle East" By Necati Anaz, Mehmet Ozkan Aug 2012

Review Of "Foreign Policy After Tahrir Revolution: (Re)-Defining The Role Of Egypt In The Middle East" By Necati Anaz, Mehmet Ozkan

Mehmet OZKAN

No abstract provided.


Power In Networks: Considering Castells’ Network Society In Egypt’S January 25th Movement And America’S Occupy Wall Street Movement, Marina Balleria Aug 2012

Power In Networks: Considering Castells’ Network Society In Egypt’S January 25th Movement And America’S Occupy Wall Street Movement, Marina Balleria

International Political Economy Theses

This article interogates Manuel Castell's Network society using the Egyptian Revolution and Occupy Wall Street as case studies. It looks at key shared characteristics: the call for transformational change, using a network structure and creating a self-conscious identity all of which nearly reflect the social theorist Manuel Castells’ definition of a social movement in a network society. Using the Egyptian revolution’s January 25th movement (the Jan 25 movement) and Occupy Wall Street (OWS) as case studies, I argue that Castells’ theory of a network society successfully describes how social movements are empowered by the network structure to ...