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Articles 1 - 30 of 153

Full-Text Articles in Other Social and Behavioral Sciences

A Playful Life Cycle Assessment Of The Environmental Impact Of Children's Toys, Madeline R. Robertson, Christie Klimas Jun 2019

A Playful Life Cycle Assessment Of The Environmental Impact Of Children's Toys, Madeline R. Robertson, Christie Klimas

DePaul Discoveries

Toys aid in children’s progression through developmental stages, yet toy production has an environmental impact. This study is the first comparative life cycle assessment of three children’s toys. A life cycle assessment quantifies the impact of an item in comparable impact categories (i.e. global warming potential in kg CO2 equivalents). In this study, we use open LCA to compare toy impact from production to use. The results indicate that the plastic polybutylene carried the highest impact in terms of global warming potential for our predominantly plastic toy. The addition of a battery to the plush dog increased ...


Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page May 2019

Its Skin Is My Skin, Bryan Page

Graduate School of Art Theses

This text examines the complexity of attempting to empathize with bodies that are vastly othered from my own. This broad yet nuanced subject crosses epistemological boundaries and complicates the dualities between both the mind and body, and between the corporeal and the virtual. My desire to better understand the conditions of another’s experience originates from a painful traumatic loss which caused me to feel isolated and incomplete. In response to this suffering, I long to emotionally connect with other beings and create artwork that attempts to bridge the qualia of individual experience.

I am interested in the capacity (or ...


Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones Apr 2019

Evolutionary Analysis In Law: Some Objections Considered, Owen D. Jones

Owen Jones

This Article appears in a special issue of the Brooklyn Law Review on DNA: Lessons from the Past - Problems for the Future. It first addresses why law needs insights from behavioral biology, and then identifies and responds to a variety of structural and conceptual barriers to such evolutionary analysis in law.


“It’S The Story”: Online Animated Simulation Of Cultural Competence Of Poverty -- A Pilot Study, Kimberly E. Johnson, Melissa Fleck, Thomas Pantazes Mar 2019

“It’S The Story”: Online Animated Simulation Of Cultural Competence Of Poverty -- A Pilot Study, Kimberly E. Johnson, Melissa Fleck, Thomas Pantazes

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Purpose: In this pilot study, researchers explore an online animated simulation as an educational tool for emerging health professionals to promote cultural competence of poverty, food insecurity, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.Methods: Researchers recruited participants in the allied health sciences for focus groups to explore the effectiveness of an online animation in promoting cultural competence of poverty, food insecurity, and public assistance programs. Participants were asked about their experience with the educational tool and changes in cultural competence regarding poverty, food insecurity, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Participants also responded to five survey questions about their experience ...


Tumbling Into A Crisis: Use Of Corporate Apologia After Usa Gymnastics Falls Off The Balance Beam, Terry L. Rentner, Cory Young Jan 2019

Tumbling Into A Crisis: Use Of Corporate Apologia After Usa Gymnastics Falls Off The Balance Beam, Terry L. Rentner, Cory Young

International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference

In an open letter to U.S. gymnasts on Nov. 5, 2018, United States Olympic Committee (USOC) CEO Sarah Hirshland told its more than 150,000 members “You deserve better” as it launched the Nuclear Clause that would revoke USA Gymnastics (USAG) as a governing body for the sport at the Olympic level [1]. This announcement comes in the wake of USAG’s ongoing crisis that includes a failure to protect athletes from team doctor Larry Nassar, imprisoned for sexually abusing more than 350 female gymnasts; investigations tied to Michigan State University; and the turnover of several USAG CEO’s ...


Biomathematics And Social Justice: Reinventing Models Of Disease Spread To Study Efficacy Of Bystander Violence Prevention, Hannah Callender Highlander Oct 2018

Biomathematics And Social Justice: Reinventing Models Of Disease Spread To Study Efficacy Of Bystander Violence Prevention, Hannah Callender Highlander

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond Sep 2018

Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond

Alan Bond Publications

The snake alarm call of Japanese tits prompts nesting adults to search for and mob the reptile until it is driven away. From playback experiments, Suzuki (2018) has inferred that the call provides an associative cue, evoking a searching image of the salient visual features of the predator—a novel approach to exploring visual attention and vocal communication in the wild.


Determining The Physical And Social Barriers That Prevent Food-Insecure Students At The University Of Arkansas From Using The Jane B. Gearhart Full Circle Campus Food Pantry, Sarah Elizabeth Yanniello May 2018

Determining The Physical And Social Barriers That Prevent Food-Insecure Students At The University Of Arkansas From Using The Jane B. Gearhart Full Circle Campus Food Pantry, Sarah Elizabeth Yanniello

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Management Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the reasons why 38% of the students at the University of Arkansas experience food insecurity, yet only 1% of students have used the Jane B. Gearhart Full Circle Campus Food Pantry, in hopes to provide a guide to the Center for Community Engagement in their endeavors to reduce food insecurity on campus (Lisnic, 2016). An online survey was created using Qualtrics software, was submitted to and approved by the University of Arkansas Institutional Review Board, and was distributed to undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Arkansas. The sample size ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Alyssa Herrin Jan 2018

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Alyssa Herrin

All Regis University Theses

The study of visitor use in museums, zoos, and aquariums is an important aspect of understanding visitor engagement and evaluating the function of the institution. Here, visitor demographics such as age, group size, and number of children were assessed to see their influence on time spent and number of stops visitors made while visiting the Denver Botanic Gardens in Denver, Colorado. This study evaluated differences in time spent and number of stops made among different gardens by observing visitors and mapping their paths and activities through each zone. The results show that older visitors and larger groups spent more time ...


Cooperative Conservation To Enhance Human–Wildlife Interactions, Terry A. Messmer Jan 2018

Cooperative Conservation To Enhance Human–Wildlife Interactions, Terry A. Messmer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

This is the editors commentary


Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner Nov 2017

Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural isolation can occur due to divergence in aspects of courtship and mating, and can contribute to reproductive isolation. The purpose of this study is to determine how a gene, Mekk1, contributes to female rejection behaviour between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Unique polymorphisms were identified within D. simulans Mekk1 that could contribute to behaviour, most of which are non-coding. Both transcripts of Mekk1 appear to be expressed at similar levels in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. These data also indicate that Mekk1 may be expressed in a specific region of the brain called the mushroom body, which has previously ...


The Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Perception And Production Of Learned Vocalizations In Songbirds, Shannon Katie Mischler Oct 2017

The Neural Mechanisms Underlying The Perception And Production Of Learned Vocalizations In Songbirds, Shannon Katie Mischler

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Songbirds produce a wide array of vocalizations, including song, and learned and innate calls. Songs and calls can be functionally defined. Songs are typically used to attract potential mates and defend one’s territory, whereas calls are used for everything else, such as advertising the presence of a predator, or location of a food source, and maintaining contact with members of one’s flock. The purpose of this thesis was to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying call production and perception in two songbird species; the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). My objectives were to ...


Philosophy Bakes No Bread, Babette Babich Oct 2017

Philosophy Bakes No Bread, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

Philosophy Bakes No Bread

Far from baking bread, far from practical applicability, philosophy traditionally sought to explain the world, ideally so. Thus, when Marx argued that it was high time philosophy “change the world,” his was a revolutionary challenge. Today, philosophy is an analytic affair and analytic philosophers seek less to explain the world than to squirrel out arguments or, more descriptively, to resolve the minutiae of this or that name problem. Faced with diminishing student demand, analytic philosophers have taken to urging that everyone from primary school students to scientists be required to study (analytic) philosophy. Just so, applied ...


Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne Sep 2017

Ecologies Of Embodied Minds Embedded: Radical Romantic Perspectives On Architectures Of Technology, Sharmaine Browne

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation explores Romantic responses to the role of architectural technologies in the development of material being, consciousness, and culture by applying a critical approach in which I combine radical embodied cognitive theory, ecocritical perspectives, and a phenomenological lens to select Romantic texts written from 1789 to 1884 in response to industrial modernity. While scholarship has thoroughly explored technology as a cultural force which inevitably shapes consciousness, I propose that a slight shift of emphasis from technology’s external influence to the material internalization of its influence allows for new perspectives—particularly in light of recent proposals in cognitive philosophy ...


Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman Aug 2017

Forgiveness: How It Manifests In Our Health, Well-Being, And Longevity, Kathi Norman

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Forgiveness is a character strength and process that, when practiced, is associated with improved psychological well-being, physical health outcomes, and longevity. Forgiveness can serve as a protective factor that buffers against poor health and psychological consequences. Common misconceptions about forgiveness can serve as barriers to the desire to cultivate this protective strength, as forgiveness is often conflated with permissiveness, and perceived as permission for a transgressor to engage in hurtful conduct. The benefits of forgiveness, however, are most significant for the individual who has been transgressed, rather than the transgressor. Failing to forgive, or unforgiveness, is the practice of engaging ...


The Adaptive Value Of Complex Socio-Communicative Behavior, Sara A. Skiba Jul 2017

The Adaptive Value Of Complex Socio-Communicative Behavior, Sara A. Skiba

Master of Science in Integrative Biology Theses

Human spoken language represents the most elaborate communication system, however the selection pressures leading to its emergence are still uncertain. Unlike humans, bonobos and chimpanzees do not have language. However, bonobos may have been subjected to similar selection pressures as early hominins, subsequent to their phylogenetic split from chimpanzees roughly 1.5 million years ago. The current study investigated the similarities and differences in sociality and communicative production between bonobos and chimpanzees in captive settings, using 9, 10-minute focal follows for each individual. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between social proximity score and total communicative signals produced, as well ...


The Power Of Prayer, Victoria Dawn Thompson May 2017

The Power Of Prayer, Victoria Dawn Thompson

Capstone Collection

If words are arbitrary, how does prayer have power?” is the question of inquiry in this paper. An unobtrusive Content Analysis inquiry methodology was used to answer this question. The answer lies in the finding that words and thoughts are not the same thing, and our thoughts expand beyond the audible and visible. The implication for professional practice these findings present is that a deeper awareness of “Self” is needed to understand people’s miraculous way of resolving conflict via prayer.


Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris May 2017

Functional Analysis And Treatment Of Self-Injurious Feather Plucking In A Black Vulture (Coragyps Atratus), Kristen L. Morris

Thesis Projects

Feather plucking (FP) is a maladaptive behavior observed in captive avian species. This self-injurious behavior results in damage to and removal of feathers and skin tissue, resulting in animal welfare and financial consequences. The etiology and maintenance of FP have been hypothesized through medical and environmental processes, yet a definitive solution has not been found. The current study investigated the environmental variables maintaining the FP of a Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus), as well as evaluated a function-based treatment for this behavior. The behavior was found to be maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of contingent attention. Treatment consisted of ...


Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno May 2017

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


The Slow Food Movement: A 'Big Tent' Ideology, Mark N. Wexler, Judy Oberlander, Arjun Shankar Jan 2017

The Slow Food Movement: A 'Big Tent' Ideology, Mark N. Wexler, Judy Oberlander, Arjun Shankar

Journal of Ideology

The Slow Food Movement (SFM) has been characterized as a reminder of the centrality of the kitchen in the “good old days”. It has also been referred to as a poor use of science posing as a rallying point for the beleaguered middle class trying to reclaim psychological territory lost to the fast-paced commercialization of what was once private or leisure time. This paper argues that both these criticisms contain more than a kernel of truth. However, each misses the mark when it comes to explaining the relative successes of SFM. In this paper, we explore SFM’s basic ideological ...


The Social Behavior Of Rehabilitated Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi), Anthony Denice Jan 2017

The Social Behavior Of Rehabilitated Spider Monkeys (Ateles Geoffroyi), Anthony Denice

All Master's Theses

The welfare of captive primates in laboratories, sanctuaries, and zoos is affected by various aspects of their environments. Although space restrictions increase aggression and stress-related behaviors in most captive animals, primates show diverse mechanisms for displacing stress and mitigating conflict. Many primates, including wild spider monkeys (genus Ateles), use these mechanisms flexibly to cope with social and environmental stressors. I investigated whether or not captive black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use behavioral strategies to cope with potential stressors in captivity. In particular, I tested whether an affiliative or avoidant strategy was used in response to changes in available space and ...


Enrichment Use & Social Interactions In A Mixed-Species Enclosure Of Sumatran (Pongo Abelii) & Bornean Orangutans (P. Pygmaeus) & Northern White-Cheeked Gibbons (Nomascus Leucogenys), Emily Veitia Jan 2017

Enrichment Use & Social Interactions In A Mixed-Species Enclosure Of Sumatran (Pongo Abelii) & Bornean Orangutans (P. Pygmaeus) & Northern White-Cheeked Gibbons (Nomascus Leucogenys), Emily Veitia

All Master's Theses

Enrichment is an aspect of captive husbandry that has been shown to positively impact animals’ well-being and can be designed to encourage species-typical behaviors, such as foraging and arboreality. Enrichment can include housing together multiple compatible species. Orangutans are sympatric with siamangs and agile and Bornean gibbons, so several zoos house these four Asian ape species in the same enclosure, in part, as social enrichment. In my study, I observed enrichment use and social interactions in a mixed-species enclosure at the Oregon Zoo, which housed two Sumatran (Pongo abelii) and two Bornean (P. pygmaeus) orangutans with two Northern white-cheeked gibbons ...


The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Interdisciplinary Studies, Fall 2016, Corinne Bishop Sep 2016

The Subject Librarian Newsletter, Interdisciplinary Studies, Fall 2016, Corinne Bishop

Libraries' Newsletters

No abstract provided.


Social And Ecological Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Aquaculture, Karen Pianka May 2016

Social And Ecological Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Aquaculture, Karen Pianka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Commercial fishermen in Maine are increasingly dependent upon the American lobster fishery, and this reliance on a single species poses a threat to working waterfronts. Aquaculture represents a potential opportunity for commercial fishermen to diversify their income. Literature on the adoption of innovation suggests that factors such as age, education level, fishing experience, diversification, and leadership are important predictors of early adoption of innovation. However, few studies have examined whether such factors affect the adoption of aquaculture by commercial fishermen. Our marine policy research studied fishermen enrolled in two pilot shellfish and seaweed aquaculture classes held in 2013 in Harpswell ...


A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Using Anecdotal Data And Photographic Evidence To Obtain Baseline Data For Southeast Florida Reefs, Catherine Brady Apr 2016

A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Using Anecdotal Data And Photographic Evidence To Obtain Baseline Data For Southeast Florida Reefs, Catherine Brady

HCNSO Student Capstones

By using first-hand accounts, interviews, and photographs from fishermen throughout the region (Martin, Palm Beach and Broward counties), this paper will provide evidence of changes in recreational fish catches. It will also identify a shift in commonly caught fish species, factors that affect the head boat business, environmental changes and suggestions for management. Head boat fishing is a favorable activity for tourists and regular anglers in the state as well as the region. Upon returning from their day trip, companies often provide photo opportunities to display the day’s catch, as part of the fishing experience. Companies that have been ...


Impacts Of Recreational Aviation On Wildlife: The Physiological Stress Response In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) And Associated User Perceptions, Devin W. Landry Jan 2016

Impacts Of Recreational Aviation On Wildlife: The Physiological Stress Response In White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus) And Associated User Perceptions, Devin W. Landry

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Recreational aviation on public lands may negatively impact wildlife. However, land-use decisions need to balance user need with wildlife impact. We know very little about 1) how back country airstrip use affects local wildlife, or 2) attitudes and perceptions of recreational pilots toward possible management actions. For my Master’s research, I investigated how aircraft activity influenced physiological measures of stress in white-tailed deer, while also modeling how psychometrics such as wildlife attitudes and place attachment predict the willingness of recreational pilots engage in impact-mitigating behaviors. I measured physiological stress through non-invasive sampling of stress hormones in fecal samples (fecal ...


Provisioning And Its Effects On The Social Interactions Of Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana) At Mt. Huangshan, China, Brianna I. Schnepel Dec 2015

Provisioning And Its Effects On The Social Interactions Of Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana) At Mt. Huangshan, China, Brianna I. Schnepel

All Master's Theses

The dispersal patterns of food resources has a significant effect on the composition of primate groups and social interactions within those groups. Humans often alter the dispersal of food. Non-humans often use affiliative behaviors to elicit tolerance or support from other group members. I investigated whether provisioned food resources alter the social interactions and group dynamics of Macaca thibetana. All-occurrence sampling and scan sampling were used for data recorded by camera traps. Trail-cameras were placed at six locations that contain natural and human food resources and recorded 60-second videos. Social behavior and proximity of the monkeys were recorded. I found ...


Assessing The Sociocultural Impact Of Special Events In The Context Of Germanfest In Nebraska, Usa, Yanli Wang Dec 2015

Assessing The Sociocultural Impact Of Special Events In The Context Of Germanfest In Nebraska, Usa, Yanli Wang

Nutrition & Health Sciences Dissertations & Theses

The present study examined the sociocultural impact of special events based on the cultural festival of GermanFest in Syracuse, Nebraska. A total of 143 (71.5%) local residents responded to the self-administered survey. The dimensions of the sociocultural impact, the important reasons for celebrating the festival, the relationship among festival stakeholders, the levels of community involvement, and the improvement of the quality of life in the community as impacts of the festival and demographic information were investigated separately.

The Festival Social Impact Attitude Scale (FSIAS) was utilized to identify the dimensions of the sociocultural impact of GermanFest. Three dimensions were ...


Predicting Toucan Locations In Panama Using Arcgis, Daniel J. Herrera Nov 2015

Predicting Toucan Locations In Panama Using Arcgis, Daniel J. Herrera

Geography: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Toucans are omnivorous birds native to southern Latin America and South America. They are non-migratory, and their range is disputed among experts. In an attempt to develop a better understanding of the range and behavior of toucans, correlations between toucan presence and geographic features of the area were analyzed to create a location probability map.


Workforce Fitness: Description, Contextual Issues, And Implications For Public Health, Nicolaas P. Pronk Sep 2015

Workforce Fitness: Description, Contextual Issues, And Implications For Public Health, Nicolaas P. Pronk

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

Workforce fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. Yet fitness levels appear to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half century obesity has doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimally acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. It is recommended for employers to consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Regulations that protect and promote worker health ...