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Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

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Social Network Effects On Productivity And Job Security: Evidence From The Adoption Of A Social Networking Tool, Lynn Wu Jan 2013

Social Network Effects On Productivity And Job Security: Evidence From The Adoption Of A Social Networking Tool, Lynn Wu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

By studying the change in employees' network positions before and after the introduction of a social networking tool, I find that information-rich networks (low in cohesion and rich in structural holes), enabled by social media, have a positive effect on various work outcomes. Contrary to the notion that network positions are difficult to alter, I show that social media can induce a change in network structure, one from which individuals can derive economic benefits. In addition, I consider two intermediate mechanisms by which an information-rich network is theorized to improve work performance—information diversity and social communication—and quantify their ...


Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons Dec 2012

Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 7 experiments (N = 3,289), we replicate the procedure of Experiments 8 and 9 from Bem (2011), which had originally demonstrated retroactive facilitation of recall. We failed to replicate that finding. We further conduct a meta-analysis of all replication attempts of these experiments and find that the average effect size (d = 0.04) is no different from 0. We discuss some reasons for differences between the results in this article and those presented in Bem (2011).


Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman Nov 2012

Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper examines the effect of uncertainty about the future on whether individuals select want options (e.g., junk foods, lowbrow films) or instead exert self-control and select should options (e.g., healthy foods, highbrow films). Consistent with the ego-depletion literature, which suggests that self-control resembles an exhaustible muscle, coping with uncertainty about what the future may bring reduces self-control resources and increases individuals’ tendency to favor want options over should options. These results persist when real uncertainty is induced, when the salience of naturally-arising uncertainty is heightened and when individuals are able to make choices contingent upon the outcomes ...


The Impact Of Personal Experience On Behavior: Evidence From Video-Rental Fines, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Devin G. Pope, Maurice. E. Schweitzer, Peter Fishman Jan 2012

The Impact Of Personal Experience On Behavior: Evidence From Video-Rental Fines, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Devin G. Pope, Maurice. E. Schweitzer, Peter Fishman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Personal experience matters. In a field setting with longitudinal data, we disentangle the effects of learning new information from the effects of personal experience. We demonstrate that experience with a fine, controlling for the effect of learning new information, significantly boosts future compliance. We also show that experience with a large fine boosts compliance more than experience with a small fine, but that the influence of experience with both large and small fines decays sharply over time.


Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar Dec 2011

Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Information specialists in enterprises regularly use distributed information retrieval (DIR) systems that query a large number of information retrieval (IR) systems, merge the retrieved results, and display them to users. There can be considerable heterogeneity in the quality of results returned by different IR servers. Further, because different servers handle collections of different sizes and have different processing and bandwidth capacities, there can be considerable heterogeneity in their response times. The broker in the DIR system has to decide which servers to query, how long to wait for responses, and which retrieved results to display based on the benefits and ...


Spurious Also? Name-Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) In Employment Decisions, Uri Simonsohn Aug 2011

Spurious Also? Name-Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) In Employment Decisions, Uri Simonsohn

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Implicit egotism is the notion that major life decisions are influenced by name-similarity. This paper revisits the evidence for the most systematic test of this hypothesis. Anseel & Duyck (2008) analyzed data from 1/3 of all Belgian employees and found that a disproportionate fraction of them shared their initial with their employer. Using a data set with American employees I replicate the finding, but new analyses strongly suggest they are due to reverse causality, whereby the documented effect seems to be driven by people naming companies they start after themselves rather than by employees seeking out companies they have a ...


Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators To Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, And Earn Less Profit, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer May 2011

Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators To Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, And Earn Less Profit, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Negotiations trigger anxiety. Across four studies, we demonstrate that anxiety is harmful to negotiator performance. In our experiments, we induced either anxiety or neutral feelings and studied behavior in negotiation and continuous shrinking-pie tasks. Compared to negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel anxious expect lower outcomes, make lower first offers, respond more quickly to offers, exit bargaining situations earlier, and ultimately obtain worse outcomes. The relationship between anxiety and negotiator behavior is moderated by negotiator self-efficacy; high self-efficacy mitigates the harmful effects of anxiety.


The Value Of Fast Fashion: Quick Response, Enhanced Design, And Strategic Consumer Behavior, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney Apr 2011

The Value Of Fast Fashion: Quick Response, Enhanced Design, And Strategic Consumer Behavior, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

No abstract provided.


On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough Mar 2011

On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This article presents a new proposal for understanding the establishment and maintenance of cooperation: the cooperation afforder with framing hypothesis, producing what can be called cooperation from afforder-framing. Three key moves are present. First, a special variety of the Stag Hunt game, the Cooperation Afforder game, will reliably produce mutualistic cooperation through an evolutionary process. Second, cognitive framing is a credible candidate mechanism to meet the special conditions and requirements of the Cooperation Afforder game. Third, once mutualistic cooperation is established in this way, it will plausibly lead to broader forms of cooperation, even to limited forms of altruism.


Hope Over Experience Desirability And The Persistence Of Optimism, Cade Massey, Joseph P. Simmons, David A. Armor Feb 2011

Hope Over Experience Desirability And The Persistence Of Optimism, Cade Massey, Joseph P. Simmons, David A. Armor

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Many important decisions hinge on expectations of future outcomes. Decisions about health, investments, and relationships all depend on predictions of the future. These expectations are often optimistic: People frequently believe that their preferred outcomes are more likely than is merited. Yet it is unclear whether optimism persists with experience and, surprisingly, whether optimism is truly caused by desire. These are important questions because life’s most consequential decisions often feature both strong preferences and the opportunity to learn. We investigated these questions by collecting football predictions from National Football League fans during each week of the 2008 season. Despite accuracy ...


Collaborative Filtering In Social Tagging Systems Based On Joint Item-Tag Recommendations, Jing Peng, Daniel Zeng, Huimin Zhao, Fei-Yue Wang Jan 2011

Collaborative Filtering In Social Tagging Systems Based On Joint Item-Tag Recommendations, Jing Peng, Daniel Zeng, Huimin Zhao, Fei-Yue Wang

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Tapping into the wisdom of the crowd, social tagging can be considered an alternative mechanism - as opposed to Web search - for organizing and discovering information on the Web. Effective tag-based recommendation of information items, such as Web resources, is a critical aspect of this social information discovery mechanism. A precise understanding of the information structure of social tagging systems lies at the core of an effective tag-based recommendation method. While most of the existing research either implicitly or explicitly assumes a simple tripartite graph structure for this purpose, we propose a comprehensive information structure to capture all types of co-occurrence ...


Cfui: Collaborative Filtering With Unlabeled Items, Jing Peng, Daniel D. Zeng, Bing Liu, Huimin Zhao Nov 2010

Cfui: Collaborative Filtering With Unlabeled Items, Jing Peng, Daniel D. Zeng, Bing Liu, Huimin Zhao

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

As opposed to Web search, social tagging can be considered an alternative technique tapping into the wisdom of the crowd for organizing and discovering information on the Web. Effective tag-based recommendation of information items is critical to the success of this social information discovery mechanism. Over the past few years, there have been a growing number of studies aiming at improving the item recommendation quality of collaborative filtering (CF) methods by leveraging tagging information. However, a critical problem that often severely undermines the performance of tag-based CF methods, i.e., sparsity of user-item and user-tag interactions, is still yet to ...


In The Moment: The Effect Of Mindfulness On Ethical Decision Making, Nicole E. Ruedy, Maurice E Schweitzer Sep 2010

In The Moment: The Effect Of Mindfulness On Ethical Decision Making, Nicole E. Ruedy, Maurice E Schweitzer

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Many unethical decisions stem from a lack of awareness. In this article, we consider how mindfulness, an individual’s awareness of his or her present experience, impacts ethical decision making. In our first study, we demonstrate that compared to individuals low in mindfulness, individuals high in mindfulness report that they are more likely to act ethically, are more likely to value upholding ethical standards (self-importance of moral identity, SMI), and are more likely to use a principled approach to ethical decision making (formalism). In our second study, we test this relationship with a novel behavioral measure of unethical behavior: the ...


Diffusion Models For Peer-To-Peer (P2p) Media Distribution: On The Impact Of Decentralized, Constrained Supply, Kartik Hosanagar, Peng Han, Yong Tan Jun 2010

Diffusion Models For Peer-To-Peer (P2p) Media Distribution: On The Impact Of Decentralized, Constrained Supply, Kartik Hosanagar, Peng Han, Yong Tan

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

In Peer-to-Peer (P2P) media distribution, users obtain content from other users who already have it. This form of decentralized product distribution demonstrates several unique features. Only a small fraction of users in the network are queried when a potential adopter seeks a file and many of these users may even free-ride i.e. not distribute the content to others. As a result, generated demand may not always be fulfilled immediately. We present mixing models for product diffusion in P2P networks that capture decentralized product distribution by current adopters, incomplete demand fulfillment and other unique aspects of P2P product diffusion. The ...


How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Maurice E. Schweitzer, Alison M. Wood May 2010

How Implicit Beliefs Influence Trust Recovery, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Maurice E. Schweitzer, Alison M. Wood

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

After a trust violation, some people are quick to forgive, whereas others never trust again. In this report, we identify a key characteristic that moderates trust recovery: implicit beliefs of moral character. Individuals who believe that moral character can change over time (incremental beliefs) are more likely to trust their counterpart following an apology and trustworthy behavior than are individuals who believe that moral character cannot change (entity beliefs). We demonstrate that a simple but powerful message can induce either entity or incremental beliefs about moral character.


I’Ll Have The Ice Cream Soon And The Vegetables Later: A Study Of Online Grocery Purchases And Order Lead Time, Katherine L. Milkman, Todd Rogers, Max H. Bazerman Mar 2010

I’Ll Have The Ice Cream Soon And The Vegetables Later: A Study Of Online Grocery Purchases And Order Lead Time, Katherine L. Milkman, Todd Rogers, Max H. Bazerman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

How do decisions made for tomorrow or 2 days in the future differ from decisions made for several days in the future? We use data from an online grocer to address this question. In general, we find that as the delay between order completion and delivery increases, grocery customers spend less, order a higher percentage of “should” items (e.g., vegetables), and order a lower percentage of “want” items (e.g., ice cream), controlling for customer fixed effects. These field results replicate previous laboratory findings and are consistent with theories suggesting that people’s should selves exert more influence over ...


How Can Decision Making Be Improved?, Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, Max H. Bazerman Jul 2009

How Can Decision Making Be Improved?, Katherine L. Milkman, Dolly Chugh, Max H. Bazerman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The optimal moment to address the question of how to improve human decision making has arrived. Thanks to 50 years of research by judgment and decision-making scholars, psychologists have developed a detailed picture of the ways in which human judgment is bounded. This article argues that the time has come to focus attention on the search for strategies that will improve bounded judgment because decision-making errors are costly and are growing more costly, decision makers are receptive, and academic insights are sure to follow from research on improvement. In addition to calling for research on improvement strategies, this article organizes ...


A Theoretical Framework For Goal-Based Choice And For Prescriptive Analysis, Kurt A. Carlson, Chris Janiszewski, Ralph L. Keeney, David H. Krantz, Howard Kunreuther, Mary F. Luce, Joseph E. Russo, Stijn M. J. Osselaer, Detlof V. Winterfeldt Dec 2008

A Theoretical Framework For Goal-Based Choice And For Prescriptive Analysis, Kurt A. Carlson, Chris Janiszewski, Ralph L. Keeney, David H. Krantz, Howard Kunreuther, Mary F. Luce, Joseph E. Russo, Stijn M. J. Osselaer, Detlof V. Winterfeldt

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper extends the familiar multi-stage framework for choice by explicitly describing the role that goals play at each stage. We first present a typology of goals, ranging from content to process and from immediate to long-term illustrating it in the context of two examples—purchasing a new car and earthquake retrofitting. We then delineate each stage of the choice process based on recent advances from the descriptive literature on the influence of the various goals. Finally, we draw the prescriptive implications as to how goals can inform what we know, or need to know, about the choice process.


Modeling Social Interactions: Identification, Empirical Methods And Policy Implications, Wesley R. Hartmann, Puneet Manchanda, Harikesh Nair, Matthew Bothner, Peter Dodds, David Godes, Kartik Hosanagar, Catherine Tucker Dec 2008

Modeling Social Interactions: Identification, Empirical Methods And Policy Implications, Wesley R. Hartmann, Puneet Manchanda, Harikesh Nair, Matthew Bothner, Peter Dodds, David Godes, Kartik Hosanagar, Catherine Tucker

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Social interactions occur when agents in a network affect other agents’ choices directly, as opposed to via the intermediation of markets. The study of such interactions and the resultant outcomes has long been an area of interest across a wide variety of social sciences. With the advent of electronic media that facilitate and record such interactions, this interest has grown sharply in the business world as well. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of what is known so far, discuss the main challenges for researchers interested in this area, and provide a common vocabulary that will hopefully engender ...


Friends Of Victims: Personal Experience And Prosocial Behavior, Deborah A. Small, Uri Simonsohn Oct 2008

Friends Of Victims: Personal Experience And Prosocial Behavior, Deborah A. Small, Uri Simonsohn

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Why do different people give to different causes? We show that the sympathy inherent to a close relationship with a victim extends to other victims suffering from the same misfortunes that have afflicted their friends and loved ones. Both sympathy and donations are greater among those related to a victim, and they are greater among those in a communal relationship as compared to those in an exchange relationship. Experiments that control for information support causality and rule out the alternative explanation that any effect is driven by the information advantage possessed by friends of victims.


Strategic Customer Behavior, Commitment, And Supply Chain Performance, Xuanming Su, Fuqiang Zhang Oct 2008

Strategic Customer Behavior, Commitment, And Supply Chain Performance, Xuanming Su, Fuqiang Zhang

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper studies the impact of strategic customer behavior on supply chain performance. We start with a newsvendor seller facing forward-looking customers. The seller initially charges a regular price but may salvage the leftover inventory at a lower salvage price after random demand is realized. Customers anticipate future sales and choose purchase timing to maximize their expected surplus. We characterize the rational expectations equilibrium, where we find that the seller's stocking level is lower than that in the classic model without strategic customers. We show that the seller's profit can be improved by promising either that quantities available ...


Blinded By Anger Or Feeling The Love: How Emotions Influence Advice Taking, Francesca Gino, Maurice. E. Schweitzer Sep 2008

Blinded By Anger Or Feeling The Love: How Emotions Influence Advice Taking, Francesca Gino, Maurice. E. Schweitzer

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 2 experiments, the authors demonstrate that emotional states influence how receptive people are to advice. The focus of these experiments is on incidental emotions, emotions triggered by a prior experience that is irrelevant to the current situation. The authors demonstrate that people who feel incidental gratitude are more trusting and more receptive to advice than are people in a neutral emotional state, and people in a neutral state are more trusting and more receptive to advice than are people who feel incidental anger. In these experiments, greater receptivity to advice increased judgment accuracy. People who felt incidental gratitude were ...


Neural Antecedents Of The Endowment Effect, Brian Knutson, G Elliott Wimmer, Scott Rick, Nick G. Hollon, Drazen Prelec, George Loewenstein Jun 2008

Neural Antecedents Of The Endowment Effect, Brian Knutson, G Elliott Wimmer, Scott Rick, Nick G. Hollon, Drazen Prelec, George Loewenstein

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The “endowment effect” refers to the tendency to place greater value on items that one owns—an anomaly that violates the reference-independence assumption of rational choice theories. We investigated neural antecedents of the endowment effect in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During scanning, 24 subjects considered six products paired with 18 different prices under buying, choosing, or selling conditions. Subjects showed greater nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation for preferred products across buy and sell conditions combined, but greater mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activation in response to low prices when buying versus selling. During selling, right insular activation for ...


Customized Bundle Pricing For Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach, Shin-Yi Wu, Lorin. M. Hitt, Pei-Yu Chen, G. Anand Anandalingan Mar 2008

Customized Bundle Pricing For Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach, Shin-Yi Wu, Lorin. M. Hitt, Pei-Yu Chen, G. Anand Anandalingan

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper proposes using nonlinear mixed-integer programming to solve the customized bundle-pricing problem in which consumers are allowed to choose up to N goods out of a larger pool of J goods. Prior work has suggested that this mechanism has attractive features for the pricing of information and other low-marginal cost goods. Although closed-form solutions exist for this problem for certain cases of consumer preferences, many interesting scenarios cannot be easily handled without a numerical solution procedure. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency gains created by customized bundling over the alternatives of pure bundling or individual sale under different ...


Intertemporal Pricing With Strategic Customer Behavior, Xuanming Su May 2007

Intertemporal Pricing With Strategic Customer Behavior, Xuanming Su

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper develops a model of dynamic pricing with endogenous intertemporal demand. In the model, there is a monopolist who sells a finite inventory over a finite time horizon. The seller adjusts prices dynamically to maximize revenue. Customers arrive continually over the duration of the selling season. At each point in time, customers may purchase the product at current prices, remain in the market at a cost to purchase later, or exit, and they wish to maximize individual utility. The customer population is heterogeneous along two dimensions: they may have different valuations for the product and different degrees of patience ...


Strategic Technology Choice And Capacity Investment Under Demand Uncertainty, Manu Goyal, Serguie Netessine Feb 2007

Strategic Technology Choice And Capacity Investment Under Demand Uncertainty, Manu Goyal, Serguie Netessine

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper studies the impact of competition on a firm’s choice of technology (product-flexible or product-dedicated) and capacity investment decisions. Specifically, we model two firms competing with each other in two markets characterized by price-dependent and uncertain demand. The firms make three decisions in the following sequence: choice of technology (technology game), capacity investment (capacity game), and production quantities (production game). The technology and capacity games occur while the demand curve is still uncertain, and the production game is postponed until after the demand curve is revealed.

We develop best-response functions for each firm in the technology game and ...


Supermodularity And Tipping, Geoffrey Heal, Howard Kunreuther Jun 2006

Supermodularity And Tipping, Geoffrey Heal, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We model tipping as a game-theoretic phenomenon and investigate the connection between supermodular games, tipping of equilibria and cascading, and apply the results to issues that arise in the context of homeland security and computer security. We show that tipping and cascading can occur in supermodular games and that "increasing differences"is a sufficient condition for tipping. Supermodularity and tipping of equilibria are closely related. We relate our results to Schelling’s early work on tipping.


New Yorkers Commute More Everywhere: Contrast Effects In The Field, Uri Simonsohn Feb 2006

New Yorkers Commute More Everywhere: Contrast Effects In The Field, Uri Simonsohn

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous experimental research has shown that people's decisions can be influenced by options they have encountered in the past. This paper uses PSID data to study this phenomenon in the field, by observing how long people commute after moving between cities. It is found, as predicted, that (i) people choose longer commutes in a city they have just moved to, the longer the average commute was in the city they came from, and (ii) when they move again within the new city, they revise their commute length, countering the effect their origin city had on their initial decision.


Simple Reinforcement Learning Agents: Pareto Beats Nash In An Algorithmic Game Theory Study, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Ming Lu Mar 2005

Simple Reinforcement Learning Agents: Pareto Beats Nash In An Algorithmic Game Theory Study, Steven. O. Kimbrough, Ming Lu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Repeated play in games by simple adaptive agents is investigated. The agents use Q-learning, a special form of reinforcement learning, to direct learning of behavioral strategies in a number of 2×2 games. The agents are able effectively to maximize the total wealth extracted. This often leads to Pareto optimal outcomes. When the rewards signals are sufficiently clear, Pareto optimal outcomes will largely be achieved. The effect can select Pareto outcomes that are not Nash equilibria and it can select Pareto optimal outcomes among Nash equilibria.


Statistical Analysis Of A Telephone Call Center, Lawrence D. Brown, Noah Gans, Avishai Mandelbaum, Anat Sakov, Haipeng Shen, Sergey Zeltyn, Linda Zhao Jan 2005

Statistical Analysis Of A Telephone Call Center, Lawrence D. Brown, Noah Gans, Avishai Mandelbaum, Anat Sakov, Haipeng Shen, Sergey Zeltyn, Linda Zhao

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

A call center is a service network in which agents provide telephone-based services. Customers who seek these services are delayed in tele-queues. This article summarizes an analysis of a unique record of call center operations. The data comprise a complete operational history of a small banking call center, call by call, over a full year. Taking the perspective of queueing theory, we decompose the service process into three fundamental components: arrivals, customer patience, and service durations. Each component involves different basic mathematical structures and requires a different style of statistical analysis. Some of the key empirical results are sketched, along ...