Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Comparative Politics

Series

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 487

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

How U.S. Government Policy Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman Oct 2019

How U.S. Government Policy Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Artificial intelligence is affecting many areas of our lives and governmental policy. National security is one arena in which artificial intelligence is playing an increasingly important and controversial role. U.S. Government and military agencies are producing a steadily expanding corpus of publicly available literature on this topic. This literature documents how these agencies have this topic's national security implications historically and currently while also addressing potentially emerging national security issues where artificial intelligence will intersect with national security. This presentation demonstrates examples of the growing variety of publicly available national security artificial intelligence literature while also addressing the ...


Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman Sep 2019

Recent U.S. And International Assessment Of Baltic Security Developments, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to analyse Baltic security developments from U.S. government and military resources, scholarly journal articles, and multinational public policy research institute assessments. METHODS: The aim is to analyse the content and rhetoric within these resources to learn how those producing these materials view Baltic security developments and their viewpoints on how the U.S. and its allies should respond to these developments focusing on increasing Russian regional assertiveness. RESULTS: The author provides interpretations of Baltic security developments, Russian Baltic policy, and U.S. and NATO responses to these developments in materials produced by ...


The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman Aug 2019

The Baltics And Ukraine: Geopolitical Hotspots, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides detailed historical overview and contemporary analysis on why the Baltics and Ukraine are historical and remain contemporary geopolitical hotspots. Provides analysis of cultural economic, environmental, and security factors influencing long-standing contentiousness over these regions. Places emphasis on how Russian behavior and policies influence this contentiousness. Concludes by noting that differences between the U.S. and its allies and conflicts within the U.S. Government may limit the ability of the U.S. to effectively respond to events in these disputed regions.


Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford Aug 2019

Cruising Into Conflict: A Mixed Methods Examination Of Cruise Missile Possession And The Initiation Of Military Force, Dennis Crawford

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This research examines the effect of cruise missile possession on state behavior. Specifically, it seeks to determine if countries who possess cruise missiles are more likely to initiate a military threat, display, or use of force than countries who do not possess cruise missiles. Traditional International Relations theory suggests that, all else being equal, a state with an asymmetrical military advantage should enjoy concessions from target states, decreasing the likelihood of armed conflict. Accordingly, coercion theory warns the use of armed force to change adversarial behavior should be exercised sparingly. However, this dissertation finds that states possessing cruise missile initiate ...


The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly Jul 2019

The Prosecution Paradox: How The International Criminal Court Affects Civil War Peace Negotiations, Julia Reilly

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

Since the International Criminal Court (ICC)’s inception, observers have disagreed about how it would affect prospects for peace when it is involved in situations of ongoing conflict. Therefore, I ask, why do some of the civil war peace negotiations involving the ICC end with full peace agreements, while others end with resumed violence? I argue that how the Court affects the occurrence and outcome of peace negotiations is largely a function of the role that it plays in the situation. Due to its institutional design, the Court has the capacity to play either an oversight or a prosecutorial role ...


When Do Opponents Of Gay Rights Mobilize? Explaining Political Participation In Times Of Backlash Against Liberalism, Phillip M. Ayoub, Douglas D. Page Jun 2019

When Do Opponents Of Gay Rights Mobilize? Explaining Political Participation In Times Of Backlash Against Liberalism, Phillip M. Ayoub, Douglas D. Page

Political Science Faculty Publications

Existing research suggests that supporters of gay rights have outmobilized their opponents, leading to policy changes in advanced industrialized democracies. At the same time, we observe the diffusion of state-sponsored homophobia in many parts of the world. The emergence of gay rights as a salient political issue in global politics leads us to ask, “Who is empowered to be politically active in various societies?” What current research misses is a comparison of levels of participation (voting and protesting) between states that make stronger and weaker appeals to homophobia. Voters face contrasting appeals from politicians in favor of and against gay ...


Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman May 2019

Health Care's Market Bureaucracy, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The last several decades of health law and policy have been built on a foundation of economic theory. This theory supported the proliferation of market-based policies that promised maximum efficiency and minimal bureaucracy. Neither of these promises has been realized. A mounting body of empirical research discussed in this Article makes clear that leading market-based policies are not efficient — they fail to capture what people want. Even more, this Article describes how the struggle to bolster these policies — through constant regulatory, technocratic tinkering that aims to improve the market and the decision-making of consumers in it — has produced a massive ...


Engineering An Ethnic Mosaic: The Institutionalization Of Civic Nationalism In Kosovo, Israel, And The West Bank, Jordan L. Dewar May 2019

Engineering An Ethnic Mosaic: The Institutionalization Of Civic Nationalism In Kosovo, Israel, And The West Bank, Jordan L. Dewar

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

A perfect storm of ethnic-based violence is on the horizon, spurred on by increasing diversity, climate change, and the inability of many societies to handle these trends. This thesis examines the ways through which elites are incentivized to build institutions promoting a specific type of identity and how institutional structures use different means to promote the desired identity. It also addresses the ways through which state-based identity can be adapted to be inclusive while remaining salient. This will be done both through examinations of existing theory surrounding state structure and identity as well as two case studies where identity is ...


The Controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: America's Most Expensive Weapons System And Its Global Impact, Bert Chapman Apr 2019

The Controversial F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: America's Most Expensive Weapons System And Its Global Impact, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Creative Materials

Presentation describing my 2019 Palgrave Macmillan book Global Defense Procurement and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. It describes this aircraft and places particular emphasis on the government information resources from multiple countries used in writing this book.


British Government Information Resources, Bert Chapman Apr 2019

British Government Information Resources, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Creative Materials

Provides an overview of British Government information resources. Contents include basic British economic and political background and information from British Government websites including the Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), Brexit related material produced by British government agencies such as the Department for Exiting the European Union,, the Ministry of Defence, the National Museum of the Royal Navy, the Home Office Visas and Immigration Section, the Office of National Statistics, Her Majesty's Treasury, the British Parliament including parliamentary committees and research agencies, the website of Member of Parliament (MP) Jacob Rees-Mogg (Conservative-North East Somerset), a webcast of ...


Reform And Democratization In Ukraine: My Service As A Peace Corps Volunteer With An Ukrainian Local Government Organization, Danielle Stevens Apr 2019

Reform And Democratization In Ukraine: My Service As A Peace Corps Volunteer With An Ukrainian Local Government Organization, Danielle Stevens

Capstone Projects – Politics and Government

This paper provides a micro-analysis of democratization and reform in an Ukrainian local government institution that was the site placement for the author's Peace Corps service. Through using a culturalist lens and applying open systems theory while working as a Peace Corps Volunteer, the researcher observed how one organization coped with implementing public administration reform that is the result of the Revolution of Dignity in 2013-2014. This paper contributes to existing research regarding reform efficacy in other post-Soviet spaces, and provides a foundation for furthering similar research in Ukraine.


Political Systems Of Africa, Nicholas Rush Smith Apr 2019

Political Systems Of Africa, Nicholas Rush Smith

Open Educational Resources

Syllabus for Political Systems of Africa - Spring 2019


The New Geopolitical Space In The Information Era: A Neuroscientific Approach To National Security, Naomi Silverstein Apr 2019

The New Geopolitical Space In The Information Era: A Neuroscientific Approach To National Security, Naomi Silverstein

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Cognitive Warfare is the interdisciplinary use of technology and an understanding of the brain’s natural processes to influence opinion and behavior. Also known as sharp power, these methods are more technical and accurate than Cold War-age propaganda, and more personal than typical information warfare. With tools like disinformation and big data, outsiders have the ability to exploit vulnerabilities, manipulate belief formation and disseminate a chosen narrative on the grand scale. Examples of events that utilized cognitive warfare to influence sentiment include the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, Russian annexation of Crimea, and the UK’s vote to withdraw from ...


Quality Over Quantity: A Comparative Analysis Of The Quality Measures And Performance Between Switzerland And The United States, Lexi Farina Apr 2019

Quality Over Quantity: A Comparative Analysis Of The Quality Measures And Performance Between Switzerland And The United States, Lexi Farina

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Even in the best health systems, poor quality of care continues to cause harm to patients and prevent them from receiving the best treatment possible. Thus, it is important to record and report quality of care measures because they can help inform policy changes and improve performance. In this paper, a comparative analysis between the United States and Switzerland is conducted to understand the process for defining and assessing quality indicators in each country as well as compare their quality of care performance results. The methods for this study include a literature review of relevant background information relating to quality ...


Approaching Contemporary Terrorism, Jonathan Marcus Apr 2019

Approaching Contemporary Terrorism, Jonathan Marcus

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This paper aims to analyze how governments of the modern era can better engage with contemporary terrorist organizations. It argues that nations and governments must alter their strategy on terrorism in light of its increasing prevalence and lethality in the modern era. Proclamations of non-negotiation, made with false perceptions that terrorists are simply irrational radical actors, are no longer viable if governments truly seek to reduce terrorist violence. In fact, it’s the ambiguity of terrorism and the major differentiation in the practices of various organizations which necessitate a more flexible strategy. Simply, the one-size-fits all solution of unequivocal no-negotiation ...


Vaccine Hesitancy In The United States And Switzerland, Anna E. Lunderberg Apr 2019

Vaccine Hesitancy In The United States And Switzerland, Anna E. Lunderberg

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vaccine hesitancy (VH), or the reluctance or refusal to participate in vaccination programs, is a complex phenomenon with far-reaching impacts on society. VH can impact vaccine uptake and facilitate subsequent outbreaks, as seen with the case of measles. Perceptions of vaccination are similar in the United States and Switzerland, and misinformation in each country contributed to VH through impaired parental risk-benefit analysis; parental analysis and subsequent VH is associated with both anti-vaccination messages gaining prominence and a decrease in the public perception of the health risk from vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). There are many proposed strategies for addressing VH on both ...


A Tale Of Two Revolutions: A Comparative Case Study Of The Rhetoric Of Twenty-First Century Socialist Movements In Cuba And Venezuela, Andreina Lamas Mar 2019

A Tale Of Two Revolutions: A Comparative Case Study Of The Rhetoric Of Twenty-First Century Socialist Movements In Cuba And Venezuela, Andreina Lamas

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Cuba and Venezuela have historically been signaled as the two longest-lasting socialist revolutions and governments in the Western hemisphere. Much of their revolutionary theory has been based on the actions taken by the United States towards Latin America as a whole, as well as towards those two countries specifically. This can be most acutely perceived in the ways in which the leaders of these revolutions, Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez, speak about the United States in relation to their own ideologies. Consequently, simultaneously studying these policies by the United States, Castro’s speeches, and those by Chávez provide evidence on ...


Bean Counters: The Effect Of Soy Tariffs On Change In Republican Vote Share Between The 2016 And 2018 Elections., Olga Chyzh, Robert B. Urbatsch Mar 2019

Bean Counters: The Effect Of Soy Tariffs On Change In Republican Vote Share Between The 2016 And 2018 Elections., Olga Chyzh, Robert B. Urbatsch

Political Science Publications

How do trade wars affect presidential support? President Trump's aggressive tariffs on China despite his largely rural electoral support base provide a unique opportunity to analyze the relationship between international trade policy and domestic support. If trade-related considerations were ever decisive to American voters, the stark decrease in soy prices, a direct effect of Trump-initiated tariffs immediately preceding the 2018 midterm election, serves as a critical test for studying their effect. This letter shows a robust inverse relationship between county-level soybean production and the change in Republican vote share between the 2016 and 2018 congressional elections.


Public Interest Litigation & Women’S Rights: Cases From Nepal & India, Jordan E. Stevenson Mar 2019

Public Interest Litigation & Women’S Rights: Cases From Nepal & India, Jordan E. Stevenson

2019 Symposium

As a complex, diverse and dynamic region with diverging, constantly changing constitutional and jurisprudential contexts as well as lasting legacies of patriarchy, South Asia’s traditions of public interest litigation are one of the most well-studied institutions by Western audiences due to their contradictory progressive and innovative nature. Particularly in India, where public interest litigation gives ordinary citizens extraordinary access to the highest courts of justice, questions have been raised as to the effectiveness of public interest litigation as a tool to address gender disparities across the region. Although Supreme Court justices have been a key ally in eliminating legal ...


Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia Mar 2019

Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Many states around the globe, most particularly in Europe, have seen a resurgence of far-right populist parties in the years following the global financial crisis. In Central and Eastern Europe (C.E.E.), the domestic democratic backsliding exhibited by European Union Member States such as Hungary under the administration of Fidesz’s Viktor Orbán and Poland under the control of Law and Justice’s Mateusz Morawiecki have prompted many scholars and political observers to predict the worst for the European Union. However, while domestic sliding towards authoritarianism and a flouting of rhetorical norms is cause for alarm, the effect of ...


Is Authoritarianism Bad For The Economy? Ask Venezuela – Or Hungary Or Turkey, Nisha Bellinger, Byunghwan Son Feb 2019

Is Authoritarianism Bad For The Economy? Ask Venezuela – Or Hungary Or Turkey, Nisha Bellinger, Byunghwan Son

Political Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Democracy is at risk worldwide. And the economy may be, too.

Seventy-one out of the world’s 195 countries saw their democratic institutions erode in recent years, according to the 2018 year-end report by democracy watchdog Freedom House, a phenomenon known as “democratic backsliding.” Signs of backsliding include elected leaders who expand their executive powers while weakening the legislature and judiciary, elections that have become less competitive and shrinking press freedom.


Building An Environmental State: A Comparative Analysis Of Environmental State Formation In Germany And China, Russell Adam Jan 2019

Building An Environmental State: A Comparative Analysis Of Environmental State Formation In Germany And China, Russell Adam

Government and International Relations Honors Papers

What are environmental states, how do they form and where can they can be found? As ecosystems around the world collapse under the pressure of human activity, the role of the state is growing to include environmental protection as a key function. The concept of the environmental state has typically been applied to likely candidates in the developed world where wealth and relatively free public spheres have allowed for active environmental movements. It is increasingly clear however, that environmental degradation is disproportionately impacting states in the Global South. Because of this, it is necessary to consider whether or not environmental ...


Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici Jan 2019

Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This paper aims to analyze the challenges of entrepreneurship in the Republic of Moldova, including the special regions of Transnistria and Gagauzia. The main methodology of data collection used throughout this paper is qualitative semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, legislators, foundations, and investors in the various fields. Where relevant, data from the neighboring countries Romania and Ukraine will be used. Additionally, the research is supported by data, literature reviews and academic papers that provide a more macro-level perspective about the economic situation of Moldova.

The research is based on the hypothesis that Moldova’s human development index (HDI) could in fact ...


Rwu First Amendment Blog: David Logan's Blog: Recognizing The Free Press In The Crosshairs Across The Globe 12-12-2018, David A. Logan Dec 2018

Rwu First Amendment Blog: David Logan's Blog: Recognizing The Free Press In The Crosshairs Across The Globe 12-12-2018, David A. Logan

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Voting For Secular Parties In The Middle East: Evidence From The 2014 General Elections In Post-Revolutionary Tunisia, H. Ege Ozen Nov 2018

Voting For Secular Parties In The Middle East: Evidence From The 2014 General Elections In Post-Revolutionary Tunisia, H. Ege Ozen

Publications and Research

Arab uprisings paved the way for democratic elections in the Middle East and

North Africa region. Yet countries in this region, except for Tunisia, were not

able to maintain further democratization. Tunisia, regardless of economic

turbulence and security problems, managed to hold its second parliamentary

elections in October 2014, and Ennahda, the party of the popular Islamist

movement, could not keep mass support. A large number of studies have

examined the rise of the Islamist parties as their electoral success in the post-

Arab Uprisings elections by focusing on their organizational strength as well

as their social services. However, the ...


Shield Or Glue? Key Policy Issues Constraining Or Enhancing Multinational Collective Ballistic Missile Defense, Marxen Kyriss Nov 2018

Shield Or Glue? Key Policy Issues Constraining Or Enhancing Multinational Collective Ballistic Missile Defense, Marxen Kyriss

Political Science Department -- Theses, Dissertations, and Student Scholarship

This dissertation explores a series of eleven political factors nations would have to consider should they contemplate joining a military coalition or alliance that uses ballistic missile defense (BMD); which of these factors incentivize or dissuade states from joining this coalition, and whether they vary from region to region, or state to state. It uses a two-stage case-study-based qualitative research design, in which the first theory generation phase was comprised of 21 experimentation events over a ten-year period with BMD policy experts from 24 nations led by the United States Strategic Command known as NIMBLE TITAN. The results of these ...


Mackinder And The Arctic's Emerging Geopolitics: Recommendations For The U.S. And Its Nato Allies, Bert Chapman Oct 2018

Mackinder And The Arctic's Emerging Geopolitics: Recommendations For The U.S. And Its Nato Allies, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

This presentation shows how Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) described Canada and the Arctic region in his geopolitical writings. It goes on to stress how the Arctic is becoming increasingly important in international geopolitical policymaking due to its significant oil and natural gas resources, how warming temperatures are increasing international access to its waters, and the how countries as diverse as Canada, China, Russia, and the U.S. see the Arctic region in their strategic policymaking. It concludes by stressing that the Arctic can no longer be viewed as a region immune from international conflict and presents recommendations for the U.S ...


Turkish Eu Accession: The Influence Of The Far Right, Gregory Stryker Jul 2018

Turkish Eu Accession: The Influence Of The Far Right, Gregory Stryker

International Relations Summer Fellows

Samuel Huntington’s concept of ‘a clash of civilizations’ is used more frequently by some in the EU to explain the question of why the EU is seemingly stalling Turkey from becoming a full member state of the EU. Scholars offer many other possible reasons to explain the attempts from the EU to delay or even prevent Turkish accession based around arguments of identity, economics, or human rights, among others. This paper takes a different approach from other scholarly works by examining the domestic politics in the countries that have delayed Turkey from progressing with the accession negotiations. I argue ...


Resource Nationalism And Energy Integration In Latin America: The Paradox Of Populism, Brian Hollingsworth Jun 2018

Resource Nationalism And Energy Integration In Latin America: The Paradox Of Populism, Brian Hollingsworth

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the relationship between resource nationalism and energy integration, and uses Bolivia and Brazil as a test case. Essentially, does resource nationalism affect energy integration? The findings nest within more expansive questions on international political economy and export-driven models of development. Why do populist regimes, historically operating under an economic nationalist cum protectionist paradigm, simultaneously pursue policies of economic integration? What is the relationship between resource nationalists and open markets, especially in the hydrocarbons sector? What is the relationship between populists, who are typically resource nationalists, and their decision to choose policies of energy integration?

The most common ...


International Energy Geopolitics, Bert Chapman Jun 2018

International Energy Geopolitics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Overview of international energy geopolitical trends. Emphasizes the importance of the Persian Gulf, South China Sea, East China Sea, Russia, and the Arctic to U.S. and international economic and strategic developments. Stresses the continuing importance of fossil fuels in domestic and international energy consumption, the variety of energy sources being used by various global regions, the potential for military conflict over access to natural resources, and how emerging energy leaders will determine global energy, environmental, and international security developments.