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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Military Influence On Middle Eastern Democratization Following The Arab Spring, Andrew Fleming Jan 2021

Military Influence On Middle Eastern Democratization Following The Arab Spring, Andrew Fleming

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Despite experiencing countless wars, sectarian extremism, imperialism, and authoritarian rule, very few events have impacted the Middle East more significantly than the Arab Spring. Starting in 2010, the Arab Spring marked a turning point in which the people of numerous Arabic states collectively gathered to protest and combat the oppressive regimes that had controlled the region for decades. The Spring was indicative of the strong, recurring ambitions for revolution and regime change across the Middle East, presenting the Arab nations with an opportunity to reform their states from within. For some Middle Eastern states, the Arab Spring served as a ...


China And Natural Gas: The Importance Of Natural Gas To China With Regard To The South And East China Sea Conflicts, Erin Foelker Aug 2020

China And Natural Gas: The Importance Of Natural Gas To China With Regard To The South And East China Sea Conflicts, Erin Foelker

Honors Theses

China has a strong interest in natural gas, as it is a resource of which usage can lead to economic growth, energy security, domestic social stability, and reduced climate change impacts. One of the best ways for China to gain easier access to this resource is to obtain legal rights to what they claim is their territory in the South and East China Seas. In this thesis, I review the situations in these two areas and I argue that natural gas is a significant motivator for the conflicts that are occurring.


Class Based Contestations In Neoliberal France, Sam Goodson Jun 2020

Class Based Contestations In Neoliberal France, Sam Goodson

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This thesis documents the patterns of resistance taken up by the far left in France from the late 1980s through the early 2000s. Responding directly to the neoliberal reshaping of the French economy the groups that composed the far left diverged on terms of strategy, some holding fast to the class based contention of the previous decades, some jettisoning the language of class for one of identity and democratic inclusion. This project documents these changes and takes up the theoretical debates surrounding them, primarily the debates surrounding “post-Marxism.” It is an intervention on the enduring necessity of class struggle for ...


Social Contract Theory And Transitional Justice: A Philosophical Approach To A Problem Of Global Importance, Brendan Moriarty Jun 2020

Social Contract Theory And Transitional Justice: A Philosophical Approach To A Problem Of Global Importance, Brendan Moriarty

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this thesis, I seek to bring together two areas of scholarly work to see how each can inform the other: social contract theory and transitional justice. The social contract, as it exists and as it was theorized about by Rousseau, was born from the world-historic forces that spread capitalism across the globe, stirring up nationalism everywhere it went. In its wake, there was vast inequality and new legal regimes which protected the hoarded wealth of the capitalist class by enshrining the right of private property along with life and liberty. To examine the intricacies of transitional justice and its ...


Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose Mclaughlin May 2020

Guiding Principle 28: The Unfulfilled Promise To End Protracted Displacement In Azerbaijan, Kaleigh Rose Mclaughlin

Honors Thesis

In 1998 internal displacement became a major focus of international concern with the adoption the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement by the United Nations. This seminal document outlined the rights and protections of internally displaced persons (IDPs), as well as developing policy solutions for ending displacement. In the two decades since the adoption of the Guiding Principles, there has been an explosion of research into various case studies. This paper re-examines the case of Azerbaijan within a new theoretical framework. This paper uses the work of Walter Kalin, former UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (2004-2010 ...


The Belt And Road Initiative: China’S Rise, America’S Balance, And Latin America’S Struggle, Garrett Bullock May 2020

The Belt And Road Initiative: China’S Rise, America’S Balance, And Latin America’S Struggle, Garrett Bullock

History Honors Papers

This research attempts to understand the evolving relationship between China, the United States, and Latin America. Specifically, it explores China’s rapid rise as a formidable geopolitical power, the United States’ mixed response to that rise, and efforts by two Latin American countries, Ecuador and Argentina, to avoid exploitation by both China and the United States—and, indeed, to even benefit from this mutating relationship. In all cases, historically constructed ideas and strategic interests shape relations among these various actors. Accordingly, this research lays out the historical sources for each of these powers’ central ideas. Then, it connects those ideas ...


Anti-Semitism As A Political Tool Of Tyrannical Government, Bailey Gordon, Kimberly Hale May 2020

Anti-Semitism As A Political Tool Of Tyrannical Government, Bailey Gordon, Kimberly Hale

Honors Theses

Anti-Semitism has been a form of hatred and racism among movements and governmental organizations since Babylonian times. It was institutionalized however in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a form of political tool to garner support for tyrannical establishments. Although anti-Semitism has been around for centuries, it has been used more recently to rally people in a tribal-nationalistic spirit. As the populace becomes normalized to anti-Semitic beliefs, they eventually become more accepting of a tyrannical government whose policies are rooted in anti-Semitism. To appease the masses, this tyrannical government must then stay in motion. This constant ...


Mao Zedong And The Cultural Revolution: In Theory And Impact, Marissa Bryan May 2020

Mao Zedong And The Cultural Revolution: In Theory And Impact, Marissa Bryan

Honors Theses

Across the globe, the 20th century witnessed several instances of tyrannical regimes and leaders; Chairman Mao Zedong was argued by many to have been one of the most merciless tyrants that this era witnessed. A founder of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong was one of the most significant and controversial political actors in the last century. Chairman Mao became the leader of the People’s Republic of China after declaring its existence in 1949, marking the beginning of both a communist regime in the East Asian territory and Mao’s tyrannical reign. Zedong can be remembered for several ...


A Comparative Analysis Of The Politics Of Gun Control In The United States And Australia, Nicholas Leone May 2020

A Comparative Analysis Of The Politics Of Gun Control In The United States And Australia, Nicholas Leone

College Honors Program

This thesis centers on the interrelationships and differences in firearm legislation and culture within the United States of America and Australia. As a result of the Port Arthur Massacre on April 28, 1996, Australia was faced with an unprecedented mass shooting that completely shifted Australian politics and culture regarding firearm safety and availability. Thus, the thesis inquiries into the effectiveness of Australia’s buyback program as well as the cultural and political factors that allowed for such legislation to be passed. After suffering 118 mass shootings in the U.S. since 1982, the history of the United States regarding gun ...


The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson May 2020

The Violence Against Women's Act: From The Criminalization Of Domestic Violence Through Modern Political Challenges, Carrie Anderson

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

The Violence Against Women’s Act, or VAWA, is a landmark piece of federal legislation to combat domestic violence in the United States. It passed in 1994 following various state efforts to stop intimate partner violence. Broad federal legislation was needed to end domestic violence because of the unique nature of the crime including the strong connection between victims and perpetrators, the vast scale of the problem, and the reoccurring nature of domestic violence (Fagan, p. 28-29, 1996). VAWA has been expanded through reauthorization efforts in 2000, 2005, and 2013. Reform efforts have focused on increasing protections for victims especially ...


What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore May 2020

What Europe Learns About Itself: Political Differences And Their Effects On Citizenship Education About The European Union In England, Scotland And Nordrhein-Westfalen, William Moore

Undergraduate Honors Theses

How government opinion can influence the creation of citizenship education content has long been a significant question in the field of political socialization. In recent years, the European Union has become a particularly relevant institution and target in this process, as the EU has grown in its political salience. But have governments attempted to influence the attitudes of citizenship education content about the EU for potential political benefits? In this study, I use a combination of spatial content analysis and textual analysis on party manifestos and citizenship education textbooks from England, Scotland, and Nordrhein-Westfalen to highlight whether political opinions on ...


No Strings Attached? Fdi, Ideology, And Levels Of Democracy In Latin America, Alexander Tripp May 2020

No Strings Attached? Fdi, Ideology, And Levels Of Democracy In Latin America, Alexander Tripp

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


The Fragility Of Democracy: The Rise Of Authoritarianism In Hungary And Poland, Maria Fernandez May 2020

The Fragility Of Democracy: The Rise Of Authoritarianism In Hungary And Poland, Maria Fernandez

Political Science & International Studies | Senior Theses

Hungary and Poland have attempted to establish democratic systems of government since the end of Soviet occupation in 1991. Recently, both states have elected leaders who have started to manipulate their democratic institution into one that seems not so democratic; both Hungary and Poland have manipulated their judicial branch into one that now serves only their own interests. Leaders in Hungary and Poland have shown their support for regimes such as those in Russia, China, and Turkey. What factors contribute to democratically elected officials shifting towards authoritarianism in post Eastern-Bloc countries? From Samuel P Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations, to ...


A Crisis Of Masculinity: The Rise Of The Afd And The East German Man, Chandler Molpus Apr 2020

A Crisis Of Masculinity: The Rise Of The Afd And The East German Man, Chandler Molpus

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I examine how a crisis of masculinity in the former German Democratic Republic has contributed to the rise of the far-right party, Alternative fur Deutschland (AfD). In the first chapter, I argue that east German men feel left- behind politically, economically, and demographically. In the second chapter, I compare results from the 2017 Federal Bundestag election to demonstrate that east German men are more likely to vote for the AfD than any other demographic group in Germany.


Electoral College Reform: Past, Present, And Future Implications Of The United States Electoral College System, Madison Mckinney Jan 2020

Electoral College Reform: Past, Present, And Future Implications Of The United States Electoral College System, Madison Mckinney

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The United States’ Electoral College system has been a topic of debate for several years, gaining even more attention from the recent 2000 and 2016 elections. This has become a controversial topic throughout history for several reasons, but mostly because twice in the modern presidency, candidates have won the presidency by winning the electoral vote while losing the popular vote. This paper will examine the history and creation of the Electoral College, how the Framers’ intended it to function, several positive and negative factors of the current system, and compare arguments for and against Electoral College reform. Some reform options ...


Trickle Down Nationalism: Interactions Between Liberal Nationalism And Colonialism In The Raj And Nigeria, Aaryaman Sheoran Jan 2020

Trickle Down Nationalism: Interactions Between Liberal Nationalism And Colonialism In The Raj And Nigeria, Aaryaman Sheoran

CMC Senior Theses

The combination of nationalism and colonialism has remained understudied in academia, despite the important interaction between the two phenomena. European ideas bled over into their colonial empires and began to fill the power vacuum created by colonial enterprises. This study analyzes the impact of British colonialism on the development of national identity in British India and Nigeria.

British influences included large scale economic disruption, cultural reform through ‘westernizing’ the population and abolishing local customs, and creating a new set of institutions to replace traditional power centers. Inevitably, these factors created a nationalist surge across both the Raj and Nigeria, as ...


Torture Under The Regime Of Bashar Al-Assad: Two Decades Of Failed Human Rights Campaigns And Foreign Interference In Syria, Olivia Giles Jan 2020

Torture Under The Regime Of Bashar Al-Assad: Two Decades Of Failed Human Rights Campaigns And Foreign Interference In Syria, Olivia Giles

Honors Projects

This honors thesis analyzes human rights campaigns to end the practice of state-sponsored torture in Syria during the presidency of Bashar al-Assad. It compares the 2000 Damascus Spring and the 2011 Arab Spring using the concept of the “contentious spiral model.” The model is based on the elements of the original “spiral model” introduced in The Power of Human Rights (1999) and the factors of contentious politics discussed in Dynamics of Contention (2001). It suggests that human rights movements that emerge from uprisings need effective mobilization by domestic and international actors. Sustained pressure from both sources should gradually force the ...


Literacy And Democracy: Does A Causal Connection Exist?, Matt Wallack Jan 2020

Literacy And Democracy: Does A Causal Connection Exist?, Matt Wallack

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

This paper attempts to determine if a causal connection exists between majority literacy and the formation of a democracy in a particular polity. After defining terms, I discuss the logic of testing necessary and sufficient conditions. Case studies of two ancient polities (Athens and Syracuse) and two modern polities (India and Russia) are undertaken to determine whether majority literacy is a necessary and/or sufficient condition for democracy. I conclude that claims regarding the causal efficacy of literacy on democracy have been exaggerated.


The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov Jan 2020

The Soviet And American Wars In Afghanistan: Applying Clausewitzian Concepts To Modern Military Failure, Artur Kalandarov

Honors Projects

This paper evaluates the validity of three concepts from Carl von Clausewitz’s On War as they relate to contemporary military conflict. Utilizing the Soviet and American Wars in Afghanistan as case studies, the paper also offers a model for comparative conflict analysis by expanding upon Clausewitz’s culminating point concept. It argues that – despite limitations to Clausewitz’s theory of war – his concepts of culminating points in military operations, mass and concentration, and changing war aims provide useful insights into counterinsurgency military failures. Chapter One identifies the Soviet and American culminating points. Concluding that the concept of a culminating ...


Shutting Down Russia's Superiority Complex. An Analysis Of The International Community's Response To Russia's 2014 Annexation Of Crimea., Luisa Valles Jan 2020

Shutting Down Russia's Superiority Complex. An Analysis Of The International Community's Response To Russia's 2014 Annexation Of Crimea., Luisa Valles

CMC Senior Theses

The United States, the European Union and allies responded to the Russian Federation’s 2014 Annexation of Crimea with economic sanctions. After providing a basic understanding of Russia’s political economy and rent redistribution economic system, this paper supplies an overview of the Western sanctions within Russia’s three economic sectors — the energy industry, the defense industry, and the financial system. From there, I make an analysis of the Russian response to the sanctions is within each sector. Furthermore, I argue that the United States supports ulterior motives for implementing the economic sanctions. Concluding with the effects of the sanctions ...


Ending The Spanish Exception: Explaining The Rise Of Vox, Ethan J. Vanderwilden Jan 2020

Ending The Spanish Exception: Explaining The Rise Of Vox, Ethan J. Vanderwilden

Honors Theses

The “Spanish Exception” refers to Spain’s lack, until recently, of a populist right-wing party. Vox became the first party to the right of the conservative PP to win seats in a regional election in 2018 and in general elections in April and November of 2019. Vox is currently the third largest political party in the Spanish parliament, bringing an end to Spanish exceptionalism. This thesis addresses the rise of Vox through a conceptual framework of political opportunity structure. The framework allows for multiple explanations to account for Vox’s sudden breakthrough. I argue that opportunities present in 2018 and ...


A Rush Of Refugees: How The United States And Canada Have Responded, Tayla A. George Jan 2020

A Rush Of Refugees: How The United States And Canada Have Responded, Tayla A. George

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Returning To Complex Strategic Analysis: A Discussion On The Diminishing Window Of Opportunity For United States Nuclear Policy Preparation With Respect To China, Christopher Keith Giuliano Jan 2020

Returning To Complex Strategic Analysis: A Discussion On The Diminishing Window Of Opportunity For United States Nuclear Policy Preparation With Respect To China, Christopher Keith Giuliano

MSU Graduate Theses

American upheaval over the Chinese technologically advanced strategic threat permeates throughout the government and political culture. The response to this fear is a somewhat nascent reactive U.S. policy toward China as it relates to strategic weapon systems. The U.S. currently is responding by attempting to revitalize an aging nuclear architecture, and re-prioritize strategic weapons in U.S. defense spending. However, U.S. policy must move beyond justifying nuclear weapons and requesting increased funding. What is necessary for this balance beyond an arms race is the intellectual prescription for the calculated employment or fielding of those arms.

Ultimately, this ...


Fragmentation, Frustrated Revolt, And Off-Shore Opportunity: A Comparative Examination Of Jihadi Mobilization In Central Asia And The South Caucasus, William B. Farrell Nov 2019

Fragmentation, Frustrated Revolt, And Off-Shore Opportunity: A Comparative Examination Of Jihadi Mobilization In Central Asia And The South Caucasus, William B. Farrell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research presents analysis for identifying common risk and resilience factors that contributed to or hindered Salafi jihadi mobilization of citizens of Central Asia and the South Caucasus and examines the extent to which these factors had differing internal and external outcomes on Salafi jihadi mobilization. Three levels of analysis provide examination of regime characteristics, behavior of jihadi organizations that mobilized individuals from the region, and case studies through interviews in communities affected by jihadi mobilization in Kyrgyzstan and Georgia.

This research reveals that early distinctions in Islamist subnational struggles had oriented violence towards governments within Central Asia, while neighboring ...


Clientelism And Democracy In Turkey And Mexico: The Impacts On Regimes Of Political Party Exploitation Of Housing Tenure In Informal Settlements, David J. Henry Sep 2019

Clientelism And Democracy In Turkey And Mexico: The Impacts On Regimes Of Political Party Exploitation Of Housing Tenure In Informal Settlements, David J. Henry

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Scholars have identified the abuse of state resources as one of the primary indicators of whether a country will democratize. Clientelist networks are critical to how incumbents exploit state assets to remain in power. When the informal relationships of clientelist parties undermine the formal institutions of the state, the regime is no longer democratic, even where competitive elections take place. Alternately, if a ruling party in such hybrid regimes loses its monopoly on state power, it creates an opening for other parties and social groups to push for democratization. Mexico and Turkey are critical case studies on how clientelist parties ...


Europe Rising (Again): A Comparative Study Of The Dynamics And Types Of Modern European Nationalisms, 1989-2018, Timea Varga Aug 2019

Europe Rising (Again): A Comparative Study Of The Dynamics And Types Of Modern European Nationalisms, 1989-2018, Timea Varga

Dissertations

Nationalism is nothing new to Europe. While theoretical explanations of the catalysts of post-1989 European nationalist phenomena remain contested along material and non-material lines, this dissertation posits that it is the interaction of economic insecurities, societal fears, and populism over time that have shaped the rise and types of post-1989 European nationalisms. Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) is combined with a collective case study design to examine: 1) how forces – political, economic, societal, or other – have dominated the formation and latest surge of European nationalisms since the end of European Communism in 1989; and 2) whether different, context-dependent types of ...


Understanding Taiwan Presidential Election: A Review Paper, Shida Zhong Aug 2019

Understanding Taiwan Presidential Election: A Review Paper, Shida Zhong

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

This paper seeks to find a systematic understanding of the presidential election in Taiwan. Based on the Taiwanese national identity issue as the main social cleavage, I try to review the literature about Taiwan’s presidential election and find the factors that influence the result of presidential election. I try to sort the factors into three dimensions: issue voting, valence voting and social context. Meanwhile, this paper also contains a brief introduction of democratization in Taiwan as a history background and a short review on the past Taiwan presidential election. The purpose of paper is to shine a light on ...


The Personalization-Privacy Paradox Explored Through A Privacy Calculus Model And Hofstede’S Model Of Cultural Dimensions, Kellen M. Schwartz Jun 2019

The Personalization-Privacy Paradox Explored Through A Privacy Calculus Model And Hofstede’S Model Of Cultural Dimensions, Kellen M. Schwartz

Honors Projects

The Personalization-Privacy Paradox is a relevant issue for companies today, as it deals with the paradox of customers who on the one hand want to keep their personal data private, but on the other hand desire the personalization benefits that can be gained by giving up that privacy. Many studies in the past have observed the Personalization-Privacy Paradox, but not thoroughly through the lens of a privacy calculus model. This paper uses a privacy calculus model to examine the Personalization-Privacy Paradox using Hofstede’s Six Dimensions of Culture and examines the United States, Germany, and China as case studies of ...


Political Parties For Protection And Profit: Explaining Opposition Party Competition Under Electoral Authoritarianism, Michael David Toje Jun 2019

Political Parties For Protection And Profit: Explaining Opposition Party Competition Under Electoral Authoritarianism, Michael David Toje

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Despite the presence of open elections and contestable political offices, opposition parties in electoral authoritarian regimes face barriers – formal and informal – that prevent them from attaining de facto power. Yet, these parties still decide to spend the time, money, and effort to run candidates in unfair elections. This dissertation seeks to uncover the reasons that opposition parties decide to compete in such an uncompetitive environment, and what sustains opposition parties though cycles of defeat. It proposes that opposition parties compete not for the purposes of unseating the ruling party, but rather for controlling their own local affairs away from interference ...


Development Finance Institutions As Tools For Foreign Aid Distribution: A Comparative Analysis Of The Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Findev Canada And Deutsche Investitions – Und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, Kamal Mann May 2019

Development Finance Institutions As Tools For Foreign Aid Distribution: A Comparative Analysis Of The Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Findev Canada And Deutsche Investitions – Und Entwicklungsgesellschaft, Kamal Mann

Major Papers

An understanding of how foreign aid has changed requires a thorough examination of the efforts taken in aid to address the widening finance gap in development, alongside the often-contested issue of aid effectiveness. This is particularly the case when looking at how aid should be paid for. Yet the question of how to best program and deliver foreign aid remains unanswered.

Aid remains one of the largest aspects of international transfers of resources that occur in the world, as such it is important to study it. The rise of Development Finance Institutions, which are publicly owned, private lending institutions helps ...