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Full-Text Articles in Political Science

Addressing The State Of The Union: The Evolution And Impact Of The Presidents's Big Speech, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Mar 2016

Addressing The State Of The Union: The Evolution And Impact Of The Presidents's Big Speech, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The State of the Union is no ordinary speech on at least two accounts: it is a fundamental statement of how a president approaches current policy debates, and it is the one presidential address that US citizens are most likely to hear each year. Donna Hoffman and Alison Howard document the political significance and legislative impact, or often, lack of impact, of this most visible of presidential communications. Exploring how and why the State of the Union address came to be a key tool in the exercise of presidential power, the authors outline the ways presidents use it to gain ...


Teaching Better, Teaching Together: A Coordinated Student Exit Poll Across The States, Jennifer Kelkres Emery, Alison D. Howard, Jocelyn Evans Oct 2014

Teaching Better, Teaching Together: A Coordinated Student Exit Poll Across The States, Jennifer Kelkres Emery, Alison D. Howard, Jocelyn Evans

Alison Dana Howard

Student exit polling has demonstrated value in the classroom (Berry and Robinson 2012; Evans and Lagergren 2007; Lelieveldt and Rossen 2009), but faculty typically operate these polls in isolation. When faculty collaborate, however, students gain additional benefits from the experience. Collaboration provides a geographically diverse “student community” that allows students to engage in experiential learning beyond the confines of their immediate classrooms. The authors have created assignments and an instructor's manual on running student exit polls in undergraduate courses. Three institutions used these assignments during the Fall 2012 semester. By using structured assignments, these instructors created an opportunity to ...


The Presidential Rhetoric Of Hard Times, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Sep 2014

The Presidential Rhetoric Of Hard Times, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Is there a presidential rhetoric of hard times? We are interested in presidents’ rhetorical reactions during economic contractions. Do they rhetorically react at all? If they choose to speak, what do they seek to convey to the public about the economy? We analyze the major discretionary speeches presidents give during recessions. Some presidents are reluctant to address major economic remarks to the public; in five of the 11 recessions since World War II, presidents have not offered a major economic speech. They do, however, deliver major discretionary speeches on other topics during recessions. While most presidents tend to deliver more ...


Vote For Me: Appeals To Voters In Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Sep 2014

Vote For Me: Appeals To Voters In Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

With the proliferation of primary elections, party conventions began to ratify the choice of nominee typically already long decided. Conventions, however, still provide a forum to highlight and promote the parties' respective nominees. Above all, the convention offers a chance to convince (or, at least begin convincing) the general electorate that it should cast a ballot for the party’s nominee. A candidate’s nomination speech signals the launch of the general election campaign and provides each party’s nominee with a significant rhetorical opportunity. Up to this point in the presidential contest, primarily partisans have been engaged, the general ...


The Pedagogical Value Of Polling: A Coordinated 2012 Exit Poll Project Across Diverse Classrooms, Jennifer Kelkres Emery, Alison D. Howard, Jocelyn Evans Sep 2014

The Pedagogical Value Of Polling: A Coordinated 2012 Exit Poll Project Across Diverse Classrooms, Jennifer Kelkres Emery, Alison D. Howard, Jocelyn Evans

Alison Dana Howard

Several previous studies have demonstrated that student exit polling has educational value and promotes civic engagement (Berry and Robinson 2012, Evans and Lagergren 2007, Lelieveldt and Rossen 2009, and others). The authors of this paper have created assignments and an instructor's manual on running student exit polls in undergraduate courses. Three institutions used these assignments during the fall 2012 semester. Working together, these instructors created an opportunity for their students to participate collaboratively with others in survey design and data analysis. This effort further provided assessment data on the effectiveness of this pedagogical approach for student engagement outside of ...


George W. Bush And The Rhetoric Of Chief Legislator: The First Term, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Sep 2014

George W. Bush And The Rhetoric Of Chief Legislator: The First Term, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Near the beginning of a congressional session, the president will present key pieces of his legislative agenda to both Congress and the American public in the State of the Union address (SUA). He will couch his requests in a way that seeks to persuade his audiences he has the legislative solution to a problem he details. Effective political communication between the president and Congress is essential since each play key roles in the legislative process. While Congress comprises the legislative branch, the moniker we attach to one of the multiple jobs with which presidents are charged is that of chief ...


Communicating As Chief Legislator: Four Case Studies From The State Of The Union, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Sep 2014

Communicating As Chief Legislator: Four Case Studies From The State Of The Union, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

While the Constitution stipulates in Article II, Sec. 3 that presidents can recommend necessary and expedient measures to Congress, it is up to Congress to act. The primary place presidents engage in the activity of recommending legislation is the State of the Union Address (SUA). We examine SUAs from 1965-2002 and identify the legislative requests that presidents make of Congress. The SUA is a unique presidential speech that allows assessment and comparison between presidents of whether Congress follows where the president leads. Are presidents successful in getting Congress to enact the policies they ask for in the SUA? Furthermore, the ...


Auditioning For The Rhetorical Presidency: Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches As “Presidential” Documents, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Sep 2014

Auditioning For The Rhetorical Presidency: Presidential Nomination Acceptance Speeches As “Presidential” Documents, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Scholars have identified various genres of presidential speech and developed interesting and varying arguments about the nature and effectiveness of presidential rhetoric. One area of scholarship that deserves attention is a thorough examination of the content of pre-presidential speeches, specifically presidential nomination acceptance speeches. A candidate’s acceptance speech launches the general election campaign and provides each party’s nominee with a significant rhetorical opportunity. We examine the nature of the rhetoric used in nomination acceptance speeches given by Democratic and Republican presidential candidates since 1948. During this time period there have been many significant changes in the electoral and ...


Presidents And The Rhetoric Of Recessions, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Sep 2014

Presidents And The Rhetoric Of Recessions, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Are presidents reticent during recessions? Some research indicates that presidents make fewer major and minor speeches when economic conditions worsen (Ragsdale 1984; Eshbaugh-Soha 2010). We examine whether this holds true with major discretionary speeches utilizing recessions as the indicator of poor economic conditions. In addition, we also investigate the subject matter of major discretionary speeches given during both economic expansions and contractions. Presidents potentially have an incentive during a recession to focus the attention of the public away from economic concerns, where they have little command and control ability, to foreign policy, where they do have more power to act ...


State Of The Union 2013 Coverage, Alison Howard Feb 2013

State Of The Union 2013 Coverage, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Building American National Identity Through Art, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Dec 2012

A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Building American National Identity Through Art, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

With the adoption of the Constitution, the government of the United States took on a new role. Unlike other governments of the time, the United States was primarily founded on ideas, and, as a result, there were many challenges at the beginning of the newly-created republic. One of the biggest challenges was establishing credibility and legitimacy. In addition, republics require the support of the people; thus, to support the new political system, people needed to believe in the principles and ideals of the nascent government. As one form of communication, art has the capacity to reflect social contexts, depict specific ...


Obama In Words And Deeds, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Nov 2012

Obama In Words And Deeds, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Objective 
We assess how President Barack Obama acted as chief legislator using the rhetoric contained in his initial joint address to Congress and his three subsequent State of the Union addresses (SUAs).
Method 
Using content analysis, we analyze how Obama conveyed policy substance (both credit claiming and position taking) and used symbolism as he carried out the constitutional requirements of reporting and recommending measures to Congress.
Results 
Obama's first-term SUA rhetoric is consistent in regard to credit claiming; he devotes about 17 percent of his speeches to this activity. His SUAs typically contain about 35 legislative requests, and these ...


Marin Students To Conduct Exit Polling During November Election [Interview], Alison Howard Oct 2012

Marin Students To Conduct Exit Polling During November Election [Interview], Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Building National Identity Through Art, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Apr 2012

A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Building National Identity Through Art, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The abstract principles of a republican form of government would be tested with the ratification of the Constitution. It would be challenging to not only establish a government that was unlike any other in the world, but to also construct for the public a shared identity and national narrative that would encompass the values and ideals of the newly formed Republic. Art is one form of communication that has the capacity to reflect social contexts. Edelman (1995, 6) believed art to be an “essential and fundamental element” in political ideas and action. We examine how the portraits, historical paintings, and ...


Talking To Millennials: Policy Rhetoric And Rhetorical Narratives In The 2008 Presidential Campaign, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Dec 2009

Talking To Millennials: Policy Rhetoric And Rhetorical Narratives In The 2008 Presidential Campaign, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The 2008 U.S. election was arguably the most important election of our lifetime: the first African American president was elected to office; the candidacy of Sarah Palin marked only the second time that a major party ticket included a female; and the electoral performance of young citizens - digital natives, greatly attracted by digital media - signaled the highest turnout in a long time.Taking all these issues into consideration, this book offers a landmark examination of the 2008 election from a global perspective, with emphasis on the wide range of digital media utilized by the campaigners and how campaign communication ...


Chief Legislators And Pet Projects, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Aug 2008

Chief Legislators And Pet Projects, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Clinton And Americorps: Attributes For Success, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Apr 2008

Clinton And Americorps: Attributes For Success, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Examining the Presidency: Carter and Clinton -- A panel of political historians talked about their papers on the successes and failures of Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton.

Itai Sneh talked about his paper about President Carter called “Misppointments Causing Disappointments: How One President’s Failure to Make Good Appointments Doomed His Foreign Policy” and his book The Future Almost Arrived: How Jimmy Carter Failed to Change U.S. Foreign Policy (Peter Lang Publishing; February 2008).

Amnon Cavari’s paper about President Carter was called “Representing the Nation - Leading the Party.”
Lara Brown talked about her paper called “Through the Briar ...


State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard Nov 2007

State Of The Union Address, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

The Encyclopedia of Political Communication discusses the major theoretical approaches to the field, including direct and limited effects theories, agenda-setting theories, sociological theories, framing and priming theories, and other past and present conceptualizations. With nearly 600 entries, this resource pays considerable attention to important political messages such as political speeches, televised political advertising, political posters and print advertising, televised political debates, and Internet sites. The audiences for political communications are also central, necessitating concentration on citizen reactions to political messages, how the general public and voters in democratic systems respond to political messages, and the effects of all types of ...


Chief Legislators And Pet Projects: The Rhetoric And Outcome Of Americorps And Faith Based Initiatives, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Aug 2007

Chief Legislators And Pet Projects: The Rhetoric And Outcome Of Americorps And Faith Based Initiatives, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

In a system of shared powers, a chief legislator's ability to accomplish his goals is limited. One of the tools he has at his disposal is the power of rhetoric. Presidents enter office with many policy goals that, if successful, not only shape public policy, but also can aid their re-election and their desire to secure a positive legacy. Often times, one policy in particular, a pet project will be personally important to a president and will ultimately be placed on the agenda because of the attention given to it by the president. When Bill Clinton campaigned for office ...


Policy-Making Rhetoric And Youth Issues In The 2004 Presidential Campaign, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Apr 2007

Policy-Making Rhetoric And Youth Issues In The 2004 Presidential Campaign, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Campaigns make strategic decisions about appealing to various electoral groups. In 2004, both presidential campaigns did choose to appeal to those younger than 30 with their policy-making rhetoric. The authors find, however, that Bush and Kerry approached this demographic differently. Bush did not single out young adults to the extent Kerry did. Instead, Bush chose to treat young voters more as a part of the general electorate than a distinct group, appealing to their self-interest. Kerry was more attentive, directly targeting young citizens by focusing on issues of higher education and especially seeking to appeal to service-oriented young adults.


Representations Of 9-11 In Editorial Cartoons, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Mar 2007

Representations Of 9-11 In Editorial Cartoons, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

Throughout American history editorial cartoons have exposed corruption, offered criticism of people in power, questioned and supported policies, and in general given the public another format assisting in the understanding of current events. The freedom to caricature politicians and visually comment on social and political issues has been a hallmark of the editorial cartoonist's profession. In the aftermath of the worldwide furor over Danish cartoonists' use of the Prophet Muhammad's image in early 2006, it is useful to ask whether certain images from the War on Terror have become taboo as a subject for American editorial cartoonists.


State Of The Union 2006 Coverage, Alison Howard Dec 2005

State Of The Union 2006 Coverage, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Bill Clinton And The Rhetoric Of Chief Legislator: Did Deeds Follow Words?, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Oct 2005

Bill Clinton And The Rhetoric Of Chief Legislator: Did Deeds Follow Words?, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

With a State of the Union address, the president seeks to exert leadership by setting the nation on a path, outlining an agenda, and using the art of persuasion to achieve his policy goals. One means that a president uses to signal his legislative agenda to Congress and the American public is the State of the Union address (SUA). While the policies mentioned in this speech do no encompass the whole of the president's legislative agenda, the policies mentioned indicate the items which the administration has chosen to highlight publicly before both Congress and the rest of the country ...


State Of The Union 2005 Coverage, Alison Howard Dec 2004

State Of The Union 2005 Coverage, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Donning The Hat Of Chief Legislator: The President, Congress, And The State Of The Union Address, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard Aug 2004

Donning The Hat Of Chief Legislator: The President, Congress, And The State Of The Union Address, Donna Hoffman, Alison Howard

Alison Dana Howard


Intimately tied to our perception of presidential leadership is the influence a president wields inthe legislative process. Setting the nation on a path, outlining an agenda, and using the art ofpersuasion to achieve success while in office are all at the heart of providing leadership. These are all things that presidents seek to do with a State of the Union address. The public looks to the president to solve a host of problems; expectations on the part of the public are high. Whether or not the president is able to address these needs through legislation is a critical component of ...


Ask And Ye Shall Receive? Policy Requests In State Of The Union Addresses, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Jul 2003

Ask And Ye Shall Receive? Policy Requests In State Of The Union Addresses, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Agendas, Rhetoric, And Social Change: State Of The Union Addresses From Eisenhower To Clinton, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Mar 2003

Agendas, Rhetoric, And Social Change: State Of The Union Addresses From Eisenhower To Clinton, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Value Change Or Culture War? Evidence From State Of The Union Addresses, 1960-2000, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Jul 2002

Value Change Or Culture War? Evidence From State Of The Union Addresses, 1960-2000, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Political Communication Through Art: Fdr And The New Deal, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Aug 1999

Political Communication Through Art: Fdr And The New Deal, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available


Transforming Policies Into Persuasive Visual Images: Art And Fdr, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard Mar 1999

Transforming Policies Into Persuasive Visual Images: Art And Fdr, Donna R. Hoffman, Alison D. Howard

Alison Dana Howard

No abstract available