Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Political Science Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Chapter 4 (Draft): John Locke And The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Very Similar Colonial Prejudice Found Its Way Into The Natural Rights Justification Of Private Property, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Oct 2015

Chapter 4 (Draft): John Locke And The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Very Similar Colonial Prejudice Found Its Way Into The Natural Rights Justification Of Private Property, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This chapter is a preliminary draft of Chapter 4 of the book, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The role of this chapter is to show that what we call "the Hobbesian Hypothesis" is an essential premise in John Locke's justification of private property. The Hobbesian hypothesis, in this context, is the claim that everyone is better off in a society with private land and resource ownership (even if they own no land or resources) than they could reasonably except to be in a society in which these resources remained unowned and people lived as hunter-gatherers. This chapter does ...


Chapter 3 (Draft) The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Colonial Prejudice Became An Essential Premise In The Most Popular Justification Of Government, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Aug 2015

Chapter 3 (Draft) The Hobbesian Hypothesis: How A Colonial Prejudice Became An Essential Premise In The Most Popular Justification Of Government, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This chapter is a draft of Chapter Three of the book that Grant McCall and I are writing. The book is called, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." This chapter shows now Hobbes introduce an empirical claim into his most influential justification of the state. We call this claim the Hobbesian hypothesis: everyone is better off under the authority of a sovereign government than everyone would be outside of that authority. The chapter argue that this hypothesis is a strong, counterfactual, empirical claim about people in small-scale stateless societies that has not been well-established by empirical evidence.


Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Chapters 1-2 (Drafts) Of Prehistoric Myths In Modern Political Philosophy: Chapter 1-2, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

These two chapters are early and very preliminary drafts of the first to chapters of the book, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The first chapter sets up what we are trying to do with this research project and previews our findings. The basic argument of the book is that political philosophers make dubious claims about prehistory in theor theories. These claims are poorly (if at all) research even though they are essential premises in many important political theories. The role of the book is both to show that these claims are necessary to support the arguments in influential political ...


Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall Jan 2015

Myths About The State Of Nature And The Reality Of Stateless Societies, Karl Widerquist, Grant Mccall

Karl Widerquist

This article is a spin-off of my book project (with Grant McCall), "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." This article makes the following points. Most justifications of government using social contact theory (contractarianism) require a claim we call, “the Hobbesian hypothesis,” which we define as the claim that all people are better off under state authority than they would be outside of it. The Hobbesian hypothesis is an empirical claim about all stateless societies. Many small-scale societies are stateless. Anthropological evidence from the smallest-scale human societies provides sufficient reason to doubt the truth of the hypothesis, if not to reject ...


The Big Casino, Karl Widerquist Jan 2014

The Big Casino, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This paper uses an analogy to illustrate two things: (1) the economy is and will always be a casino, and (2) in existing societies and most libertarian, liberal, and socialist visions of society individuals are effectively forced to participate in the casino economy. It argues justice requires that individuals must be free from forced participation in such an economy and that the best way to free people from forced participation is the provision of a Basic Income Guarantee.


The Basic Income Guarantee In The United States: Past Experience, Current Proposals, Karl Widerquist, Allan Sheahen Sep 2012

The Basic Income Guarantee In The United States: Past Experience, Current Proposals, Karl Widerquist, Allan Sheahen

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


The Alaska Model As A Menu Of Options, Karl Widerquist, Michael W. Howard Jan 2012

The Alaska Model As A Menu Of Options, Karl Widerquist, Michael W. Howard

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 0: Prologue, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 0: Prologue, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter X10: Conclusion, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter X10: Conclusion, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 3: Forty Acres And A Mule? Implications Of The Duty To Respect Person Independence, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 3: Forty Acres And A Mule? Implications Of The Duty To Respect Person Independence, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 2: Status Freedom As Effective Control Self-Ownership, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 2: Status Freedom As Effective Control Self-Ownership, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 5: The Importance Of Independence Ii: Freedom An Integrity, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 5: The Importance Of Independence Ii: Freedom An Integrity, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 9: On Duty, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 9: On Duty, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 6: The Importance Of Independence Iii: Market Vulnerability, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 6: The Importance Of Independence Iii: Market Vulnerability, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 4: The Importance Of Independence I: Framing The Issue, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 4: The Importance Of Independence I: Framing The Issue, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 8: If You're An Egalitarian, Why Do You Want To Be The Boss Of The Poor? Independence And Liberal-Egalitarian Theories Of Justice, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 8: If You're An Egalitarian, Why Do You Want To Be The Boss Of The Poor? Independence And Liberal-Egalitarian Theories Of Justice, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter 7: What Good Is A Theory Of Freedom That Allows Forced Labor? Independence And Modern Theories Of Freedom, Karl Widerquist Jan 2012

Chapter 7: What Good Is A Theory Of Freedom That Allows Forced Labor? Independence And Modern Theories Of Freedom, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


Chapter X: Bibliography, Karl Widerquist Dec 2011

Chapter X: Bibliography, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

No abstract provided.


A Day-Long Discussion Of “The Alaska Model” At The University Of Alaska-Anchorage, Karl Widerquist May 2011

A Day-Long Discussion Of “The Alaska Model” At The University Of Alaska-Anchorage, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

On April 22, 2011, I had the privilege of attending a conference at the University of Alaska-Anchorage discussing the book, Exporting the Alaska Model: How the Permanent Fund Dividend Can Be Adapted as Model for Reform Around the World. The book is edited by Michael W. Howard and me. It is due out early next year on Palgrave-MacMillan. This is my personal account of a conference held on Friday, April 22, 2011 at the Institute of Social and Economic Research at the University of Alaska


Two Memoirs Tell The History Of The Alaska Dividend, Karl Widerquist Jan 2011

Two Memoirs Tell The History Of The Alaska Dividend, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Alaska’s Permanent Fund Dividend is closer to a basic income than almost any other policy in the world today. The lessons of how it was created and how it became so popular and successful are extremely important to the basic income movement. Two autobiographies available now tell different parts of the story of the Alaska Dividend. One is by Jay Hammond, the governor who, more than anyone else, is responsible for creating the fund and dividend. The other is by Dave Rose, the first executive director of the Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation. This review essay draws lessons for the ...


Why We Demand An Unconditional Basic Income: The Ecso Freedom Case, Karl Widerquist Dec 2010

Why We Demand An Unconditional Basic Income: The Ecso Freedom Case, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Philippe Van Parijs’s (1995) Real Freedom for All: What (If Anything) Can Justify Capitalism makes a very thorough and challenging philosophical argument for basic income. But I believe that it has two important limitations that inhibit it from giving a compelling explanation why basic income supporters believe that support for the disadvantage must be not only universal but also unconditional and enough to meet an individual’s basic needs. This essay briefly discusses those limitations and then proposes an alternative argument for basic income that I believe relies on a more compelling concept of freedom, defined below as “Freedom ...


How The Sufficiency Minimum Becomes A Social Maximum, Karl Widerquist Dec 2010

How The Sufficiency Minimum Becomes A Social Maximum, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This article argues that, under likely empirical conditions, sufficientarianism leads not to an easily achievable duty to maintain a social minimum but to the onerous duty of maintaining a social maximum at the sufficiency level. This happens because sufficientarians ask us to give no weight at all to small benefits for people above the sufficiency level if the alternative is to relieve the suffering of people below it. If we apply this judgment in a world where there are rare diseases and hard-to-prevent accidents that cause people to fall below the sufficiency threshold, all of our discretionary spending will have ...


Lockean Theories Of Property: Justifications For Unilateral Appropriation, Karl Widerquist Jun 2010

Lockean Theories Of Property: Justifications For Unilateral Appropriation, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Although John Locke’s theory of appropriation is undoubtedly influential, no one seems to agree about exactly what he was trying to say. It is unlikely that someone will write the interpretation that effectively ends the controversy. Instead of trying to find the one definitive interpretation of Locke’s property theory, this article attempts to identify the range of reasonable interpretations and extensions of Lockean property theory that exist in the contemporary literature with an emphasis on his argument for unilateral appropriation. It goes through Locke’s argument point-by-point discussing the controversy over what he said and over what he ...


What Does Prehistoric Anthropology Have To Do With Modern Political Philosophy? Evidence Of Five False Claims, Karl Widerquist Jun 2010

What Does Prehistoric Anthropology Have To Do With Modern Political Philosophy? Evidence Of Five False Claims, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This paper is a very early and very preliminary report of some of the findings from the research project, "Prehistoric Myths in Modern Political Philosophy." The project will lead to at least one book, perhaps two. The basic argument of the project is that influential, modern political theories often rely on dubious claims about prehistory. It examines the political philosophy literature to show how these claims are used as essential premises in influential arguments. It then examines evidence from anthropology, archaeology, and history to show that these claims are dubious. This paper previews many of the findings from the book.


Lessons Of The Alaska Dividend, Karl Widerquist Jan 2010

Lessons Of The Alaska Dividend, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

At a time when progressive social policies are under attack across the industrialized world, the Alaska Dividend continues to be extremely popular. It distributes a yearly dividend to every man, woman, and child in Alaska without any conditions whatsoever. It has helped Alaska maintain one of the lowest poverty rates in the United States. It has helped Alaska become the most economically equal of all 50 states. And it has helped Alaska become the only U.S. state in which equality has risen rather than fallen over the last 20 years. Certainly Alaska is doing something right. As newsletter editor ...


I Have A Basic Income, Karl Widerquist Jan 2010

I Have A Basic Income, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

In a period of about eight months, I managed to save and invest enough money to get myself a small personal basic income. It was easy—if you get the kind of lucky breaks I got. I’m telling you this story only because it illustrates how much our economic fortunes are determined by luck, how favorably our laws treat people who own stuff (people who have obtained control of natural resources) and how much unearned income is available for redistribution.


A Dilemma For Libertarianism, Karl Widerquist Feb 2009

A Dilemma For Libertarianism, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

This article presents a dilemma for libertarianism. It argues that libertarian principles of acquisition and transfer without regard for the pattern of inequality do not support a minimal state, but can lead just as well to a monarchy with full the full power of taxation without violation of self-ownership. The article considers and rejects several ways in which libertarianism might try to argue against a monarchy. Once the government ownership of property is shown to be consistent with just acquisition and transfer of property rights, monarchy, socialism, or state-managed capitalism can be seen as patterns of the distribution of property ...


The Economic Lesson Of 1938, Karl Widerquist Jan 2009

The Economic Lesson Of 1938, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

Economic events of 1938 are relevant to our handling of the global recession today.


Keeping The Global Recession In Perspective, Karl Widerquist Jan 2009

Keeping The Global Recession In Perspective, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

The global recession has been spreading and deepening for nearly a year. It could become the worst downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s, and it has captured nearly all of the attention we, our media, and our leaders pay to economic issues. Perhaps we’re paying too much attention to it. I want to convince you in this editorial that a recession—even a major depression—is not an economic problem of the first magnitude. Our most pressing economic problems are distribution, and they exist whether we are in recession or not. Recessions appear to be a major ...


The Physical Basis Of Voluntary Trade, Karl Widerquist Aug 2008

The Physical Basis Of Voluntary Trade, Karl Widerquist

Karl Widerquist

The article discusses the conditions under which can we say that people enter the economic system voluntarily. “The Need for an Exit Option” briefly explains the philosophical argument that voluntary interaction requires an exit option—a reasonable alternative to participation in the projects of others. “The Treatment of Effective Forced Labor in Economic and Political Theory” considers the treatment of effectively forced interaction in economic and political theory. “Human Need” discusses theories of human need to determine the capabilities a person requires to have an acceptable exit option. “Capability in Cash, Kind, or Raw Resources” considers what form access to ...