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Full-Text Articles in Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Impact Of Ehr On Professional Competence In Hrm: Implications For The Development Of Hr Professionals, Bradford S. Bell, Sae-Won Lee, Sarah K. Yeung Jul 2011

The Impact Of Ehr On Professional Competence In Hrm: Implications For The Development Of Hr Professionals, Bradford S. Bell, Sae-Won Lee, Sarah K. Yeung

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] Information technology has been cited as a critical driver of HR’s transition from a focus on administrative tasks to a focus on serving as a strategic business partner. This strategic role not only adds a valuable dimension to the HR function but also changes the competencies that define the success of HR professionals. Interviews were conducted with HR representatives from 19 firms to examine the linkage between electronic human resources (eHR) and the reshaping of professional competence in HRM. Based on the findings, we draw implications for the development of HR competencies and identify learning strategies that HR ...


Slippage In The System: The Effects Of Errors In Transactive Memory Behavior On Team Performance, Matthew Pearsall, Aleksander Ellis, Bradford Bell Jul 2011

Slippage In The System: The Effects Of Errors In Transactive Memory Behavior On Team Performance, Matthew Pearsall, Aleksander Ellis, Bradford Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] Although researchers have consistently shown that the implicit coordination provided by transactive memory positively affects team performance, the benefits of transactive memory systems depend heavily on team members’ ability to accurately identify the expertise of their teammates and communicate expertise-specific information with one another. This introduces the opportunity for errors to enter the system, as the expertise of individual team members may be misunderstood or misrepresented, leading to the reliance on information from the wrong source or the loss of information through incorrect assignment. As Hollingshead notes, “information may be transferred or explicitly delegated to the ‘wrong’ individual in ...


Work Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Jul 2011

Work Teams, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] Teams serve as the basic building blocks of modern organizations and represent a critical means by which work is accomplished in today's world. Therefore, significant research during the past few decades has been focused on understanding work team effectiveness. This entry looks at the history of this research and what it says about team types, team composition, team development, team processes, and team effectiveness.


Team Learning, Development, And Adaptation, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Bradford S. Bell Jun 2011

Team Learning, Development, And Adaptation, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] Our purpose is to explore conceptually these themes centered on team learning, development, and adaptation. We note at the onset that this chapter is not a comprehensive review of the literature. Indeed, solid conceptual and empirical work on these themes are sparse relative to the vast amount of work on team effectiveness more generally, and therefore a thematic set of topics that are ripe for conceptual development and integration. We draw on an ongoing stream of theory development and research in these areas to integrate and sculpt a distinct perspective on team learning, development, and adaptation.


Toward A Theory Of Learner-Centered Training Design: An Integrative Framework Of Active Learning, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Jun 2011

Toward A Theory Of Learner-Centered Training Design: An Integrative Framework Of Active Learning, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] The goal of this chapter, therefore, is to develop an integrative conceptual framework of active learning, and we do this by focusing on three primary issues. First, we define the active learning approach and contrast it to more traditional, passive instructional approaches. We argue that the active learning approach can be distinguished from not only more passive approaches to instruction but also other forms of experiential learning based on its use of formal training components to systematically influence trainees' cognitive, motivational, and emotion self-regulatory processes. Second, we examine how specific training components can be used to influence each of ...


Advances In Technology-Based Training, Bradford Bell, Steve Kozlowski May 2011

Advances In Technology-Based Training, Bradford Bell, Steve Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] There is a growing utilization of technology-based training in the workplace. The 2005 State of the Industry Report published by the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) revealed that in the average organization, technology-based training accounted for 28.1 percent of all training hours in 2004 (Sugrue and Rivera, 2005). The report also revealed that the utilization of technology-based training has almost doubled since 2002 and is projected to further increase to 32.5 percent in 2005. In this chapter, we examine this trend and explore recent advances in technology-based training. We begin by discussing the environmental factors ...


Disentangling Achievement Orientation And Goal Setting: Effects On Self-Regulatory Processes, Steve Kozlowski, Bradford Bell May 2011

Disentangling Achievement Orientation And Goal Setting: Effects On Self-Regulatory Processes, Steve Kozlowski, Bradford Bell

Bradford S Bell

The Heckhausen and Kuhl (1985) goal typology provided the conceptual foundation for this research, which examined the independent and integrated effects of achievement orientation and goal setting approaches on trainees’ self-regulatory activity. Using a complex computer-based simulation, the authors examined the effects of three training design factors cutting across these two theoretical domains – goal frame, goal content, and goal proximity – on the nature, focus, and quality of the self-regulatory activities of 524 trainees. Results revealed that all three factors had a significant influence on self-regulation, with goal content exhibiting the greatest influence. In line with expectations, congruent learning frame and ...


Building The Infrastructure: The Effects Of Role Identification Behaviors On Team Cognition Development And Performance, Matthew J. Pearsall, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell May 2011

Building The Infrastructure: The Effects Of Role Identification Behaviors On Team Cognition Development And Performance, Matthew J. Pearsall, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

The primary purpose of this study was to extend theory and research regarding the emergence of mental models and transactive memory in teams. Utilizing Kozlowski et al.’s (1999) model of team compilation, we examine the effect of role identification behaviors and argue that such behaviors represent the initial building blocks of team cognition during the role compilation phase of team development. We then hypothesized that team mental models and transactive memory would convey the effects of these behaviors onto team performance in the team compilation phase of development. Results from 60 teams working on a command and control simulation ...


Developing Adaptability: A Theory For The Design Of Integrated-Embedded Training Systems, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Rebecca J. Toney, Morell E. Mullins, Daniel A. Weissbein, Kenneth G. Brown, Bradford S. Bell May 2011

Developing Adaptability: A Theory For The Design Of Integrated-Embedded Training Systems, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Rebecca J. Toney, Morell E. Mullins, Daniel A. Weissbein, Kenneth G. Brown, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] This convergence of forces – environmental, technological, and economic – is driving a reconceptualization of the nature of training systems. Training is shifting from an inefficient, time consuming, and expensive enterprise to one that can be delivered efficiently, as needed, and just-in-time. It is shifting from an off-site single episode to a systematic series of learning experiences that are integrated in the workplace and embedded in work technology. It is shifting from a primary emphasis on retention and reproduction to a broader emphasis that also includes the development of adaptive knowledge and skills (Kozlowski, 1998). Training will not be a separate ...


Conducting Industrial And Organizational Psychological Research: Institutional Review Of Research In Work Organizations, Daniel R. Ilgen, Bradford S. Bell May 2011

Conducting Industrial And Organizational Psychological Research: Institutional Review Of Research In Work Organizations, Daniel R. Ilgen, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

Although informed consent is a primary mechanism for insuring the ethical treatment of human participants in research, both federal guidelines and APA ethical standards recognize that exceptions to it are reasonable under certain conditions. But agreement about what constitutes reasonable exceptions to informed consent sometimes is lacking. The research presented the same protocols to samples of respondents drawn from four populations –Institutional Reviewer Board (IRBs) members, managers, employees, and university faculty who were not members of IRBs. Differences in perceptions of IRB members from the other samples with respect to the risks of the protocols without informed consent and on ...


Self-Assessments Of Knowledge: Where Do We Go From Here?, Bradford Bell, Jessica Federman May 2011

Self-Assessments Of Knowledge: Where Do We Go From Here?, Bradford Bell, Jessica Federman

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] In this paper, we argue that there remain several unanswered questions surrounding self-assessments of knowledge that must be addressed before we can reach a more definitive conclusion on the viability of these measures. The answers to these questions may provide further evidence that self-assessments should not be used as an indicator of learning or they may serve to qualify the conditions under which self-assessments can be used with reasonable confidence. In either case, addressing these issues is critical if work in this area is to influence how researchers and practitioners evaluate trainees’ learning.


The Effects Of Technical Difficulties On Learning And Attrition During Online Training, Traci Sitzmann, Katherine Ely, Bradford S. Bell, Kristina N. Bauer May 2011

The Effects Of Technical Difficulties On Learning And Attrition During Online Training, Traci Sitzmann, Katherine Ely, Bradford S. Bell, Kristina N. Bauer

Bradford S Bell

Although online instruction has many potential benefits, technical difficulties are one drawback to the increased use of this medium. A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect that technical difficulties have on learning and attrition from voluntary online training. Adult learners (N = 530) were recruited online and volunteered to participate in a four-hour training program on using computer spreadsheets. Technical difficulties were inserted in some of the training modules in the form of error messages. Using multilevel modeling, the results indicated that the presence of these technical difficulties impaired learning, such that test scores were lower in modules ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Positive And Negative Information On Job Seekers’ Organizational Attraction And Attribute Recall, Adam M. Kanar, Christopher J. Collins, Bradford S. Bell May 2011

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Positive And Negative Information On Job Seekers’ Organizational Attraction And Attribute Recall, Adam M. Kanar, Christopher J. Collins, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

To date there have been no direct studies of how strong negative information from sources outside of organizations’ direct control impacts job seekers’ organizational attraction. This study compared models for positive and negative information against a neutral condition using a longitudinal experimental study with college-level job seekers (n = 175). Consistent with the accessibility-diagnosticity perspective, the results indicated that negative information had a greater impact than positive information on job seekers’ organizational attraction and recall, and this effect persisted one week after exposure. The results did not indicate that the influence of information sources and topics that fit together was lessened ...


Active Learning: Effects Of Core Training Design Elements On Self-Regulatory Processes, Learning, And Adaptability, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski May 2011

Active Learning: Effects Of Core Training Design Elements On Self-Regulatory Processes, Learning, And Adaptability, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

This research describes a comprehensive examination of the cognitive, motivational, and emotional processes underlying active learning approaches, their effects on learning and transfer, and the core training design elements (exploration, training frame, emotion-control) and individual differences (cognitive ability, trait goal orientation, trait anxiety) that shape these processes. Participants (N = 350) were trained to operate a complex computer-based simulation. Exploratory learning and error-encouragement framing had a positive effect on adaptive transfer performance and interacted with cognitive ability and dispositional goal orientation to influence trainees’ metacognition and state goal orientation. Trainees who received the emotion-control strategy had lower levels of state anxiety ...


Consequences Of Organizational Justice Expectations In A Selection System, Bradford S. Bell, Darin Wiechmann, Ann Marie Ryan May 2011

Consequences Of Organizational Justice Expectations In A Selection System, Bradford S. Bell, Darin Wiechmann, Ann Marie Ryan

Bradford S Bell

This study examined several consequences of applicants’ expectations of organizational justice at multiple stages in a selection process. We assessed the justice expectations of 1,832 job applicants prior to their participation in a testing process and examined how these expectations influenced their pretest attitudes and intentions as well as their perceptions of the testing process. Results revealed that applicants with higher expectations of justice reported higher levels of pretest motivation and more positive job acceptance and recommendation intentions. Justice expectations were also positively related to applicants’ perceptions of justice in the testing process. Results also provided some evidence that ...


Current Issues And Future Directions In Simulation-Based Training In North America, Bradford Bell, Adam Kanar, Steve Kozlowski May 2011

Current Issues And Future Directions In Simulation-Based Training In North America, Bradford Bell, Adam Kanar, Steve Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

A number of emerging challenges including globalization, economic pressures, and the changing nature of work have combined to create a business environment that demands innovative, flexible training solutions. Simulations are a promising tool for creating more realistic, experiential learning environments to meet these challenges. Unfortunately, the current literature on simulation-based training paints a mixed picture as to the effectiveness of simulations as training tools, with most of the previous research focusing on the specific technologies used in simulation design and little theory-based research focusing on the instructional capabilities or learning processes underlying these technologies. This article examines the promise and ...


Adaptive Guidance: Enhancing Self-Regulation, Knowledge, And Performance In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Apr 2011

Adaptive Guidance: Enhancing Self-Regulation, Knowledge, And Performance In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

Considerable research has examined the effects of giving trainees control over their learning (Steinberg, 1977, 1989; Williams, 1993). The most consistent finding of this research has been that trainees do not make good instructional use of the control they are given. Yet, today’s technologically based training systems often provide individuals with significant control over their learning (Brown, 2001). This creates a dilemma that must be addressed if technology is going to be used to create more effective training systems. The current study extended past research that has examined the effects of providing trainees with some form of advisement or ...


Reactions To Skill Assessment: The Forgotten Factor In Explaining Motivation To Learn, Bradford S. Bell, J. Kevin Ford Apr 2011

Reactions To Skill Assessment: The Forgotten Factor In Explaining Motivation To Learn, Bradford S. Bell, J. Kevin Ford

Bradford S Bell

This study examined the effects of trainees’ reactions to skill assessment on their motivation to learn. A model was developed that suggests that two dimensions of trainees’ assessment reactions – distributive justice and utility – influence training motivation and overall training effectiveness. The model was tested using a sample of individuals (N = 113) enrolled in a truck driving training program. Results revealed that trainees’ who perceived higher levels of distributive justice and utility had higher motivation to learn. Training motivation was found to significantly predict several measures of training effectiveness. Trainees’ performance on the pre-training assessment and trait goal orientation exhibited direct ...


Distributed Learning System Design: A New Approach And An Agenda For Future Research, Bradford Bell, Steve Kozlowski Apr 2011

Distributed Learning System Design: A New Approach And An Agenda For Future Research, Bradford Bell, Steve Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

This article presents a theoretical framework designed to guide distributed learning design, with the goal of enhancing the effectiveness of distributed learning systems. The authors begin with a review of the extant research on distributed learning design, and themes embedded in this literature are extracted and discussed to identify critical gaps that should be addressed by future work in this area. A conceptual framework that integrates instructional objectives, targeted competencies, instructional design considerations, and technological features is then developed to address the most pressing gaps in current research and practice. The rationale and logic underlying this framework is explicated. The ...


Changing An Unfavorable Employment Reputation: A Longitudinal Examination, Adam M. Kanar, Christopher J. Collins, Bradford S. Bell Apr 2011

Changing An Unfavorable Employment Reputation: A Longitudinal Examination, Adam M. Kanar, Christopher J. Collins, Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

Although a favorable employment reputation plays an important role in generating a large and qualified pool of job applicants for an organization (Rynes & Cable, 2003), little research has investigated whether organizations can improve applicants’ existing unfavorable employment reputation perceptions. Results from a four-week longitudinal experiment using 222 student job seekers revealed that participants’ employment reputation perceptions improved after exposure to recruitment practices and followed diminishing returns trajectories over time. High information recruitment practices (e.g., personal communication from a recruiter) from both single and multiple sources were more effective for changing unfavorable employment reputation perceptions than repeated mere exposure to ...


Informed Consent And Dual Purpose Research, Bradford S. Bell, Daniel R. Ilgen Apr 2011

Informed Consent And Dual Purpose Research, Bradford S. Bell, Daniel R. Ilgen

Bradford S Bell

The ethical treatment of human participants in psychological research is regulated by both federal guidelines and the ethical standards of the American Psychological Association (APA). Under certain circumstances, however, both APA standards and federal regulations allow for exceptions for informed consent. In spite of the possibility of exception, a number of factors have made it difficult to conduct and publish research that does not incorporate informed consent. The authors consider these factors and propose 2 approaches that may reduce reluctance to consider exceptions to informed consent under appropriate circumstances. First, journals should not rely on informed consent as the only ...


Goal Orientation And Ability: Interactive Effects On Self-Efficacy, Performance, And Knowledge, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W.J. Kozlowski Apr 2011

Goal Orientation And Ability: Interactive Effects On Self-Efficacy, Performance, And Knowledge, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W.J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

This study examined the direct relationship of goal orientation – and the interaction of goal orientation and cognitive ability -- with self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge in a learning context. The current paper argues that whether a particular type of goal orientation is adaptive or not adaptive depends on individuals' cognitive ability. Results indicated that the direct associations of learning and performance orientations were consistent with previous research. Learning orientation was positively related to self-efficacy, performance, and knowledge, while performance orientation was negatively related to only one outcome, performance. The interactions between goal orientation and ability also supported several hypotheses. As expected, learning ...


The Impact Of Task- And Team-Generic Teamwork Skills Training On Team Effectiveness, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell, Robert E. Ployhart, John R. Hollenbeck, Daniel R. Ilgen Apr 2011

The Impact Of Task- And Team-Generic Teamwork Skills Training On Team Effectiveness, Aleksander P. J. Ellis, Bradford S. Bell, Robert E. Ployhart, John R. Hollenbeck, Daniel R. Ilgen

Bradford S Bell

This study examined the effects of training team members in three task- and teamgeneric teamwork skills: planning and task coordination, collaborative problem solving, and communication. We first examined the degree to which task- and team-generic teamwork skills training impacted team performance on a task unrelated to the content of the training program.We then examined whether the effects of task- and team-generic teamwork skills training on team performance were due to the transfer of skills directly related to planning and task coordination, collaborative problem solving, and communication. Results from 65 four-person project teams indicated that task- and team-generic teamwork skills ...


Work Groups And Teams In Organizations, Steve Kozlowski, Bradford Bell Apr 2011

Work Groups And Teams In Organizations, Steve Kozlowski, Bradford Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] Our objective in this chapter is to provide an integrative perspective on work groups and teams in organizations, one that addresses primary foci of theory and research, highlights applied implications, and identifies key issues in need of research attention and resolution. Given the volume of existing reviews, our review is not intended to be exhaustive. Rather, it uses representative work to characterize key topics, and focuses on recent work that breaks new ground to help move theory and research forward. Although our approach risks trading breadth for depth, we believe that there is much value in taking a more ...


A Typology Of Virtual Teams: Implications For Effective Leadership, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Apr 2011

A Typology Of Virtual Teams: Implications For Effective Leadership, Bradford S. Bell, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

As the nature of work in today's organizations becomes more complex, dynamic, and global, there has been an increasing emphasis on far-flung, distributed, virtual teams as organizing units of work. Despite their growing prevalence, relatively little is known about this new form of work unit. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework to focus research toward understanding virtual teams and, in particular, to identify implications for effective leadership. Specifically, we focus on delineating the dimensions of a typology to characterize different types of virtual teams. First, we distinguish virtual teams from conventional teams to identify ...


A Multilevel Analysis Of The Effect Of Prompting Self-Regulation In Technology-Delivered Instruction, Traci Sitzmann, Bradford S. Bell, Kurt Kraiger, Adam M. Kanar Apr 2011

A Multilevel Analysis Of The Effect Of Prompting Self-Regulation In Technology-Delivered Instruction, Traci Sitzmann, Bradford S. Bell, Kurt Kraiger, Adam M. Kanar

Bradford S Bell

We used a within-subjects design and multilevel modeling in two studies to examine the effect of prompting self-regulation, an intervention designed to improve learning from technology-delivered instruction. The results of two studies indicate trainees who were prompted to self-regulate gradually improved their knowledge and performance over time, relative to the control condition. In addition, Study 2 demonstrated that trainees’ cognitive ability and self-efficacy moderated the effect of the prompts. Prompting self-regulation resulted in stronger learning gains over time for trainees with higher ability or higher self-efficacy. Overall, the two studies demonstrate that prompting self-regulation had a gradual, positive effect on ...


[Review Of The Book The Mismanagement Of Talent: Employability And Jobs In The Knowledge Economy], Bradford S. Bell Apr 2011

[Review Of The Book The Mismanagement Of Talent: Employability And Jobs In The Knowledge Economy], Bradford S. Bell

Bradford S Bell

[Excerpt] In The Mismanagement of Talent, Brown and Hesketh argue that rooted within the dominant discourse of the "war for talent" are several core assumptions that have shaped our perspective on employability in the KBE. The most central of these is that there is a limited pool of talent capable of rising to senior managerial positions, which creates fierce competition to recruit the best and brightest. The perception of talent as a limited commodity is seen as driving organizations to diversify their talent pools and adopt more rigorous recruitment and selection tools in an effort to get the right people ...


Current Issues And Future Directions In Simulation-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam M. Kanar, Steve W. J. Kozlowski Apr 2011

Current Issues And Future Directions In Simulation-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam M. Kanar, Steve W. J. Kozlowski

Bradford S Bell

A number of emerging challenges including globalization, economic pressures, and the changing nature of work have combined to create a business environment that demands innovative, flexible training solutions. Simulations are a promising tool for creating more realistic, experiential learning environments to meet these challenges. Unfortunately, the current literature on simulation-based training paints a mixed picture as to the effectiveness of simulations as training tools, with most of the previous research focusing on the specific technologies used in simulation design and little theory- based research focusing on the instructional capabilities or learning processes underlying these technologies. This article examines the promise ...


Effects Of Disability, Gender, And Level Of Supervision On Ratings Of Job Applicants, Bradford S. Bell, Katherine J. Klein Apr 2011

Effects Of Disability, Gender, And Level Of Supervision On Ratings Of Job Applicants, Bradford S. Bell, Katherine J. Klein

Bradford S Bell

Using ratings of hypothetical job applicants with and without a disability obtained from both fulltime workers (n = 88) and undergraduates (n = 98), we examined the effects of disability (paraplegia, epilepsy, clinical depression, or non-disabled), gender, and nature of the job (supervisory or non-supervisory) on five job-relevant dependent measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, applicants with a disability were rated significantly higher in activity and potency than applicants without a disability. Further, also contrary to our predictions, gender and job type did not moderate the relationship between disability and applicant ratings. Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant gender by job type interaction; female ...


Adaptive Guidance: Effects On Self-Regulated Learning In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam Kanar, Xiangmin Liu, Jane Forman, Mila Singh Apr 2011

Adaptive Guidance: Effects On Self-Regulated Learning In Technology-Based Training, Bradford S. Bell, Adam Kanar, Xiangmin Liu, Jane Forman, Mila Singh

Bradford S Bell

Guidance provides trainees with the information necessary to make effective use of the learner control inherent in technology-based training, but also allows them to retain a sense of control over their learning (Bell & Kozlowski, 2002). One challenge, however, is determining how much learner control, or autonomy, to build into the guidance strategy. We examined the effects of alternative forms of guidance (autonomy supportive vs. controlling) on trainees’ learning and performance, and examined trainees’ cognitive ability and motivation to learn as potential moderators of these effects. Consistent with our hypotheses, trainees receiving adaptive guidance had higher levels of knowledge and performance ...