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Full-Text Articles in Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

How Can Decision Making Be Improved?, Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, Max H. Bazerman Jul 2009

How Can Decision Making Be Improved?, Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, Max H. Bazerman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The optimal moment to address the question of how to improve human decision making has arrived. Thanks to 50 years of research by judgment and decision-making scholars, psychologists have developed a detailed picture of the ways in which human judgment is bounded. This article argues that the time has come to focus attention on the search for strategies that will improve bounded judgment because decision-making errors are costly and are growing more costly, decision makers are receptive, and academic insights are sure to follow from research on improvement. In addition to calling for research on improvement strategies, this article organizes ...


Conversation: Possibilities Of Its Repair And Descent Into Discourse And Computation, Klaus Krippendorff Jul 2009

Conversation: Possibilities Of Its Repair And Descent Into Discourse And Computation, Klaus Krippendorff

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This essay contends that radical constructivism makes a mistake by focusing on cognition at the expense of where cognitive phenomena surface: in the interactive use of language. By contrast, it advocates a radically social constructivism grounded in the conversational nature of being human. It also urges to abandon the celebration of observation, inherited from the enlightenment’s preoccupation with description, in favor of participation, the recognition that speaking and writing are acts of continuously reconstructing reality, only partly conceivable by participants yet interactively realized.

It distinguishes between conversation as observed and conversation as articulated by its participants. It postulates accountability ...


Information Of Interactions In Complex Systems, Klaus Krippendorff Jul 2009

Information Of Interactions In Complex Systems, Klaus Krippendorff

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This paper addresses misconceptions of the multi-variate interaction-information measure Q, which several authors have reinvented since its proposal by McGill (1954), giving it a variety of names and interpretations. McGill’s measure claimed to quantify the amount of information of interactions among three or more variables in complex systems. In (Krippendorff, 1980), I raised doubts about the validity of Q and its relatives. The chief problem that Q-measures fail to recognize is that complex interactions tend to involve circularities and the probability distributions characterizing such circularities cannot be obtained by products of probabilities, which underlie information theory as far as ...


Ross Ashby's Information Theory: A Bit Of History, Some Solutions To Problems, And What We Face Today, Klaus Krippendorff Feb 2009

Ross Ashby's Information Theory: A Bit Of History, Some Solutions To Problems, And What We Face Today, Klaus Krippendorff

Departmental Papers (ASC)

This paper presents a personal history of one strand of W. Ross Ashby's many ideas: using information theory to analyse complex systems empirically. It starts with where I entered the evolution of the idea as one of his students, points out a problem that emerged as a consequence of generalising information measures from simple to complex systems, i.e. systems with many variables, shows how this problem was eventually solved, and ends with how his idea of decomposing complex systems into smaller interactions reappears in one of the most complex technologies of our time: cyberspace. While nobody could anticipate ...