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Comparative Politics

2007

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Articles 1 - 30 of 37

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Importance Of Ideas: An A Priori Critical Juncture Framework, John Hogan Dec 2007

The Importance Of Ideas: An A Priori Critical Juncture Framework, John Hogan

Articles

This paper sets out an improved framework for examining critical junctures. This framework, while rigorous and broadly applicable and an advance on the frameworks currently employed, primarily seeks to incorporate an a priori element. Until now the frameworks utilized in examining critical junctures were entirely postdictive. Adding a predictive element to the concept will constitute a significant advance. The new framework, and its predictive element, termed the “differentiating factor,” is tested here in examining macro-economic crises and subsequent changes in macro-economic policy, in America and Sweden.


Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu Nov 2007

Corruption, Governance And Political Instability In Nigeria, Omololu Toluwanimi Omololu

Omololu Michael FAGBADEBO

The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and a cyclical legitimacy crisis. Consequently, national development is retarded, and the political environment uncertain. The country’s authoritarian leadership faced a legitimacy crisis, political intrigues, in an ethnically - differentiated polity, where ethnic competition for resources drove much of the pervasive corruption and profligacy. While the political gladiators constantly manipulated the people and the political processes to advance their own selfish agenda, the society remained pauperized, and the people wallowed in abject poverty. This invariably led to weak legitimacy, as the citizens lacked faith in their political ...


Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad Sep 2007

Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad

Division II Faculty Publications

Japan’s civil society is being transformed as more people volunteer for advocacy and professional nonprofit organizations. In the American context, this trend has been accompanied by a decline in participation in traditional organizations. Does the rise in new types of nonprofit groups herald a decline of traditional volunteering in Japan? This article argues that while changes in civil rights, political opportunity structure, and technology have also taken place in Japan, they have contributed to the rise of new groups without causing traditional organizations to decline, because Japanese attitudes about civic responsibility have continued to support traditional volunteering.


Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad Aug 2007

Transformation Of Japan’S Civil Society Landscape, Mary Alice Haddad

Mary Alice Haddad

Japan’s civil society is being transformed as more people volunteer for advocacy and professional nonprofit organizations. In the American context, this trend has been accompanied by a decline in participation in traditional organizations. Does the rise in new types of nonprofit groups herald a decline of traditional volunteering in Japan? This article argues that while changes in civil rights, political opportunity structure, and technology have also taken place in Japan, they have contributed to the rise of new groups without causing traditional organizations to decline, because Japanese attitudes about civic responsibility have continued to support traditional volunteering.


The Political Economy Of Aids Treatment: Intellectual Property And The Transformation Of Generic Supply, Kenneth C. Shadlen Aug 2007

The Political Economy Of Aids Treatment: Intellectual Property And The Transformation Of Generic Supply, Kenneth C. Shadlen

Ken Shadlen

This article examines the relationship between intellectual property (IP) and public health, with a focus on the extension of AIDS treatment in the developing world. While most of the literature on IP and health examines the conditions affecting poor countries’ capacities to acquire essential medicines, I show the distinct – and more complicated – political economy of production and supply. IP regulations alter the structure of generic pharmaceutical sectors in the countries capable of supplying essential medicines, and changes in market structure affect actors’ economic and political interests and capacities. These new constellations of interests and capacities have profound implications for the ...


Gender In Politics, Sheri L. Kunovich, Pamela Paxton, Melanie M. Hughes Aug 2007

Gender In Politics, Sheri L. Kunovich, Pamela Paxton, Melanie M. Hughes

Sociology Research

Women’s political participation and representation vary dramatically within and between countries. We selectively review the literature on gender in politics, focusing on women’s formal political participation.

We discuss both traditional explanations for women’s political participation and representation, such as the supply of women and the demand for women, and newer explanations such as the role of international actors and gender quotas. We also ask whether women are distinctive—does having more women in office make a difference to public policy? Throughout the review we demonstrate that a full understanding of women’s political representation requires both deep ...


The Origins Of A War Of Secession: A Comparison Of Namibia And Botswana, Eric D. Smith Aug 2007

The Origins Of A War Of Secession: A Comparison Of Namibia And Botswana, Eric D. Smith

Doctoral Dissertations

This work is an attempt to define a comprehensive contemporary model of the causes of wars of secession, state and illustrate its gaps, and develop new theories to accentuate and improve that model, and through comparative case studies perform some elementary tests of their validity. My theoretical paradigm is dependent on an assumption that the ultimate causes, as captured under the rubric of institutions and structures, of an event involving rational but free-willed human beings are inadequate to explaining the onset of radical, extraordinary politics in general and wars of secession in particular. On the contrary, proximate causes, in the ...


The United States In Comparative Perspective, Peter Dreier Jul 2007

The United States In Comparative Perspective, Peter Dreier

UEP Faculty & UEPI Staff Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Demokratie Und Islamische Staatlichkeit, Muqtedar Khan Apr 2007

Demokratie Und Islamische Staatlichkeit, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

This article develops an Islamic conception of democracy while arguing that not only Islam and Democracy are compatible but for establishing Islamic governance, democracy is necessary.


Phased Out: Far Right Parties In Western Europe, Antonis A. Ellinas Apr 2007

Phased Out: Far Right Parties In Western Europe, Antonis A. Ellinas

Antonis A. Ellinas

No abstract provided.


Democracy On Stilts: Bolivia's Democracy From Stability To Crisis, Miguel Centellas Apr 2007

Democracy On Stilts: Bolivia's Democracy From Stability To Crisis, Miguel Centellas

Miguel Centellas

Bolivia’s recent political crisis starkly contrasts to the preceding two decades of relative democratic stability. Though a unique system of “parliamentarized” presidentialism together with lingering consensus on the national project inherited from the 1952 Revolution supported democratic stability, using qualitative and quantitative methods, this study shows that seemingly benign changes in institutional design made in the 1990s contributed to the acceleration of already existing tendencies towards divisive sectoral, regional, and ethnic politics. A key observation is that successful long-term democratization requires institutions for adequately channeling and representing social demands as well as a shared vision of a political “imagined ...


Forced Settlement Of Bedouin Communities In Israel And Egypt: A Comparative Analysis, Jesse Benjamin Mar 2007

Forced Settlement Of Bedouin Communities In Israel And Egypt: A Comparative Analysis, Jesse Benjamin

Jesse Benjamin

No abstract provided.


Politics And Volunteering In Japan: A Global Perspective, Mary Alice Haddad Feb 2007

Politics And Volunteering In Japan: A Global Perspective, Mary Alice Haddad

Mary Alice Haddad

Politics and Volunteering begins by painting a portrait of volunteering in Japan, and demonstrates that our current understandings of civil society have been based implicitly on a U.S. model that does not adequately consider participation patterns found in other parts of the world. The book develops a theory of civic participation that, incorporates citizen attitudes about governmental and individual responsibility, with societal and governmental practices that support (or hinder) volunteer participation. This theory is tested using cross-national and sub-national statistical analysis, and it is refined through detailed case studies of volunteering in three Japanese cities. The findings are then ...


El Staff Presidencial En México. Del Secretario Particular A Las Oficinas De La Presidencia, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal Feb 2007

El Staff Presidencial En México. Del Secretario Particular A Las Oficinas De La Presidencia, J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

J. R. Joel Flores-Mariscal

No abstract provided.


History, Chinese Nationalism And The Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict, Yinan He Feb 2007

History, Chinese Nationalism And The Emerging Sino-Japanese Conflict, Yinan He

Yinan He

Anti-Japanese popular nationalism is rising high in China today. Little evidence to date proves that it is officially orchestrated. Nonetheless, Chinese popular nationalism still has deep roots in the state’s history propaganda which has implanted pernicious myths in the national collective memory. Fueling mistrust and exacerbating a mutual threat perception, popular nationalism could be a catalyst for future Sino – Japanese conflict over the Taiwan problem, island disputes, and maritime resource competition. The increasingly liberalized but often biased Chinese media, the role of nationalist sub-elites, and the government’s accommodation have all contributed to the strength of anti-Japanese nationalism, which ...


What Is This Gender Talk All About After All? Gender, Power And Politics In Cotemporary Nigeria, Shola J. Omotola Jan 2007

What Is This Gender Talk All About After All? Gender, Power And Politics In Cotemporary Nigeria, Shola J. Omotola

Shola J. Omotola Mr

Gender discourse is very influential everywhere, calling to attention the unwarranted discrepancy between the locations of men and women in the state and society in almost every facet of life. It places particular emphasis on the oppression and marginalisation of women at all levels. The feminist movements have for years continued to advocate for gender balance especially through affirmative action. Yet, only marginal progress has been made. Drawing insights from contemporary Nigeria, this paper argues that if the gender discourse will ever be productive, it would have to be reoriented and situated within the framework of power politics.


Filistin 2006, Ali Balci Jan 2007

Filistin 2006, Ali Balci

Ali Balci

No abstract provided.


Parecidos Pero Diferentes: Las Instituciones Políticas De Los Países Del Mercosur En Perspectiva Comparada, Lucas Jolías, Pablo A. Bulcourf Jan 2007

Parecidos Pero Diferentes: Las Instituciones Políticas De Los Países Del Mercosur En Perspectiva Comparada, Lucas Jolías, Pablo A. Bulcourf

Lucas Jolías

No abstract provided.


Managing Higher Education: Introduction, Gerd Grözinger, Roberto Rodríguez-Gómez Jan 2007

Managing Higher Education: Introduction, Gerd Grözinger, Roberto Rodríguez-Gómez

Roberto Rodríguez-Gómez

This paper presents an introduction to the volume that authors have compiled for Management Revue under the title "Managing Higher Education". Alongside a brief synopsis about each contribution, the article discusses about the importance of management issues for compression of the changes they are experiencing the higher education systems in the world


Can Institutions Build Unity In Multiethnic States?, Zachary Elkins, John Sides Jan 2007

Can Institutions Build Unity In Multiethnic States?, Zachary Elkins, John Sides

Zachary Elkins

No abstract provided.


Islam And The New Europe: The Remaking Of A Civilization, Muqtedar Khan Jan 2007

Islam And The New Europe: The Remaking Of A Civilization, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

The paper argues that it is not Muslims but Western Intellectuals, with outdated notions of what Europe means, who are having a difficulty in assimilating into the New Europe.


“Propuesta Para Una Reforma Electoral En México”, Gabriel L. Negretto Jan 2007

“Propuesta Para Una Reforma Electoral En México”, Gabriel L. Negretto

Gabriel L. Negretto

No abstract provided.


Rational Parties And Retrospective Voters, David A. Siegel, Jonathan Bendor, Sunil Kumar Jan 2007

Rational Parties And Retrospective Voters, David A. Siegel, Jonathan Bendor, Sunil Kumar

David A Siegel

Many elections specialists take seriously V.O.Key’s hypothesis (1966) that much voting is retrospective: citizens reward good performance by becoming more likely to vote for the incumbent and punish bad performance by becoming less likely. Elsewhere (Bendor, Kumar, and Siegel forthcoming) we formalized Key’s verbal theory. Our model shows that people endogenously develop partisan voting tendencies, even if they lack explicit ideologies. However, that paper depicts parties as passive payoff-generating mechanisms. Here we make parties active, rational players with conventional goals: they either are pure office-seekers or have the usual mix of goals (office and policy preferences ...


Fragmentation Of Power And The Emergence Of An Effective Judiciary In Mexico, Julio Ríos-Figueroa Jan 2007

Fragmentation Of Power And The Emergence Of An Effective Judiciary In Mexico, Julio Ríos-Figueroa

Julio Ríos-Figueroa

Legal reforms that make judges independent from political pressures and empower them with judicial review do not make an effective judiciary. Something has to fill the gap between institutional design and effectiveness. When the executive and legislative powers react to an objectionable judicial decision, the judiciary may be weak and deferential; but coordination difficulties between the elected branches can loosen the constrains on courts. This article argues that the fragmentation of political power can enable a judiciary to rule against power holders´interests without being systematically challenged or ignored. This argument is tested with an analysis of the Mexican Supreme ...


Venezuela In The Times Of Chavez: A Study On Media, Charisma, And Social Polarization, Jorge Capetillo-Ponce Jan 2007

Venezuela In The Times Of Chavez: A Study On Media, Charisma, And Social Polarization, Jorge Capetillo-Ponce

Sociology Faculty Publication Series

My main objective in this study is to deepen the reader's understanding of Venezuela's ongoing socio-political conflict by focusing on the struggle for control over one of the key agents of mobilization and politicization in the country: the media outlets, and particularly television. My methodology strives to interweave the chronological record of events with analysis of the equally relevant theoretical, institutional, political, economic, and cultural components that helped to create those events. Central to my presentation is its analysis of the decline of Venezuela's two traditional parties and the emergence of a charismatic and populist form of ...


Boomerang Or Backfire? Have We Been Telling The Wrong Story About Lovelace V. Canada And The Effectiveness Of The Iccpr?, Andrew M. Robinson Jan 2007

Boomerang Or Backfire? Have We Been Telling The Wrong Story About Lovelace V. Canada And The Effectiveness Of The Iccpr?, Andrew M. Robinson

Contemporary Studies

No abstract provided.


Examining Citizenship Discourses In A Post-Washington Consensus, Gabriela Hoberman Jan 2007

Examining Citizenship Discourses In A Post-Washington Consensus, Gabriela Hoberman

DRR Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


International Environmental Justice: Building The Natural Assets Of The World’S Poor, Krista Harper, S. Ravi Rajan Jan 2007

International Environmental Justice: Building The Natural Assets Of The World’S Poor, Krista Harper, S. Ravi Rajan

Krista M. Harper

In recent years, vibrant social movements have emerged across the world to fight for environmental justice –- for more equitable access to natural resources and environmental quality, including clean air and water. In seeking to build community rights to natural assets, these initiatives seek to advance simultaneously the goals of environmental protection and poverty reduction. This paper sketches the contours of struggles for environmental justice within and among countries, and illustrates with examples primarily drawn from countries of the global South and the former Soviet bloc. This working paper is also accessible at the folllowing URL: http://www.peri.umass.edu ...


Globalization, The Developmental State, And The Politics Of Urban Growth In Korea: A Multilevel Analysis, Yooil Bae, Jefferey M. Sellers Jan 2007

Globalization, The Developmental State, And The Politics Of Urban Growth In Korea: A Multilevel Analysis, Yooil Bae, Jefferey M. Sellers

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

This article explores the politics of urban growth in a transitional society. Korea, which is experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization and democratic transition exemplifies a set of conditions that may seem to favor the emergence of an urban growth politics and business-led growth coalition much like that found in urban areas at the time of industrialization, and still prevalent in much of the US and other western democracies today. Yet our multilevel case analyses show that the transformations in Korea as a late industrializer, late democratizer and late adopter of urban policy have helped to consolidate more restricted policies toward urban ...


Democratization In The Balkans: Prescription For A Badly Scarred Body Politic, Richard Farkas Dec 2006

Democratization In The Balkans: Prescription For A Badly Scarred Body Politic, Richard Farkas

Richard P Farkas

No abstract provided.