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Full-Text Articles in Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

Introducing The Workplace Well-Being Program Implementation Model: A Model To Inform The Establishment Of Organizational Well-Being Programs, Emily Santos Sep 2019

Introducing The Workplace Well-Being Program Implementation Model: A Model To Inform The Establishment Of Organizational Well-Being Programs, Emily Santos

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Employee stress and disengagement are of increasing concern in workplaces due to the adverse consequences of such employee states on business performance and employee quality of life. Conventional wellness strategies in organizations may help alleviate some work-related distress, but do little to enhance employee well-being towards flourishing. Workplaces have a unique opportunity to improve the well-being of their employees and can, as a result, reap benefits beyond health care cost avoidance. Positive psychology and affiliated disciplines (e.g. positive organizational behavior and positive organizational scholarship) can offer research-backed strategies to enhance well-being by ‘growing the good’ and capitalizing on strengths ...


Assessing (And Addressing) Reporting Heterogeneity In Visual Analogue Scales (Vas) With An Application To Gender Difference In Quality Of Life, Zhiyong Huang, Fabrice Kämpfen Jul 2019

Assessing (And Addressing) Reporting Heterogeneity In Visual Analogue Scales (Vas) With An Application To Gender Difference In Quality Of Life, Zhiyong Huang, Fabrice Kämpfen

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In this study, we propose several new methods to account for reporting heterogeneity in self-reported data coming from Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) using corresponding VAS-based anchoring vignettes. Compared to usual Likert scale measures, VAS have the advantage that they lead to more nuanced assessments. Yet, like responses to Likert scale, VAS may suffer from individual-specific reporting heterogeneity. To the best of our knowledge, such reporting heterogeneity and potential solutions to solve this problem in the context of VAS measures have not yet been addressed in the literature. Using VAS-based anchoring vignettes and standard vignettes assumptions (vignette equivalence and response consistency ...


From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw May 2019

From The Voices Of Domestic Sex Trafficking Survivors: Experiences Of Complex Trauma & Posttraumatic Growth, Heather R. Evans Dsw

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Human sex trafficking is an ongoing global rights violation formally recognized since 2000 through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report, 2016). Using ecological and trauma-informed lenses, this qualitative, retrospective study used participant-centered methods to explore identity, sexuality, relationships, and factors that facilitate/ hindered community reintegration for 15 adult female survivors. Interview transcripts, Photovoice captioned images, and focus groups were analyzed using multi-level conceptual and thematic coding. Participants identified with all aspects of complex trauma, including: dissociation, self-perception/identity, relations with others and systems of meaning. Key themes included losing and regaining power, shame, and ...


Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski Aug 2018

Work Namaste: The Importance Of Mattering At Work, And How A Leader Can Create An Environment Where Employees Feel They And Their Work Matter, Rebecca J. Lamperski

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The concept of mattering is an underdeveloped, yet important component of an employee’s success in the workplace, and personal well-being. Deficit-based leadership strategies employed by many organizations can break-down the ability for an employee to feel that they and their work matter, however, the focus by leaders on mattering can lead employees to feel: my leader is invested in my success, I am noticed, I am cared about, I am depended upon, I would be missed if I were not here, my leader is interested in what I say and do, I am appreciated, and I am noticed for ...


Purpose In Adolescence: A Review Of The Literature And An Intervention Plan, Yvonne Biggins Aug 2018

Purpose In Adolescence: A Review Of The Literature And An Intervention Plan, Yvonne Biggins

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Purpose in life is positively correlated with psychological and physical wellbeing. It is also an important part of healthy identity formation in adolescence and is linked to academic success. However, purpose in adolescence is rare, with only one in five adolescents being able to identify their purpose in life (Damon, 2008). Moreover, purpose in life becomes less prevalent across the lifespan, leaving many people drifting and disengaged. The good news is, that research shows, it is possible to foster purpose and adolescence is an optimal time to do so. This paper reviews the research on purpose in adolescence, reviews existing ...


Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman Aug 2017

Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Forgiveness is a character strength and process that, when practiced, is associated with improved psychological well-being, physical health outcomes, and longevity. Forgiveness can serve as a protective factor that buffers against poor health and psychological consequences. Common misconceptions about forgiveness can serve as barriers to the desire to cultivate this protective strength, as forgiveness is often conflated with permissiveness, and perceived as permission for a transgressor to engage in hurtful conduct. The benefits of forgiveness, however, are most significant for the individual who has been transgressed, rather than the transgressor. Failing to forgive, or unforgiveness, is the practice of engaging ...


Character Strengths As A Pathway To Obtaining And Maintaining Employment For Job Seekers With Disabilities: A Model For Building Job Seeker Hope And Self-Efficacy, Elizabeth V. Jennings Jul 2017

Character Strengths As A Pathway To Obtaining And Maintaining Employment For Job Seekers With Disabilities: A Model For Building Job Seeker Hope And Self-Efficacy, Elizabeth V. Jennings

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Americans with disabilities experience low rates of employment and are more than twice as likely to live in poverty than their non-disabled peers. Job seekers with disabilities face a myriad of external barriers to employment: 1) lower education/skill attainment, 2) complex public benefit rules, 3) limited access to reliable transportation, 4) lack of work-related supports, and 5) persistent employer-bias. These challenges are compounded by internal barriers: 1) diminished self-efficacy and hope, 2) social role devaluation, and 3) extrinsic work motivations. Several theories within positive psychology offer new pathways to employment for people with disabilities. One such theory is character ...


Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel May 2017

Resilience Training For The Bethesda Project: The Abc's Of Flexible, Accurate Thinking, Tajender Luthra, Kathi Norman, Scott Riddel

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Abstract

Bethesda Project (BP), a nonprofit organization located in Philadelphia, PA, provides shelter, housing, and programs to 2,000 chronically homeless men and women. Many of BP’s clients struggle with addiction and mental health issues that prohibit them from living self-sufficient lives. Challenges originating from fighting an under resourced battle with chronic homelessness make employees vulnerable to unrecovered stress and concurrent pessimistic thinking habits. In response to this, we recommend that BP adopt resilience training to support staff well-being. As a first initiative, we propose introducing the optimistic explanatory style and the ABC model of cognitive thinking to allow ...


Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe Nov 2016

Mindfulness-Based Safety: Increasing Attention To Task In Alberta’S Oil And Gas Drilling And Completions Operations, Darrah E.M. Wolfe

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With studies demonstrating mind-wandering to be associated with failure to perform monitoring procedural steps, a deficiency in being able to call information to mind, more false alarms, and a reduction in task performance, we cannot afford to continue to overlook the potential impact mind-wandering has on human behavior in high-risk environments within the Alberta oil and gas industry. This paper gives consideration to mindfulness-based interventions, a domain of positive psychology, for reducing the occurrence of mind-wandering and improving attention to a task. It is from a foundation of research explored in the literature reviews of mind-wandering and mindfulness, that I ...


An Intervention Model To Create A Strong Sense Of Meaning And Life Purpose In High School Students., Rosalinda A. Ballesteros Dr. Aug 2015

An Intervention Model To Create A Strong Sense Of Meaning And Life Purpose In High School Students., Rosalinda A. Ballesteros Dr.

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Meaning in life is an important part of psychological well-being. The following paper presents a model for creating a robust meaning-in-life system for adolescents and emerging adults, with the aim to create well-being for young people and throughout the life span. A Three Self-Strengths model is proposed for the attainment of the meaning system. The self-strengths that young people need to develop are: self-knowledge, self-determination and self-regulation. The paper includes a proposed intervention in the high school program of Tecmilenio University in Mexico.


I Cannot Cheat On You After We Talk, Cristina Bicchieri, Alessandro Sontuoso Jan 2015

I Cannot Cheat On You After We Talk, Cristina Bicchieri, Alessandro Sontuoso

Penn Social Norms Group (PennSoNG)

The experimental literature on social dilemmas has long documented the positive effect of communication on cooperation. Sally (1995), in a meta-analysis spanning thirty-five years of Prisoner's Dilemma experiments, shows that the possibility of communicating significantly increases cooperation. Social psychologists have explained such a finding by hypothesizing that the act of communicating contributes to promoting trust by creating empathy among participants (see Loomis (1959), Desforges et al. (1991), Davis and Perkowitz (1979)). Bicchieri (2002, 2006), in a different perspective, puts forward a focusing function of communication hypothesis, according to which communication can focus agents on shared rules of behavior and ...


Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz Feb 2014

Knowing A Sexual Assault Victim Or Perpetrator: A Stratified Random Sample Of Undergraduates At One University, Susan B. Sorenson, Manisha Joshi, Elizabeth Sivitz

Departmental Papers (SPP)

Rape awareness and prevention programs are common on college campuses and a potentially useful way to reach large numbers of young adults. One largely unexamined potential mediator or moderator of program effectiveness is the personal knowledge of student audiences. In this study, we assess the prevalence of knowing a victim and, notably, a perpetrator of sexual assault. A stratified random sample of 2,400 undergraduates was recruited for an online survey about sexual assault. A total of 53.5% participated and yielded a sample representative of the student body. Sixteen questions were modified from the Sexual Experiences Survey to assess ...


Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy Jan 2014

Impact Of The Nregs On Schooling And Intellectual Human Capital, Subha Mani, Jere R. Behrman, Shaikh Galab, Prudhvikar Reddy

Grand Challenges Canada Economic Returns to Mitigating Early Life Risks Project Working Paper Series

This paper uses a quasi-experimental framework to analyze the impact of India’s largest public works program, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), on schooling enrollment, grade progression, reading comprehension test scores, writing test scores, math test scores and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores. The availability of pre and two rounds of post-intervention initiation data from the three rounds of the Young Lives Panel Study allow us to measure both the short- and medium-run intent-to-treat effects of the program. We find that the program has no effect on enrollment but has strong positive effects on grade progression, reading ...


Changes In Hiv/Aids Knowledge, Attitudes And Behaviors In Malawi, Theresa Fedor Jan 2014

Changes In Hiv/Aids Knowledge, Attitudes And Behaviors In Malawi, Theresa Fedor

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The three chapters of this dissertation collectively assess how HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes are behaviors are changing in Malawi. The first chapter assesses how married individuals use knowledge of HIV status to make behavioral changes to reduce HIV risk or make decisions about divorce. Instrumental variable models controlling for selection into HIV testing are estimated using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). Results indicate that knowledge of HIV status does not affect chances of divorce but does reduce the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents, and increases reported condom use with spouses for ...


Positive Recovery, Jason Zw Powers Aug 2013

Positive Recovery, Jason Zw Powers

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Addiction is a chronic, progressive, and self-perpetuating disease that profoundly diminishes individual, family, and community well-being. Every year in the U.S., drugs (including alcohol and tobacco) are responsible for 25% of hospital admissions, 25% of deaths, and hundreds of billions of dollars in lost productivity, healthcare costs, and criminal justice costs. Addiction adversely impacts every arena of life ranging from hedonistic pursuits, occupational success, familial and other supportive relationships, to a sense of meaning, physical health, and overall fulfillment of individual potential. Addiction is amenable to treatment, but our medical-model approach to addiction is merely effective for initiating abstinence ...


Social Network Effects On Productivity And Job Security: Evidence From The Adoption Of A Social Networking Tool, Lynn Wu Jan 2013

Social Network Effects On Productivity And Job Security: Evidence From The Adoption Of A Social Networking Tool, Lynn Wu

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

By studying the change in employees' network positions before and after the introduction of a social networking tool, I find that information-rich networks (low in cohesion and rich in structural holes), enabled by social media, have a positive effect on various work outcomes. Contrary to the notion that network positions are difficult to alter, I show that social media can induce a change in network structure, one from which individuals can derive economic benefits. In addition, I consider two intermediate mechanisms by which an information-rich network is theorized to improve work performance—information diversity and social communication—and quantify their ...


Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons Dec 2012

Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 7 experiments (N = 3,289), we replicate the procedure of Experiments 8 and 9 from Bem (2011), which had originally demonstrated retroactive facilitation of recall. We failed to replicate that finding. We further conduct a meta-analysis of all replication attempts of these experiments and find that the average effect size (d = 0.04) is no different from 0. We discuss some reasons for differences between the results in this article and those presented in Bem (2011).


Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman Nov 2012

Unsure What The Future Will Bring? You May Overindulge: Uncertainty Increases The Appeal Of Wants Over Shoulds, Katherine L. Milkman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This paper examines the effect of uncertainty about the future on whether individuals select want options (e.g., junk foods, lowbrow films) or instead exert self-control and select should options (e.g., healthy foods, highbrow films). Consistent with the ego-depletion literature, which suggests that self-control resembles an exhaustible muscle, coping with uncertainty about what the future may bring reduces self-control resources and increases individuals’ tendency to favor want options over should options. These results persist when real uncertainty is induced, when the salience of naturally-arising uncertainty is heightened and when individuals are able to make choices contingent upon the outcomes ...


The Impact Of Personal Experience On Behavior: Evidence From Video-Rental Fines, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Devin G. Pope, Maurice. E. Schweitzer, Peter Fishman Jan 2012

The Impact Of Personal Experience On Behavior: Evidence From Video-Rental Fines, Michael P. Haselhuhn, Devin G. Pope, Maurice. E. Schweitzer, Peter Fishman

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Personal experience matters. In a field setting with longitudinal data, we disentangle the effects of learning new information from the effects of personal experience. We demonstrate that experience with a fine, controlling for the effect of learning new information, significantly boosts future compliance. We also show that experience with a large fine boosts compliance more than experience with a small fine, but that the influence of experience with both large and small fines decays sharply over time.


Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar Dec 2011

Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Information specialists in enterprises regularly use distributed information retrieval (DIR) systems that query a large number of information retrieval (IR) systems, merge the retrieved results, and display them to users. There can be considerable heterogeneity in the quality of results returned by different IR servers. Further, because different servers handle collections of different sizes and have different processing and bandwidth capacities, there can be considerable heterogeneity in their response times. The broker in the DIR system has to decide which servers to query, how long to wait for responses, and which retrieved results to display based on the benefits and ...


Spurious Also? Name-Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) In Employment Decisions, Uri Simonsohn Aug 2011

Spurious Also? Name-Similarity Effects (Implicit Egotism) In Employment Decisions, Uri Simonsohn

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Implicit egotism is the notion that major life decisions are influenced by name-similarity. This paper revisits the evidence for the most systematic test of this hypothesis. Anseel & Duyck (2008) analyzed data from 1/3 of all Belgian employees and found that a disproportionate fraction of them shared their initial with their employer. Using a data set with American employees I replicate the finding, but new analyses strongly suggest they are due to reverse causality, whereby the documented effect seems to be driven by people naming companies they start after themselves rather than by employees seeking out companies they have a ...


Survivors Of A Military Suicide Death: Exploring Distress And Postvention Peer Support, Jill A. Harrington-Lamorie May 2011

Survivors Of A Military Suicide Death: Exploring Distress And Postvention Peer Support, Jill A. Harrington-Lamorie

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

SURVIVORS OF A MILITARY SUICIDE DEATH:

EXPLORING DISTRESS AND POSTVENTION PEER SUPPORT

In the past decade, as the rate of suicides among United States (U.S.) Armed Services members have steadily risen, so too has the number of survivors impacted by military suicide death. When a loved one, friend, family member, or co-worker dies as a result of a suicide, the ensuing shock and trauma -- along with unique issues accompanying suicide bereavement -- may compromise the mental and physical health of survivors. This leaves them vulnerable to a more distressing and complicated grief process. Those bereaved by suicide are at higher ...


Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators To Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, And Earn Less Profit, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer May 2011

Can Nervous Nelly Negotiate? How Anxiety Causes Negotiators To Make Low First Offers, Exit Early, And Earn Less Profit, Alison Wood Brooks, Maurice E Schweitzer

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Negotiations trigger anxiety. Across four studies, we demonstrate that anxiety is harmful to negotiator performance. In our experiments, we induced either anxiety or neutral feelings and studied behavior in negotiation and continuous shrinking-pie tasks. Compared to negotiators experiencing neutral feelings, negotiators who feel anxious expect lower outcomes, make lower first offers, respond more quickly to offers, exit bargaining situations earlier, and ultimately obtain worse outcomes. The relationship between anxiety and negotiator behavior is moderated by negotiator self-efficacy; high self-efficacy mitigates the harmful effects of anxiety.


The Value Of Fast Fashion: Quick Response, Enhanced Design, And Strategic Consumer Behavior, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney Apr 2011

The Value Of Fast Fashion: Quick Response, Enhanced Design, And Strategic Consumer Behavior, Gerard. P. Cachon, Robert Swinney

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

No abstract provided.


On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough Mar 2011

On The Production And Ramification Of Cooperation: The Cooperation Afforder With Framing Hypothesis, Steven. O. Kimbrough

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

This article presents a new proposal for understanding the establishment and maintenance of cooperation: the cooperation afforder with framing hypothesis, producing what can be called cooperation from afforder-framing. Three key moves are present. First, a special variety of the Stag Hunt game, the Cooperation Afforder game, will reliably produce mutualistic cooperation through an evolutionary process. Second, cognitive framing is a credible candidate mechanism to meet the special conditions and requirements of the Cooperation Afforder game. Third, once mutualistic cooperation is established in this way, it will plausibly lead to broader forms of cooperation, even to limited forms of altruism.


Hope Over Experience Desirability And The Persistence Of Optimism, Cade Massey, Joseph P. Simmons, David A. Armor Feb 2011

Hope Over Experience Desirability And The Persistence Of Optimism, Cade Massey, Joseph P. Simmons, David A. Armor

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Many important decisions hinge on expectations of future outcomes. Decisions about health, investments, and relationships all depend on predictions of the future. These expectations are often optimistic: People frequently believe that their preferred outcomes are more likely than is merited. Yet it is unclear whether optimism persists with experience and, surprisingly, whether optimism is truly caused by desire. These are important questions because life’s most consequential decisions often feature both strong preferences and the opportunity to learn. We investigated these questions by collecting football predictions from National Football League fans during each week of the 2008 season. Despite accuracy ...


Collaborative Filtering In Social Tagging Systems Based On Joint Item-Tag Recommendations, Jing Peng, Daniel Zeng, Huimin Zhao, Fei-Yue Wang Jan 2011

Collaborative Filtering In Social Tagging Systems Based On Joint Item-Tag Recommendations, Jing Peng, Daniel Zeng, Huimin Zhao, Fei-Yue Wang

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Tapping into the wisdom of the crowd, social tagging can be considered an alternative mechanism - as opposed to Web search - for organizing and discovering information on the Web. Effective tag-based recommendation of information items, such as Web resources, is a critical aspect of this social information discovery mechanism. A precise understanding of the information structure of social tagging systems lies at the core of an effective tag-based recommendation method. While most of the existing research either implicitly or explicitly assumes a simple tripartite graph structure for this purpose, we propose a comprehensive information structure to capture all types of co-occurrence ...


Cfui: Collaborative Filtering With Unlabeled Items, Jing Peng, Daniel D. Zeng, Bing Liu, Huimin Zhao Nov 2010

Cfui: Collaborative Filtering With Unlabeled Items, Jing Peng, Daniel D. Zeng, Bing Liu, Huimin Zhao

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

As opposed to Web search, social tagging can be considered an alternative technique tapping into the wisdom of the crowd for organizing and discovering information on the Web. Effective tag-based recommendation of information items is critical to the success of this social information discovery mechanism. Over the past few years, there have been a growing number of studies aiming at improving the item recommendation quality of collaborative filtering (CF) methods by leveraging tagging information. However, a critical problem that often severely undermines the performance of tag-based CF methods, i.e., sparsity of user-item and user-tag interactions, is still yet to ...


You Can Take It With You: Transferability Of Proposition 13 Tax Benefits, Residential Mobility, And Willingness To Pay For Housing Amenities, Fernando V. Ferreira Oct 2010

You Can Take It With You: Transferability Of Proposition 13 Tax Benefits, Residential Mobility, And Willingness To Pay For Housing Amenities, Fernando V. Ferreira

Real Estate Papers

The endogeneity of prices has long been recognized as the main identification problem in the estimation of marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for the characteristics of a given product. This issue is particularly important in the housing market, since a number of housing and neighborhood features are unobserved by the econometrician. This paper proposes the use of a well defined type of transaction costs–moving costs generated by property tax laws–to deal with this type of omitted variable bias. California's Proposition 13 property tax law is the source of variation in transaction costs used in the empirical analysis ...


In The Moment: The Effect Of Mindfulness On Ethical Decision Making, Nicole E. Ruedy, Maurice E Schweitzer Sep 2010

In The Moment: The Effect Of Mindfulness On Ethical Decision Making, Nicole E. Ruedy, Maurice E Schweitzer

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Many unethical decisions stem from a lack of awareness. In this article, we consider how mindfulness, an individual’s awareness of his or her present experience, impacts ethical decision making. In our first study, we demonstrate that compared to individuals low in mindfulness, individuals high in mindfulness report that they are more likely to act ethically, are more likely to value upholding ethical standards (self-importance of moral identity, SMI), and are more likely to use a principled approach to ethical decision making (formalism). In our second study, we test this relationship with a novel behavioral measure of unethical behavior: the ...