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Full-Text Articles in Leadership Studies

The Political Personality Of 2020 Democratic Presidential Contender Bernie Sanders, Aubrey Immelman Mar 2020

The Political Personality Of 2020 Democratic Presidential Contender Bernie Sanders, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of U.S. senator Bernie Sanders — a contender for the Democratic nomination in the 2020 presidential election — from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon. Information concerning Sanders was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and DSM-5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of ...


The Political Personality Of Former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Aubrey Immelman Dec 2019

The Political Personality Of Former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of former U.S. vice president Joe Biden — a contender for the Democratic nomination in the 2020 presidential election — from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon. Information concerning Biden was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and DSM-5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon ...


The Cultural Context For The Pursuit Of Vocation, Charles Seeley Sep 2019

The Cultural Context For The Pursuit Of Vocation, Charles Seeley

Journal of Research Initiatives

How does the cultural context influence the pursuit of vocation? How does culture influence the decisions that young people make about the life direction they pursue? This qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to discover and describe the motivational influences in the lives of students and graduates of The Leadership Center, located in rural Honduras, as they traveled a journey through high school and on to The Leadership Center in pursuit of a vocation. The sample of study participants consisted of thirty young women, thirteen graduates, and seventeen students of The Leadership Center. While the culture of Honduras was not explicitly ...


An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. Mccaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea May 2019

An Introduction To Transformative Inquiry: Understanding Compelling And Significant Relationships For Personal And Societal Transformation, Mark L. Mccaslin, Kelly A. Kilrea

The Qualitative Report

Transformative inquiry is a theoretical model designed to facilitate the inquiry of important and meaningful relationships that transform and potentiate us. Creswell (2007) described the essential elements of a research agenda: the axiological, ontological, epistemological, methodological, and rhetorical. Each carries with it assumptions that hold implications for practice and research. Transformative inquiry addresses all of these elements through considerations given to deep ecology, transdisciplinarity, integral meta-theory, heuristic research, and eudaimonistic philosophy, respectively. Transformative inquiry is an approach to understanding and fostering the full range of deep and meaningful relationships from the personal to the political, and beyond. It is a ...


Is It Who Am I Or Who Do You Think I Am? Identity Development Of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders, Danielle N. Treiber Jan 2019

Is It Who Am I Or Who Do You Think I Am? Identity Development Of Adolescents With Substance Use Disorders, Danielle N. Treiber

Dissertations & Theses

The purpose of this study was to unearth how adolescents with substance use disorders achieve the task of identity formation and the construction of self-concept in the midst of the drug culture and society that exists. It sought to uncover the social constructs designed to ignore and/or remove human complexities and allow an intersectional approach to be brought to a study on this population. Historically, there has been a failure to investigate the underlying social attitudes and behaviors that impact the very delicate and vulnerable process of finding self. Psychosocial and relational adjustment are strongly influenced by the extent ...


Servant Leadership Characteristics And Empathic Care: Developing A Culture Of Empathy In The Healthcare Setting, Mark Anthony Martin Jan 2019

Servant Leadership Characteristics And Empathic Care: Developing A Culture Of Empathy In The Healthcare Setting, Mark Anthony Martin

Dissertations & Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which servant leadership characteristics are exhibited in medical group practices, and the degree to which servant leadership characteristics correlated with measures of empathic care. This study featured an explanatory mixed methods research design embedded in appreciative inquiry. A total of 189 mid-level practitioners consisting of nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and practice mangers responded to a 32-item scale survey that featured a six-point Likert scale to measure servant leadership items and a 10-point continuous scale to assess measures of empathic care. The servant leadership items were based on the seven ...


Mechanism For Leadership Development And Effectiveness: The Relationship Between Followership, Leadership, And Psychological Capital, Saurabh Gupta Dec 2018

Mechanism For Leadership Development And Effectiveness: The Relationship Between Followership, Leadership, And Psychological Capital, Saurabh Gupta

Dissertations

Research supports the strategic role of a leader in improving individual and organizational performance (Day et al., 2009; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013). Developing leadership and enhancing leadership effectiveness remains at the forefront of organizational strategic plans (Day et al., 2009; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013). However, a majority of leadership development efforts fail in their purpose, which causes a leadership crisis in many organizations (Fernández-Aráoz, Roscoe, & Aramaki, 2017; Gurdjian, Halbeisen, & Lane, 2014; Kaiser & Curphy, 2013; Madanchian, Hussein, Noordin, & Taherdoost, 2017; Pfeffer, 2015; Wakefield, Abbatiello, Agarwal, Pastakia, & van Berkel, 2016). Neglecting the role of followership and using inappropriate measures of leadership effectiveness are among the reasons of ineffective leadership development programs.

This study examined a mechanism for leadership development and effectiveness consisting of the relationship between followership, leadership, and psychological capital. The study examined followership as a predictor and psychological capital as an outcome and measure of leadership effectiveness. The study also examined the relationship ...


07. Gender In Leadership, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy Oct 2018

07. Gender In Leadership, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy

CORE

This module encompasses the controversy and broadness of gender. Students begin with recognizing their subconscious gender biases, followed by a providing them with a vernacular of culture to help students better understand and differentiate terms. Then the students will explore the fluidity of gender through discussion on gender X and transgender. Furthermore, there will be an activity about the origin of gender roles, and how that shaped gender roles today. The students will also be able to apply their learnings to the real world by learning how to resolve conflict regarding gender and sexuality.


Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat Aug 2018

Living Your Calling In The Social Sector: A Theory About How To Thrive And Have A Lasting Impact In The World., Ilaina Rabbat

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

An important and overlooked group in the topic of calling is that comprising individuals who work in the social sector, defined as individuals devoted to advancing human dignity and social justice through advocacy, service, policy research, and/or impact investing at a local, national, and global level (Tirmizi & Vogelsang, 2016). Among this group, it is possible to distinguish between those that are experiencing mainly positive outcomes because of their calling—called calling thrivers—and those who are experiencing a combination of negative and positive outcomes, called calling survivors. The aim of the study is to understand the main differences between ...


Coaching Styles And The Basic Psychological Need Fulfillment Of College Athletes, Kelsey Louise Byrd Jun 2018

Coaching Styles And The Basic Psychological Need Fulfillment Of College Athletes, Kelsey Louise Byrd

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent a coach’s coaching style is associated with the athlete’s basic psychological needs fulfillment of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A survey was distributed to 204 varsity student-athletes at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo representing 13 teams. The data were used to determine the impact of coaching style on the athlete’s fulfillment of autonomy, competence and relatedness. An authoritative head coaching style was found to have a positive impact on an athlete’s fulfillment of autonomy, competence and relatedness. A similar result was found for assistant coaches. Overall ...


The Personality Profile Of North Korean Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un, Aubrey Immelman Apr 2018

The Personality Profile Of North Korean Supreme Leader Kim Jong Un, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Kim Jong-un, supreme leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, conducted 2013–2018 from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Kim was collected from open-source media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM–III–R, DSM–IV, and DSM–5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed in accordance with interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index ...


The Political Personality Of U.S. Vice President Mike Pence, Aubrey Immelman May 2017

The Political Personality Of U.S. Vice President Mike Pence, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of U.S. vice president Mike Pence, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon. Information concerning Pence was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM–IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of Personality Styles manuals. Pence’s primary personality pattern was ...


Toward Citizen Centricity: Leveraging The Citizens Academy To Foster Inclusive, Sustainable, And Generative Civic Engagement In Midland, Mi, Chira E. Cassel, Jaclyn M. Gaffaney, Luke A. Obermann, Patricia Joo Segall, Ryan L. Wynia May 2017

Toward Citizen Centricity: Leveraging The Citizens Academy To Foster Inclusive, Sustainable, And Generative Civic Engagement In Midland, Mi, Chira E. Cassel, Jaclyn M. Gaffaney, Luke A. Obermann, Patricia Joo Segall, Ryan L. Wynia

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

This service learning project aims to utilize positive psychology research to foster inclusive, sustainable, and generative civic engagement among residents of Midland, Michigan. We conceptualize civic engagement as an outgrowth of social capital, and we leverage the constructs of mattering, fairness, belonging, and bridging to offer positive interventions aimed at increasing Midland’s social capital. Specifically, we propose several changes to evolve the city government’s existing educational civic leadership program called the Citizens Academy. First, we suggest adjusting the academy’s recruitment process to expand access and inclusion by increasing the number and diversity of participants. Second, we introduce ...


Blue The Bee Learns To Be Happy, Connie Reimers-Hild, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Connie Reimers-Hild, Kim Wellsandt Feb 2017

Blue The Bee Learns To Be Happy, Connie Reimers-Hild, Deborah J. Weitzenkamp, Connie Reimers-Hild, Kim Wellsandt

Kimmel Education and Research Center - Faculty & Staff Publications

Do you sometimes feel sad or blue and don't know what to do? If so, this book was written just for you!

Join Blue the Bee as she travels through Happy Orchard meeting her friends (Flutter, Buzz, Bonita and Ernie) to learn the 7 Happiness Habits. When happiness is a habit, it comes without thinking. You can choose how to spend your day and use your time. You choose how to live your life and what is on your mind.

Each page was designed to enjoy at any age. People can become pollinators of happiness in any life stage ...


The Leadership Style Of U.S. President Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman Jan 2017

The Leadership Style Of U.S. President Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This working paper presents a personality-based analysis of newly elected U.S. president Donald J. Trump’s likely leadership style as president, inferred from the results of an indirect personality assessment conducted 2015–2016 from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Trump’s predominant personality patterns were found to be Ambitious/exploitative (a measure of narcissism) and Outgoing/impulsive, infused with secondary features of the Dominant/controlling pattern and supplemented by a Dauntless/adventurous tendency.

Ambitious individuals are bold, competitive, and self-assured; they easily assume leadership roles, expect others to recognize their special qualities, and often act as though ...


The Political Personality Of Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin, Aubrey Immelman, Joseph V. Trenzeluk Jan 2017

The Political Personality Of Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin, Aubrey Immelman, Joseph V. Trenzeluk

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Vladimir Putin, president of the Russian Federation, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data regarding President Putin were extracted from open-source intelligence and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM–IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of Personality Styles manuals. Putin’s primary personality patterns were ...


Personality And Leadership Profiles Of 2016 Presidential Candidates Hillary Clinton And Donald Trump, Aubrey Immelman Nov 2016

Personality And Leadership Profiles Of 2016 Presidential Candidates Hillary Clinton And Donald Trump, Aubrey Immelman

Forum Lectures

Aubrey Immelman presents the psychological profiles of the Democratic and Republican nominees in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. The presentation outlines the leadership implications of the profiles and compares the nominees’ scores on the locally developed Presidential Electability Index (PEI). The PEI, which has accurately predicted the outcome of every presidential election since 1996, projects that Trump will win the election.


The Political Personality Of 2016 Democratic Presidential Nominee Hillary Clinton, Aubrey Immelman Oct 2016

The Political Personality Of 2016 Democratic Presidential Nominee Hillary Clinton, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Hillary Rodham Clinton, Democratic nominee in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The present report combines data from five studies conducted between 1998 and 2016 from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Clinton was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM–IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed in accordance with ...


The Political Personality Of 2016 Republican Presidential Nominee Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman Oct 2016

The Political Personality Of 2016 Republican Presidential Nominee Donald J. Trump, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Donald J. Trump, Republican nominee in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, conducted 2015–2016 from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Trump were collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM–III–R, DSM–IV, and DSM–5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed in accordance with interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and ...


Personality Profiles Of 2016 Republican Presidential Candidates, Aubrey Immelman Nov 2015

Personality Profiles Of 2016 Republican Presidential Candidates, Aubrey Immelman

Forum Lectures

Aubrey Immelman and his summer research assistant Joe Trenzeluk present summaries of the psychological profiles of Republican contenders in the 2016 U.S. presidential election (including Jeb Bush, Ben Carson, Chris Christie, Ted Cruz, John Kasich, Marco Rubio, Donald Trump, and Scott Walker) and outline the leadership implications of those profiles. In addition, the presenters discuss the personality profile of Democratic front-runner Hillary Clinton and compare the candidates’ scores on the locally developed Personal [Presidential] Electability Index (PEI). The PEI, which has accurately predicted the outcome of every presidential election since 1996, projects that Trump will win the election.


Positive Psychology At Work: Psychological Capital And Thriving As Pathways To Employee Engagement, Ronald A. Levene Aug 2015

Positive Psychology At Work: Psychological Capital And Thriving As Pathways To Employee Engagement, Ronald A. Levene

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

As chief executive officers and corporate leaders around the globe seek to truly differentiate their organizations, employee engagement, when grounded in the principals of positive psychology and more deeply explored in positive organizational scholarship, offers a genuine solution. This paper defines employee engagement, its history and its grounding in positive psychology. Further it explains how two constructs, Psychological Capital and Thriving, provide a point of entry for organizations to increase the emergence of employee engagement. Finally, it discusses how the organization that leverages these two constructs as a means to enhance the engagement of their individual employees has the potential ...


Walking Their Talk: The Role Of The Body In Effective, Positive Leadership, Leeann M. Mallorie Aug 2015

Walking Their Talk: The Role Of The Body In Effective, Positive Leadership, Leeann M. Mallorie

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The way we do anything is the way we do everything. Be it giving a presentation in the boardroom or running a marathon, we must take action using our physical bodies. Yet, despite this fact, the body has been largely overlooked in research on leadership and organizational wellbeing. The present paper aims to dispel the myth that the body is simply a tool, arguing that body-mind connection may be a critical missing piece in the formula for effective, positive leadership. I propose that important aspects of positive leadership like character strengths and practical wisdom may be trainable via mindfulness practices ...


The Relationship Between Demands And Resources And Teacher Burnout: A Fifteen-Year Meta-Analysis, Tammy Marie Stewart May 2015

The Relationship Between Demands And Resources And Teacher Burnout: A Fifteen-Year Meta-Analysis, Tammy Marie Stewart

Doctoral Dissertations

This meta-analysis explored the phenomenon of teacher burnout— the biggest contributor to teacher attrition (Owens, 2013; Unterbrink, 2014; Yu, 2015). The focus of this study was to use meta-analytical procedures to explore the relationship between burnout dimensions (i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and feelings of personal accomplishment) and specific demand and resource correlates. Demand correlates included work overload, role conflict, role ambiguity, and student misbehavior. Resource correlates included peer support, supervisory support, and decision-making. This meta-analytical research method encompassed fifteen years of published and unpublished studies from January 2000 through January 2015. A total of 116 studies met the following ...


Youth Athlete Leaders' Use Of Transformational Behaviours And Relations To Trust In The Leader And Sport Outcomes, Amy M. Cubitt, Mark Eys Jan 2015

Youth Athlete Leaders' Use Of Transformational Behaviours And Relations To Trust In The Leader And Sport Outcomes, Amy M. Cubitt, Mark Eys

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Leadership is one of the most crucial factors determining whether a group succeeds or fails (Bass, 1990). Furthermore, leaders displaying transformational behaviours are thought to lift followers to higher levels of motivation to get them to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1985), and they tend to have followers who are more committed and satisfied (Bass & Riggio, 2006). Another outcome of transformational leadership in organizations is that followers are more willing to trust leaders who show care and concern for the follower (Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to determine if the use of full range leadership behaviours by formal peer leaders on youth sport teams would relate to trust in the leader. Data were collected at two time points, once near the beginning of the season and again near the end of the season, using several questionnaires including the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – Form 5 (Bass & Avolio, 2004). Only data from participants who were present at both data collection points were included in the analyses of study hypotheses, which included 126 athletes (77 females, 49 males; mean age = 15.49) from 12 interdependent sport teams. It was found that perceptions of full range leadership were related to cognitive- and affect-based trust at both time points. Interestingly, the transformational components inspirational motivation and idealized influence (attributed) contributed positively, and the non-leadership component laissez-faire ...


An Examination Between High And Low Optimistic Ncaa Division I Student-Athletes' Perceptions Of Preferred Leadership Behavior In Sport: A Qualitative Investigation, Alexander C. Roorda Jan 2015

An Examination Between High And Low Optimistic Ncaa Division I Student-Athletes' Perceptions Of Preferred Leadership Behavior In Sport: A Qualitative Investigation, Alexander C. Roorda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Numerous researchers have examined preferred sport leadership behaviors from both the coach and athlete perspectives (Beam, Serwatka, & Wilson, 2004; Chelladurai, & Carron, 1983; Freakley, Czech, Harris, & Burdette, 2012; Turman, 2013; Weinburg, & Gould, 2010). However, there is limited research in student-athlete personality dispositions and how those might influence student-athlete perceptions of preferred leadership behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to examine views of leadership in light of certain personality dispositions. This research examined the potential influence of optimism (Abramson, et al, 2000) on qualitative descriptions of preferred leadership behaviors using the Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (Zhang, & Jensen, 1998) to structure the interview questions. 106 NCAA ...


Book Review: Policing And The Poetics Of Everyday Life., Rodger E. Broome Phd Feb 2014

Book Review: Policing And The Poetics Of Everyday Life., Rodger E. Broome Phd

Rodger E. Broome

Policing and the poetics of everyday life. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008. 256 pp. ISBN 978-0-252-03371-1 (cloth). $42.00. Policing and the Poetics of Everyday Life is a hermeneutical-aesthetic analysis within a human scientific approach of modern policing in the United States. It is an important study of police-citizen encounters informed by hermeneutic aesthetic thought and the author’s professional experience as a veteran with a Seattle area police department in Washington, USA.


Building A Foundation For Confidence Thinking In The Acquisition And Development Of New Choices, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D. Oct 2013

Building A Foundation For Confidence Thinking In The Acquisition And Development Of New Choices, Clarissa E. Steffen Ed.D.

Faculty Scholarship (COE)

No abstract provided.


The Political Personality Of 2012 Republican Presidential Candidate Mitt Romney, Aubrey Immelman Jul 2012

The Political Personality Of 2012 Republican Presidential Candidate Mitt Romney, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Willard Mitt Romney, Republican presidential candidate in the 2008 U.S. presidential election and Republican presidential nominee in 2012.

The study was conducted in 2007–2008 and 2012, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon. Information concerning Romney was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM-IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis ...


The Political Personality Of U.S. President Barack Obama, Aubrey Immelman Jul 2010

The Political Personality Of U.S. President Barack Obama, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of U.S. president Barack Obama, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Information concerning Obama was collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with Axis II of DSM–IV.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed on the basis of interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of Personality Styles manuals. Obama’s primary personality patterns were found to ...


Mother Earth "Speaks": Change Yourself, Change The World, Use The Archetypal Energy "Harmony" As A Guide, Carroy U. Ferguson Jun 2010

Mother Earth "Speaks": Change Yourself, Change The World, Use The Archetypal Energy "Harmony" As A Guide, Carroy U. Ferguson

Carroy U "Cuf" Ferguson, Ph.D.

In relation to the Cosmos, we all, as human beings, live on this tiny planet we call Earth, a planet that supports and sustains life, as we know it. There are many different kinds of people, plants, and animals functioning in harmony with soil, air, and water--all linked to one another in a complex web of life to form one Earth community. Unfortunately, we often take this miracle and ecosystem of life for granted. When, however, we take the ecosystem of life too much for granted, Mother Earth "speaks," reflecting imbalances and dis-harmonies. When Mother Earth "speaks," her message is ...