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Full-Text Articles in Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth Aug 2019

Factor Analysis Of The Personal Profile System, Thomas G. Henkel, James Noel Wilmoth

Tom G. Henkel

Principal components extraction with orthogonal and oblique rotations tested construct validity for the Personal Profile System. MOST-LIKE endorsements of 96 behavioral descriptors were coded with 4, LEAST-LIKE with 1, and unendorsed with 2.5. Descriptor data from 1,045 senior noncommissioned Air Force officers were normalized. Four factors accounted for 85% of total variance, with 19 descriptors loading significantly on two factors and the remaining 77 on just one factor. The measure of sampling adequacy for every descriptor exceeded .94. One factor for the varimax-rotated (best) analysis was bi-scalar, loading on Steadiness and Compliance descriptors; a second resembled Influencing, a ...


Building Health Equity One Institution At A Time: The Research Infrastructure In Minority Institutions Project, Laura H. D'Anna, Dennis G. Fisher, Lyka Eunice F. Trinidad, Carol Canjura, Jefferson L. Wood Jul 2019

Building Health Equity One Institution At A Time: The Research Infrastructure In Minority Institutions Project, Laura H. D'Anna, Dennis G. Fisher, Lyka Eunice F. Trinidad, Carol Canjura, Jefferson L. Wood

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Developing a well-trained workforce interested in, and prepared for, conducting health equity research is an important national priority. Scientists from Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) bring unique perspectives and experiences with racial, ethnic and social inequities in health and health status but often lack access to training and mentoring opportunities, which is crucial for increasing the diverse pool of investigators who are adequately prepared to conduct health disparities research and to compete for National Institutes of Health research funding. The focus of the California State University, Long Beach (CSULB) Research Infrastructure in Minority Institutions (RIMI) Project was to: (a) enhance CSULB’s ...


Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner Jul 2019

Factors In Refugee Resilience Building During Humanitarian Response, Rachel Starner

Capstone Collection

If countries hosting refugees want to build resiliency and reduce dependency on foreign relief, humanitarian response and local development need to be addressed simultaneously, and collaboration at all levels of stakeholders needs to take place in planning and decision making. Additionally, innovation and strong leadership are strong factors in creating and leading new ideas as funding and world leadership dynamics change, especially with traditional leaders such as the US and the UN losing influence. Observations made at the Mahama Refugee Camp in Rwanda as well as existing document analysis reflect these traits by active efforts of camp administrators and humanitarian ...


Cybersecurity Education: The Need For A Top-Driven, Multidisciplinary, School-Wide Approach, Lucy Tsado Jun 2019

Cybersecurity Education: The Need For A Top-Driven, Multidisciplinary, School-Wide Approach, Lucy Tsado

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The human resource skills gap in cybersecurity has created an opportunity for educational institutions interested in cybersecurity education. The current number of schools designated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and National Security Agency (NSA) as Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) to train cybersecurity experts are not sufficient to meet the shortfall in the industry. The DHS has clearly mapped out knowledge areas for cybersecurity education for both technical and non-technical disciplines; it is therefore possible for institutions not yet designated CAEs to generate cybersecurity experts, with the long-term goal of attaining the CAE designation. The purpose of this ...


The Impact Organizational Factors Have On Role Ambiguity Amongst School Social Workers, Melissa Kichura May 2019

The Impact Organizational Factors Have On Role Ambiguity Amongst School Social Workers, Melissa Kichura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore what organizational factors increase or decrease role ambiguity amongst school social workers. This study attempted to provide practical information for schools on the influence of specific organizational factors on role ambiguity so that they can provide a supportive work environment for school social workers and students. A cross-sectional survey design was used to provide a snapshot of the current organizational factors impacting the ambiguity of school social work roles from a sample of 73 members of the School Social Work Association of America. Some findings were not congruent with the literature. The ...


Social Work’S Contribution To Research Regarding Suicide Among African Americans, Darius Reed May 2019

Social Work’S Contribution To Research Regarding Suicide Among African Americans, Darius Reed

Social Work Doctoral Dissertations

Suicide among African Americans has increased significantly in the past 15 years, yet it remains a neglected topic in social work research. Social workers are the largest direct provider of mental health services in the United States. However their valuable person-in-environment perspective has not been incorporated into research to provide insight on ways to decrease incidents of suicide among African Americans. This systematic review examines social work’s contribution to suicide research while focusing on the social context in which African Americans live. The systematic review also examines protective factors specific to African Americans that can be used to mitigate ...


The Niobrara National Scenic River: Exploring Co-Management Through A Case Study Of The Niobrara Council, Melissa M. Mosier May 2019

The Niobrara National Scenic River: Exploring Co-Management Through A Case Study Of The Niobrara Council, Melissa M. Mosier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

In recent decades, government staff and local citizens have increasingly employed cooperative schemes of natural resource management, in lieu of more conventional, top-down approaches of addressing user conflicts as they relate to water resources. The focus of this project was on the Niobrara Council, a partnership of local, state, and federal representatives charged with cooperatively managing the reach of the Niobrara River that was federally designated under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act in 1991. The project's purpose was to explore the cooperative framework of the Council, using the methodology outlined by Carlsson and Berkes (2005). This methodology involved ...


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

Daria Domin

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

John Butterworth

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


Complete Issue, Volume 2 Issue 1 Mar 2019

Complete Issue, Volume 2 Issue 1

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This is the full issue of JICRCR Volume 2, Issue 1.


Structural Justice: A Critical Feminist Framework Exploring The Intersection Between Justice, Equity And Structural Reconciliation., Camille Burnett, Michael Swanberg, Ashley Hudson, Donna Schminkey Jan 2019

Structural Justice: A Critical Feminist Framework Exploring The Intersection Between Justice, Equity And Structural Reconciliation., Camille Burnett, Michael Swanberg, Ashley Hudson, Donna Schminkey

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Violence against women is a human rights violation (UN, 2006). It affects the health of women globally (UN, 2009) and its elimination is at the heart of many international and national goals. Intimate partner violence (IPV), one of the most common forms of gender-based violence, affects one in three women worldwide (WHO, 2013). The consequences of IPV create negative health outcomes for women that diminish their quality of life and their overall well-being. Abused women access community supports such as shelters to seek safe refuge from the abuse and restore their lives. While shelters play an extensive role in helping ...


Seguridad Alimentaria En Colombia: Una Propuesta Para La Sostenibilidad De La Política De Seguridad Alimentaria Y Nutricional (Psan), Paola Andrea Méndez Cotrino Jan 2019

Seguridad Alimentaria En Colombia: Una Propuesta Para La Sostenibilidad De La Política De Seguridad Alimentaria Y Nutricional (Psan), Paola Andrea Méndez Cotrino

Maestría en Estudios y Gestión del Desarrollo – MEGD

Colombia ha trabajado en la construcción de políticas alimentarias que respondan a una definición holística de la Seguridad Alimentaria y de sus componentes. Aunque la vigente Política de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional (PSAN) es ambiciosa, la inseguridad alimentaria persiste, las enfermedades asociadas a la alimentación son comunes entre la población colombiana y el sistema alimentario tiene problemas estructurales que impiden su óptimo funcionamiento. De forma paralela, el Desarrollo Sostenible se ha configurado como una apuesta de gobernanza del desarrollo a escala global, a través de un modelo en el que convergen actores e intereses de diversa naturaleza. Teniendo cuenta estos ...


Nociones De Legalidad/Ilegalidad En Los Actores De La Minería De Oro En Río Quito, Chocó: Una Cuestión De Río, Claudia Marcela González Gil Jan 2019

Nociones De Legalidad/Ilegalidad En Los Actores De La Minería De Oro En Río Quito, Chocó: Una Cuestión De Río, Claudia Marcela González Gil

Maestría en Estudios y Gestión del Desarrollo – MEGD

En el conflicto socioambiental que tiene lugar actualmente en Río Quito, Chocó, en torno a la apropiación del oro, la política minera se erige como un motor de territorialización, des territorialización y re territorialización del espacio que hoy sufre múltiples impactos sociales, culturales, económicos y políticos, todos evidenciados en el estado ambiental del territorio. Ahí, donde las afectaciones se atribuyen a la minería que es realizada sin cumplir con el lleno de los requisitos legales, las nociones de legalidad/ilegalidad en los actores de la minería de oro se construyen desde su contexto social, económico y político territorial, en el ...


Análisis De Pobreza Multidimensional En La Población Víctima De Desplazamiento Forzado Residente En La Ciudad De Bogotá 2014-2017, Claudia Beatriz Murcia Linares Jan 2019

Análisis De Pobreza Multidimensional En La Población Víctima De Desplazamiento Forzado Residente En La Ciudad De Bogotá 2014-2017, Claudia Beatriz Murcia Linares

Maestría en Estudios y Gestión del Desarrollo – MEGD

Este documento presenta un análisis de pobreza multidimensional en la población víctima de desplazamiento forzado residente en la ciudad de Bogotá, a partir del cálculo del Índice de Pobreza Multidimensional IPM para los años 2014 y 2017, con base en microdatos de la Encuesta Multipropósito del DANE. Esta metodología que se fundamenta en el enfoque de capacidades de Amartya Sen (2000), realiza el análisis de pobreza a partir de cinco dimensiones: condiciones educativas del hogar, condiciones de la niñez y la juventud, salud, trabajo, acceso a servicios públicos domiciliarios y las condiciones de la vivienda. Así mismo, se presenta acá ...


Inclusión Laboral De Excombatientes: Una Revisión A Las Acciones De Inclusión Laboral De La Agencia De Reincorporación Y Normalización A La Luz De La Responsabilidad Social Empresarial, Natalia Zulay Rodríguez Sotaquirá, Irma Constanza Montenegro Méndez, Diana Zavala Fierro Jan 2019

Inclusión Laboral De Excombatientes: Una Revisión A Las Acciones De Inclusión Laboral De La Agencia De Reincorporación Y Normalización A La Luz De La Responsabilidad Social Empresarial, Natalia Zulay Rodríguez Sotaquirá, Irma Constanza Montenegro Méndez, Diana Zavala Fierro

Maestría en Estudios y Gestión del Desarrollo – MEGD

Colombia es el país del mundo con mayor tiempo, experiencia y programas de reintegración de excombatientes aplicados. Parte fundamental del proceso de reintegración consiste en la Inclusión Laboral, razón por la cual esta investigación se concentra en el análisis de las acciones de Inclusión Laboral adelantadas por la Agencia de Reincorporación y Normalización –ARN-, a fin de identificar las fortalezas y áreas de oportunidad que desde la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial pueden ser abordadas. A través de una revisión documental cuidadosa y detallada de los documentos publicados sobre la Responsabilidad social empresarial del Siglo XXI y su interés en la construcción ...


2019 Icrcc Proceedings Table Of Contents, Conference Organizers Jan 2019

2019 Icrcc Proceedings Table Of Contents, Conference Organizers

International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference

These proceedings are a representative sample of the presentations given by professional practitioners and academic scholars at the 2019 International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference (ICRCC) held March 11-13, 2019. The ICRCC is an annual event that takes place the second week in March in beautiful sunny Orlando, Florida. The conference hosts are faculty and staff from the Nicholson School of Communication. The goal of the ICRCC is to bring together prominent professional practitioners and academic scholars that work directly with crisis and risk communication on a daily basis. We define crisis and risk broadly to include, for example, natural ...


Innovación Social En Colombia “Caso De Emprendimiento” Fundación Acción Interna, Lina María Muñoz Luengas, Heidi Lorena Medina Franco Jan 2019

Innovación Social En Colombia “Caso De Emprendimiento” Fundación Acción Interna, Lina María Muñoz Luengas, Heidi Lorena Medina Franco

Administración de Empresas

El presente artículo de investigación es de índole cualitativo y tiene como objetivo desde la perspectiva de la innovación social analizar las variables de innovación proactiva, reactiva y el tipo de emprendedor. Este artículo propone la necesidad de relacionar la revisión de literatura conceptual, con el fin de entender la relación entre innovación social y emprendimiento femenino, se busca profundizar en conceptos como lo son Innovación Social Vs Emprendimiento Social, Emprendimientos Femeninos en Colombia y Estado actual de las cárceles en Colombia. Donde se da a conocer el caso de “Fundación Acción Interna”, esta busca la inclusión, reconciliación y resocialización ...


Feminización De Las Ocupaciones Y Diferencias Salariales Por Género Para Colombia Urbana: 2008-2016, Maria Camila Palacios Riaño Jan 2019

Feminización De Las Ocupaciones Y Diferencias Salariales Por Género Para Colombia Urbana: 2008-2016, Maria Camila Palacios Riaño

Economía

Evidencia empírica sugiere que, como resultado de la segregación ocupacional en la brecha salarial de género, las ocupaciones mayoritariamente desarrolladas por mujeres ofrecen salarios más bajos para ambos sexos. La concentración constante en grupos de trabajo con salarios bajos perpetúa al mismo tiempo el fenómeno de segregación y la desventaja salarial por género. El presente trabajo sigue la metodología utilizada por Isaza Castro (2013), donde se realiza una clasificación de las ocupaciones para el caso colombiano y una estimación de ecuaciones de salarios para hombres y mujeres controlando por la proporción de mujeres existente al interior de cada ocupación como ...


Gettysburg Social Sciences Review Fall 2018 Dec 2018

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review Fall 2018

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

No abstract provided.


Fringe Groups And Their Beliefs In Conspiracies, Gianluca Allesina Dec 2018

Fringe Groups And Their Beliefs In Conspiracies, Gianluca Allesina

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

My topic centers around the series of questions asked in the Chapman University Survey of American Fears on conspiracy theories and the degree to which Americans believe in them. The claims of such theories can range from strange, but ultimately harmless, such as the belief that the United States faked the Apollo 11 Moon Landing in 1969, to accusations with much serious implications such as the belief that the government is hiding information on the Las Vegas and/or Sandy Hook mass shootings. The latter recently made news with the biggest advocate of the “false flag shootings” belief, none other ...


Commons: Can This Be The Name Of ‘Thirdness’? (Revised), Roger A. Lohmann Nov 2018

Commons: Can This Be The Name Of ‘Thirdness’? (Revised), Roger A. Lohmann

Faculty Scholarship

In 1995, a journal article asked if 'commons' might be the name of 'thirdness'. In this revision of that article the question is renewed and reintroduced. The concept of the commons and common goods still offer satisfactory ways to label and characterize voluntary action outside markets, states and households. Theory is said to be a problem of language. Language creativity, including the coining of various new terms is a characteristic part of the commons theory of voluntary action. The remaining challenge is how the concept of the commons can relate to the other side of the third sector - the quasi-commercial ...


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Oct 2018

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach To Advancing Integrated Employment, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Jean Winsor, John Kramer, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston Sep 2018

Building An Evidence-Based, Holistic Approach To Advancing Integrated Employment, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Jean Winsor, John Kramer, Kelly Nye-Lengerman, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, Thinkwork! At The Institute For Community Inclusion At Umass Boston

ThinkWork! Publications

Since the introduction of supported employment in the Developmental Disabilities Act of 1984 and the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986, there has been continued development and refinement of best practices in employment services and supports. Progress includes creative outcomes for individuals with significant support needs including customized jobs and self-employment, community rehabilitation providers that have shifted emphasis to integrated employment, and states that have made a substantial investment in Employment First policy and strategy. Despite these achievements, the promise of integrated employment remains elusive for the majority of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The number of individuals supported in ...


Post-Katrina Retention Of Law Enforcement Officers: A Case Study Of The New Orleans Police Department, Richard A. Williams Sr May 2018

Post-Katrina Retention Of Law Enforcement Officers: A Case Study Of The New Orleans Police Department, Richard A. Williams Sr

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is a case study of the New Orleans Police Department and identified factors that affected the retention of law enforcement officers post-Hurricane Katrina. The NOPD was chosen because the agency was an extreme case and experienced the unprecedented separation of over 300 officers during and post- Hurricane Katrina. The variables examined included tenure, age, salary, education, and job satisfaction, as well as, race, sex, marital status, and New Orleans residency.

This research is significant because in a time of decreasing budgets and increased cost to replace employees, where skills are scarce and knowledge is important, recruitment is costly ...


The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr. May 2018

The Impacts Of Green Spaces On Crime In New York City, Matthew Edward Iannone Jr.

Student Theses 2015-Present

From the early 1960s through the mid-1990s, crime in New York City ran rampant. With a gradually dwindling police during this time, a high unemployment rate, and an rapidly increasing metropolitan population, crime peaked in the early 1990s, with the murder rate hitting a record-high of 2,245 in 1990. When Mayor Rudy Giuliani took office in 1994 and appoint Bill Bratton as the NYPD police commissioner, these rates immediately plunged. Numerous factors may have contributed to this sudden decline in crime: the police force grew significantly through the 1990s, more criminals were placed and held in prison, and the ...


Networks Of Isolation: The Case Of Donald J. Trump, Facebook, And The Limits Of Social Movement Theory, Carol L. Stimmel May 2018

Networks Of Isolation: The Case Of Donald J. Trump, Facebook, And The Limits Of Social Movement Theory, Carol L. Stimmel

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The 2016 election that catapulted Donald J. Trump to the U.S. presidency has raised questions for how Facebook may have enabled the emergence and coalescence of a social movement among traditionally improbable voters. The research in this paper engages with contemporary social movement theory, assessing its adequacy for explaining the role of Facebook as a primary method for facilitating a social movement among the civically-alienated, who are the most unlikely of all Americans to join an organized collective for change. From a methodological perspective, the exploration takes up the case as a strategy of inquiry to explore social movement ...


Segregation Of Student Financial Aid In Higher Education: The Effects On Low-Income Students When Ebt Is Not Accepted At University Campuses In San Diego, Ca., Tanisha-Jean Martin Apr 2018

Segregation Of Student Financial Aid In Higher Education: The Effects On Low-Income Students When Ebt Is Not Accepted At University Campuses In San Diego, Ca., Tanisha-Jean Martin

M.A. in Leadership Studies: Capstone Project Papers

The student bodies of universities are made up of a diverse financial class of students which utilize various methods to cover financial obligations on campus, even with the use of welfare governmental assistance. Low-income students that are involved in government welfare programs are given an Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) card to support them while they are pursuing an education; however, every university in San Diego, CA (and nearly the entire United States), segregate EBT into an unacceptable category and refuse to accept the card at any venues on campus. The EBT card is a plastic card that can be used ...


Spirituality: Relationship Between Grit, Equanimity, Spiritual Qualities And First-Generation College Students, Janett Cordoves Apr 2018

Spirituality: Relationship Between Grit, Equanimity, Spiritual Qualities And First-Generation College Students, Janett Cordoves

Scholar Week 2016 - present

This study investigated the relationship between spirituality and first-generation, undergraduate and graduate college students’ grit, equanimity, and spiritual qualities. The researcher, a higher education professional, sought to highlight spirituality, not religion, as an intervention method for first-generation college students’ retention and success at the university. The results indicated a significant relationship between first-generation college students’ level of grit and equanimity as well as a direct relationship between grit and spiritual qualities. These results help inform educators and highlight that first-generation college students are both resilient as well as calm and centered in the midst of adversity and uncertainty. Participants’ narratives ...


The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer Apr 2018

The Predictors Of Juvenile Recidivism: Testimonies Of Adult Students 18 Years And Older Exiting From Alternative Education, La Toshia Palmer

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to identify and describe the importance of the predictors of juvenile recidivism and the effectiveness of efforts to prevent/avoid juvenile recidivism as perceived by previously detained, arrested, convicted, and/or incarcerated adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education in Northern California. A second purpose was to explore the types of support provided by alternative schools and the perceived importance of the support to avoid recidivism according to adult students 18 years of age and older exiting from alternative education.

Methodology: This qualitative, descriptive research design ...


What Factors Drive Individual Misperceptions Of The Returns To Schooling In Tanzania? Some Lessons For Education Policy, Plamen Nikolov, Nursat Jimi Apr 2018

What Factors Drive Individual Misperceptions Of The Returns To Schooling In Tanzania? Some Lessons For Education Policy, Plamen Nikolov, Nursat Jimi

Economics Faculty Scholarship

Evidence on educational returns and the factors that determine the demand for schooling in developing countries is extremely scarce. Building on previous studies that show individuals underestimating the returns to schooling, we use two surveys from Tanzania to estimate both the actual and perceived schooling returns and subsequently examine what factors drive individual misperceptions regarding actual returns. Using ordinary least squares and instrumental variable methods, we find that each additional year of schooling in Tanzania increases earnings, on average, by 9 to 11 percent. We find that on average individuals underestimate returns to schooling by 74 to 79 percent and ...