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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

The Political Animal: Aristotle's Man And The Natural Political Life, Joseph Rodriguez May 2020

The Political Animal: Aristotle's Man And The Natural Political Life, Joseph Rodriguez

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Aristotle's Politics offers what may be called a "political anthropology". I argue that Aristotle's conception of the polis as natural derives from the specifically human kind of partnership that is tied to the exercise of the specifically human capacity for logos. I assert that Aristotle's political naturalism is rooted in two claims: (a) the claim that humans are the most political animal and (b) the claim that the polis is naturally prior to the individual. Together these two claims constitute Aristotle's argument that the polis alone has the potential to fully satisfy our unique human capacity ...


Human Suffering In North Korea, Jessup Jong May 2020

Human Suffering In North Korea, Jessup Jong

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Why is there a growing divide between communities working on human rights advocacy and humanitarian aid delivery in North Korea? At first glance, it is easy to think that humanitarian aid workers and human rights advocates for North Korea must be working towards the same goals because they sound similar. The definition of the two areas indeed overlap, but there has arguably been no reconciliation or formal cooperation. Whether it happens in academic scholarship, politics, or personal Twitter feuds, professionals working on these two areas describe an increasing sense of divide that often puts them in conflict. Three factors (ideological ...


Political Culture And Abortion Policy, Caleb J. Evans May 2020

Political Culture And Abortion Policy, Caleb J. Evans

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Abortion policy in the United States varies greatly from state to state. The general understanding is that states controlled by Democrats are friendly towards abortion and states controlled by Republicans are more hostile towards abortion rights. In the research paper, this is displayed by the state of Oklahoma. However, the states of Rhode Island and Montana both defy this generally accepted trend. Rhode Island is a Democratically controlled state with a strong history of abortion restrictions, while Montana is a Republican-controlled state with a track record of more lax policy on reproductive rights. This research paper delves into the political ...


The Tweet Speaks For Itself: A Case Study Of The "St. Louis Manifest" Twitter Account, Zili Chang May 2020

The Tweet Speaks For Itself: A Case Study Of The "St. Louis Manifest" Twitter Account, Zili Chang

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Historians have long studied the concept of a "usable past" understood as the selective application of the past to the present to establish identity or achieve a goal. In the twenty-first century, this concept has become pertinent to social media platforms, which have changed the way humans engage in activism. One important intersection of history, social media, and activism converges in a Twitter account titled "St. Louis Manifest." The account is a curated site of memory, and as the most recent evolution of the story of the 1939 Jewish refugee ship, the M.S. St. Louis, it serves as a ...


From Outside The Beltway: Minorities In The Early-20th Century Labor Movement, Hunter Douglas Whann May 2020

From Outside The Beltway: Minorities In The Early-20th Century Labor Movement, Hunter Douglas Whann

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

This paper argues that organized labor's racially discriminatory practices of the early 1900s effectively served to disenfranchise African Americans and immigrants from the American political process. Twentieth-century notions of race and ethnicity limited broad sympathy amongst minorities and immigrants, further dividing the labor movement. Because unions provide labor leaders a rank-and-file membership to mobilize in support of candidates, politicians are receptive to their preferences. Labor unions' exclusion of minorities therefore robbed them of a voice in government. Racism abounded in the United States, not just within the labor movement. However, such discrimination served to withhold both economic and political ...


Women In The U.S. Congress: A Study On The Role Of Gender In Electoral And Legislative Processes, Selby Tucker May 2020

Women In The U.S. Congress: A Study On The Role Of Gender In Electoral And Legislative Processes, Selby Tucker

Scholars Day Conference

Using a three-part methodology, I examined women in Congress by studying their campaign finances, bill sponsorships, electoral history, and personal testaments to draw conclusions about the ability of a woman to fairly participate in the legislative process.


Activism Throughout The Years At Johns Hopkins University, Lubna Azmi May 2020

Activism Throughout The Years At Johns Hopkins University, Lubna Azmi

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

My research focuses on activism at Johns Hopkins University starting from the year 1957 with a black student activist by the name of Donald Perry, protesting for equal rights for black students on the JHU campus. The research centers on how activism has developed from then analyzing the focuses of protest, who was protesting, and how Johns Hopkins played a part as a powerful institution within each period of time. It contrasts how activism has changed with a focus on the catalysts that sprouted each movement of social justice. Donald Perry himself is a part of my research. His role ...


Israel's Modulation Of Checkpoints: Systematic Manipulation Of The Oslo Accords, Anna Rhodes Apr 2020

Israel's Modulation Of Checkpoints: Systematic Manipulation Of The Oslo Accords, Anna Rhodes

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

The theory of modulation has allowed Israel to make military moves and manipulate policies that once narrowly fit within the groundwork of the Oslo Accords of 1993. The purpose of the ambitious agreement was for the possible reconciliation of the persistent violence and mass murder that has been committed by Israelis and Palestinians alike. However, it has manifestly failed to do so. The policies defined in the Oslo Accords are purposely ambivalent in order for Israel to have a wider jurisdiction over when there is uncertainty in what is disputed. Since the Second Intifada of 2000, checkpoints have been a ...


In-Group Solidarity Or Out-Group Resentment?: Evaluating The Foundations Of White Punitiveness, Jacob Levy Apr 2020

In-Group Solidarity Or Out-Group Resentment?: Evaluating The Foundations Of White Punitiveness, Jacob Levy

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

Many White Americans strongly identify with their racial group. Does this identity impact their views on policy? Until recently, it was thought that white racial solidarity was essentially inconsequential when it came to the formation of policy preferences. However, recent scholarship has demonstrated that White Americans who exhibit a higher degree of racial solidarity are more likely to support specific policies with respect to immigration and social welfare. This paper expands the literature on White Americans'in-group attitudes by exploring the relationship between white racial solidarity and support for punitive criminal justice policy. Using data collected by the American National ...


Ethnonationalism And Democracy: Lessons From India And Israel, Naba Wahid Apr 2020

Ethnonationalism And Democracy: Lessons From India And Israel, Naba Wahid

2020 JHU Richard Macksey National Undergraduate Humanities Research Symposium

This research will specifically consider the cases of India and Israel as states that have experienced a growth in ethnonationalist sentiment in recent years, and are now facing conflicts with their ethnic minorities. By examining these cases, this research will explore these nations' compatibility with democracy, which both nations purport to be. Through this examination, we may explore the effects of ethnic diversity on the integrity of democratic systems, and the methods by which ethnic majorities suppress the voices of ethnic minorities. With recent resurgences of populist movements in many nations that are returning to isolationism and intensified nationalism, the ...


A War Of Implicit Forces: The Algerian Revolution, Grace I. Graham Apr 2020

A War Of Implicit Forces: The Algerian Revolution, Grace I. Graham

Young Historians Conference

The Algerian Revolution, Algeria’s fight against the colonial power of France epitomized the perseverance of the people’s voice. However, with few military battles won by the Algerians, against the resource rich France, how did Algeria ultimately become the victor? This paper explores the F.L.N.’s strategies in approaching the war and how France’s response to such tactics contributed to domestic and international sympathy for the Algerians’ cause, leading to the eventual liberation of Algeria.


The Use Of The Birth Control Movement As A Eugenics Weapon, 1920'S-1960'S, Peyton P. Holstein Apr 2020

The Use Of The Birth Control Movement As A Eugenics Weapon, 1920'S-1960'S, Peyton P. Holstein

Young Historians Conference

While Margaret Sanger made great strides in the crusade for legalization and open access to birth control for women, groups paired her work with ideologies such as Social Darwinism to arm the eugenics movement throughout the Twentieth-century. The eugenics movement was a culmination of racism and newly found scientific theories which led a crusade to purify the American population through reproductive cherry-picking on the basis of race. One of the primary ways that this group attempted to weed out “undesirable” races within the American population was through birth control as well as sterilization. These two movements - birth control and eugenics ...


The Importance Of Richard Lionheart In The Third Crusade, Stefan Caplazi Mr. Apr 2020

The Importance Of Richard Lionheart In The Third Crusade, Stefan Caplazi Mr.

Young Historians Conference

The impact that King Richard III of England had on the third crusade is apparent through his limited strategic victories on the battlefield. Richard III did well with his limited resources, but ultimately failed to retake Jerusalem. Due to unforeseeable events, Richard III lost his military support before embarking on much of the campaign to regain the Holy Land. These events proved detrimental to his task. While he was an excellent strategist and fearsome leader, Richard III simply lacked the resources and troops to succeed. This paper argues that with more military support, Richard “The Lionheart” would have retaken the ...


You Don’T Need A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows: The Prison Break Of Timothy Leary, Phoebe N. Holman Apr 2020

You Don’T Need A Weatherman To Know Which Way The Wind Blows: The Prison Break Of Timothy Leary, Phoebe N. Holman

Young Historians Conference

This paper examines the revolutionary merit of the Weather Underground Organization’s prison break of LSD guru Timothy Leary. Was Leary truly an activist willing to risk everything to introduce the public to the healing powers of psychedelics? Or was he an unprofessional mad scientist using his students to further his own agenda? It also provides an explanation of how the WUO and other anti-war organizations like it brought the United States to the brink of a massive societal shift—and then disappeared.


Cairo Under Isma'il Pasha: A Divided City, Chloe N. Moehling Apr 2020

Cairo Under Isma'il Pasha: A Divided City, Chloe N. Moehling

Young Historians Conference

The creation of the Suez Canal, in November of 1869, created an opportunity for Isma’il Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, to reintroduce the world to a new, Europeanized Cairo. His vision required spending millions of British pounds to welcome international travelers who came to celebrate the opening of the canal. Isma’il Pasha’s “Europeanization” of the western side of Cairo from 1866 to 1879 ushered his country into decades of economic and political turmoil. While Isma’il’s extravagant spending created European inspired hotels, parks, cafe’s, and the Khedivial Opera House, these expenditures left Egypt indebted to European ...


The Power Of A Prince: Machiavelli, Devotion, And The Secularization Of Western Politics, Jason D. Grossmann-Ferris Apr 2020

The Power Of A Prince: Machiavelli, Devotion, And The Secularization Of Western Politics, Jason D. Grossmann-Ferris

Young Historians Conference

3rd place winner of the Karen E. Hoppes Young Historians Award for Outstanding Research and Writing.

Although The Prince was clearly not well-recieved in its day by many, its influence is clear in modern realpolitik and the creation of the secular state. This paper examines the role of Machiavelli’s seminal work in Western politics within the timeline of the Catholic Church’s decline. In The Prince, Machiavelli clearly guides the reader towards the pragmatic political use of religion instead of legitimate belief, insinuating that faith is more useful as a tool for social control rather than personal conviction. This ...


The Spies That Founded America: How The War For Independence Revolutionized American Espionage, Masaki Lew Apr 2020

The Spies That Founded America: How The War For Independence Revolutionized American Espionage, Masaki Lew

Young Historians Conference

Prior to the American Revolutionary War (1775-1883), tensions rose as American colonial smugglers circumvented British taxes. By the onset of the conflict, Continental General George Washington faced a daunting British military invasion. Washington's strategy to outmaneuver and tire enemy forces necessitated a way to anticipate incoming attacks. Thus, he looked to espionage, but found few colonists with professional experience. So who would have the deceptive skills to fulfill the task? An exploration of Washington’s dilemma provides compelling evidence explaining how the colonial smugglers who started the war became the Patriot spies who ended it.


Social, Scientific, Litigious: The Birth Of A Queer Americanism, Claire M. Fennell Apr 2020

Social, Scientific, Litigious: The Birth Of A Queer Americanism, Claire M. Fennell

Young Historians Conference

The queer rights movement is often assumed to have advanced because of the collateral benefit of other social rights movements occurring around the same time, in the 1950s and 60s. However, the inception of an organized queer rights movement did not happen in line with any progressive time in United States public thought. In reality, the movement began at a time when America was at its least forward-thinking, during the Cold War. It was not the times becoming more progressive, but rather the shift in the model of oppression the queer community faced which allowed for the advent of an ...


African-American Disenfranchisement And Voter Turnout, Mychala Walker Apr 2020

African-American Disenfranchisement And Voter Turnout, Mychala Walker

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Despite recent gains in African-American communities, one area where African-Americans lack participation is voting. The purpose of this research is to examine how African American disenfranchisement affects voter turnout for college students. In this study Virginia college students will be observed as a microcosm of all colleges in the United States. The goal of this project is to address voting issues for college students.


Interpreting As Ideologically-Structured Action: Collective Identity Between Activist Interpreters And Protesters, Mark A. Halley Phd, Nic Feb 2020

Interpreting As Ideologically-Structured Action: Collective Identity Between Activist Interpreters And Protesters, Mark A. Halley Phd, Nic

Showcase of Faculty Scholarly & Creative Activity

In this paper, I explore the work of the American Sign Language-English interpreters who volunteered in the 1988 Deaf President Now protest (DPN). Drawing from the construct of ideologically-structured action (Dalton 1994; Zald 2000), I frame the interpreters’ decisionmaking throughout the protest, showing how their beliefs about and relationships with deaf people shaped their actions. Further, I argue that the activist interpreters exhibited a collective identity (Polletta and Jasper 2001) with the deaf protesters, despite not being deaf themselves. I also discuss the integral role of interpreters to the protesters’ mission of challenging the existing power structure. To develop my ...


The Codification Of American Federalism: An Analysis Of Events Preceding The Ratification Of The United States Constitution, Timothy Spangler Jan 2020

The Codification Of American Federalism: An Analysis Of Events Preceding The Ratification Of The United States Constitution, Timothy Spangler

Capstone Showcase

The focus of my project is American Federalism, a cornerstone of American political thought for centuries. American Federalism is a political system where power is divided between federated states and a central government, and the federated states retain a large portion of their original independence and police powers. The question this project seeks to answer is: How and why did the idea of a federated system, where the states retain their own sphere of sovereignty, become codified in American political thought? Scholars have attempted to answer this question, but their arguments look at American Federalism in a vacuum and ignore ...


The Fear And Biopolitical Control Of The ‘Terrorist Other’, Percy Percy Sherwood Jun 2019

The Fear And Biopolitical Control Of The ‘Terrorist Other’, Percy Percy Sherwood

Western Research Forum

“I think Islam hates us,” Donald Trump said as a presidential candidate in a CNN interview in March 2016, conflating the religion with ‘radical Islamic terrorism.’ Trump’s statement exemplifies the prevailing fabricated enemy and resulting Islamophobia in the context of the ‘global war on terror.’ Since 9/11, powerful actors are using abstractions, ideologies, and narratives—that are usually defined along racial lines—to conjure up a fear so permeable that it serves to legitimize massive levels of violence in the name of self-righteousness. How do the racist abstractions, ideologies, and narratives that are associated with Islam and Muslims ...


Cultural Vs. Economic Investments Of Tribal Casinos In Historical Perspective, Yale D. Belanger Dr. May 2019

Cultural Vs. Economic Investments Of Tribal Casinos In Historical Perspective, Yale D. Belanger Dr.

International Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking

This presentation will elaborate how tribal community leaders originally envisioned utilizing gaming revenues to fund cultural investments such as language retention or elders’ programs, and whether they and their fellow community members assigned cultural investments a greater value than economic investments (e.g., infrastructure such as paved roads). Preliminary research suggests that leaders seeking casino or gaming site construction commonly identified cultural investments as an essential element of community development initiatives, and that they could be considered unique from and complementary to economic development initiatives. These and similar acts openly challenged the desires of state officials and national policy makers ...


The Equal Rights Amendment: Why All U.S. States Have Not Ratified, Gina Tan, Mirren Galway May 2019

The Equal Rights Amendment: Why All U.S. States Have Not Ratified, Gina Tan, Mirren Galway

CURCE Annual Undergraduate Conference

Currently, enacted legislation for the equality of men and women in the United States does not exist. Despite many advancements, as of 2018, the equality of men and women is not explicitly stated in the U.S. constitution. There is a long history of discrimination against women in the U.S., and for some time now, there have been pushes toward constitutionalizing equality based on Sex. One such push came in 1923, shortly after women were granted the right to vote and The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was introduced. This amendment mandates that the “Equality of rights under the law ...


“Paying” The Way For A Better Bart Future: A Call For Better Enforcement Of Fare Evasion Policies And Strategic Planning At Bart, Ethan S. Tan Apr 2019

“Paying” The Way For A Better Bart Future: A Call For Better Enforcement Of Fare Evasion Policies And Strategic Planning At Bart, Ethan S. Tan

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system has undoubtedly shaped the way the San Francisco Bay Area operates today. BART has molded itself to becoming a popular form of transportation for citizens of the area. However, numerous problems have arisen in recent years in regard to the overall “healthiness” of the BART system with its ex-aging fleet of trains, undertrained staff, lack of BART Police presence, rampant illegal drug use, etc. which has made BART unpopular with riders. The root cause of these problems through, is the lost revenue through “stolen” rides. At any one of BART’s 48 stations ...


Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son Apr 2019

Modernizing The Hermit Kingdom: Bridging The Economic And Cultural Gap Through Soft Power Diplomacy, Jane Son

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

Modernizing the “Hermit Kingdom”:

Bridging the Cultural and Economic Gap through Soft Power Diplomacy

Following the Korean War, the Republic of Korea embraced modernization and rose as an economic power while its Northern counterpart employed isolationist policies and acquired the name “Hermit Kingdom.” In recent years, however, the “Hermit Kingdom” is exhibiting potential for change in under the Kim Jong-Un regime. In the wake of continued economic strife, shifting East Asian political dynamics, and insecure power consolidation, Kim appeared in the international scene with a different attitude: eagerness for dialogue. Such change in Pyongyang’s political stance engenders renewed hope ...


Disillusioning The Illusion Of Choice: A Rogerian Approach On Electoral College Reform, Mei Lin Apr 2019

Disillusioning The Illusion Of Choice: A Rogerian Approach On Electoral College Reform, Mei Lin

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

The Electoral College is used by the United States of America to elect the president every four years. It has been amended and updated several times; however, it remains an extremely convoluted and outdated system. Four presidencies were the product of incongruent elections –– the candidate won the electoral college but lost the popular vote –– and each of these presidencies resulted in immense consequences. Reforming the current electoral college will be difficult, but it is extremely vital and necessary. The American election system must be restructured so that it may fairly and adequately represent the voices of its citizens.


History, Security, And Peace: A Comparison Of Sectarian Conflicts In Northern Ireland And The Middle East, Ahmed I. Hamed, Noah Chamberlain Spicer Apr 2019

History, Security, And Peace: A Comparison Of Sectarian Conflicts In Northern Ireland And The Middle East, Ahmed I. Hamed, Noah Chamberlain Spicer

Student Symposium

“The Troubles,” a violent conflict that began in Northern Ireland in 1968 and lasted until the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, saw high levels of violence and terrorism on both sides--Protestants and Catholics--of the socio-political conflict. While major issues of violence were addressed by the Good Friday Agreement, many key ontological issues remain very much alive and active, resulting in “peace walls” which separate Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods in Northern Ireland. The impediments to peace stem not just from these issues of violence, but also from the minimal attention paid to ontological security in peace negotiations: the security of oneself ...


Charisma's Triumph Over Organization: Peronism Throughout The Decades, Alyssa Dipadova Apr 2019

Charisma's Triumph Over Organization: Peronism Throughout The Decades, Alyssa Dipadova

Student Symposium

“A party’s organization characteristics depend more upon its history, i.e. on how the organization orientated and how it consolidated…[e]very organization bears the mark of its formation, of the crucial political-administrative decision made by its founders, the decision which ‘molded’ the organization." The validity (or maybe the potency/breadth) of this idea when applied to Peronism is the main topic for this paper. The importance of this topic cannot be understated as the Partido Justicialista (PJ), the largest component of the Peronist movement, continues to be one of the most prevalent parties in Argentina’s two-party system--the ...


Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau Apr 2019

Polytropic Socrates’ Implicit Defense Of Philosophy: Lying, Justice, And Sophistry In Plato’S Lesser Hippias, Samantha M. Trudeau

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This paper offers an interpretation of Plato’s Lesser Hippias, about which I make several original claims. First, I contend that the dialogue takes place in front of an unnamed audience composed of Socrates’ students and the dialogue is therefore for their benefit, not that of Hippias or Eudicus. I then argue that Socrates juxtaposes himself to Hippias to show the superiority of philosophy to sophistry; I accomplish this through an examination of the cultural significance of Socrates’ physical description of Hippias at 368 and following. I also claim that the central argument of the dialogue is used to demonstrate ...