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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli Sep 2018

Syrian Refugees In Turkey: A Security Perspective, Federico Donelli

New England Journal of Public Policy

This study investigates the nexus between the mass movement of people and security and foreign policy behaviors. The assertion is that refugee flows intensify security issues among decision makers and members of society; consequently, new fears and wider perceptions of threats have several implications for foreign policy agenda. The article focuses on the theoretical analysis of the securitization of migration and its impact on foreign policy and security policy. It also analyzes, from a security perspective, the effect on Turkey of the refugees who arrived en masse from Syria during the past six years. The article concludes with an analysis ...


The Whole World In His Hands: What A Qibla Indicator Illuminates About Islamic Community In Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Turkey, Meghan Doyle May 2018

The Whole World In His Hands: What A Qibla Indicator Illuminates About Islamic Community In Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Turkey, Meghan Doyle

Global Tides

In the sixteenth century, at a time of Ottoman rule and production in modern-day Turkey, qibla indicators were ubiquitous objects, used to assist faithful Muslims in finding the direction to Mecca. A particularly well-preserved qibla indicator in the British Museum allows for an inquiry into how these objects were used, bridging the gap between folk astronomy and scientific geography. Applying contemporary theories of belongingness to the composition and function of the qibla indicator reveals the psychological effect this object may have had on members of the Islamic community. Ultimately, what the qibla indicator may lack in geographical accuracy it more ...


The Case For Management In The Turkish-Kurdish Conflict., Devin P. Brown May 2018

The Case For Management In The Turkish-Kurdish Conflict., Devin P. Brown

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

The Turkish-Kurdish conflict has ravaged Turkey for nearly 34 years. It is one of the world’s longest enduring rivalries, garnering significant international attention. Since 1984, experts estimate that at least 30,000 people have died in this conflict. In just the past two years, the fighting has killed 3,362 peopleand displaced another half million people. Although the parties have attempted to resolve this dispute multiple times, a comprehensive peace deal has remained elusive. So what should be done about this conflict? Is there a way to compel these parties to forge a lasting peace deal? Or, should the ...


"I Am A Teacher, A Woman's Activist, And A Mother": Political Consciousness And Embodied Resistance In Antakya's Arab Alawite Community, Defne Sarsilmaz Nov 2017

"I Am A Teacher, A Woman's Activist, And A Mother": Political Consciousness And Embodied Resistance In Antakya's Arab Alawite Community, Defne Sarsilmaz

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Often pointed to as the region’s model secular state, Turkey provides an instructive case study in how nationalism, in the name of conjuring ‘unity’, often produces the opposite effect. Indeed, the production of nationalism can create fractures amongst, as well as politicize, certain segments of a population, such as minority groups and women. This dissertation examines the long-term and present-day impacts on nationalist unity of a largely understudied event, the annexation of the border-city of Antakya from Syria in 1939, and its implications on the Arab Alawite population. In doing so, it deconstructs the dominant Turkish narrative on the ...


An Evolution Of The Kurdish Issue In Turkey: Beyond A State-Centric Perspective, Jack Adolfson Jan 2017

An Evolution Of The Kurdish Issue In Turkey: Beyond A State-Centric Perspective, Jack Adolfson

CMC Senior Theses

The left-wing Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) began its violent insurgency campaign against the Turkish state in 1984, claiming that an independent Kurdistan should exist. However, the origins of this conflict can be traced back even further – to the inception of the Turkish Republic in 1923. This thesis begins by investigating the history of how the conflict between the Kurdish and Turkish political frameworks escalated, exploring the concept of “Turkishness” as an element of a homogeneous nation-state. The paper then assesses the effects of a range of exclusionary measures adopted by the Turkish state (beyond punitive military responses in southeastern Turkey ...


A Contemporary Analysis And Comparison Of Kurdish National Movements: Syria, Iraq, And Turkey, Grayson Lanza Jan 2017

A Contemporary Analysis And Comparison Of Kurdish National Movements: Syria, Iraq, And Turkey, Grayson Lanza

Honors Undergraduate Theses

As commonly understood, and particularly espoused by Kurdish nationalists, the Kurds are by far the largest ethnic group in the world without their own nation-state. An estimated 2 to 2.5 million ethnically Kurdish people inhabit portions of Syria. There are approximately 6.5 million ethnically Kurdish people in Iraq, 7.6 million in Iran, and 16 million in Turkey. Overall, there are about 30 million Kurds in the world. In the broader context of the Kurdish nationalist struggle, this paper suggests that there is a growing bipolar hegemony for power over the control of Kurdish land and politics. Research ...


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


The Drivers Of Sectarian Violence: A Qualitative Analysis Of Lebanon, Iraq, And Turkey, Catherine R. Antosh May 2016

The Drivers Of Sectarian Violence: A Qualitative Analysis Of Lebanon, Iraq, And Turkey, Catherine R. Antosh

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

The issue of sectarian violence is widespread in today’s world of intra-state conflict. Though it appears that religion and ethnicity fuel these civil wars, insurgencies, and terrorist acts, there are in fact many more factors that contribute to sectarian violence. In this article, three case studies of Lebanon, Iraq, and Turkey are examined to determine what causes sectarianism to break into violent conflict in some cases rather than others. Through analysis of four independent variables—disparities, grievances, foreign intervention, and regime strength—it can be determined that the true drivers of sectarian violence are much more complex than simple ...


Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr. Apr 2016

Totality And Infinity—Nationalism And The Face: An Ethnographic Exploration In The Republic Of Turkey And State Of Israel, Charles Phifer Nicholson Jr.

Student Scholarship

This paper argues that the historical roots and current manifestations of secular and religious nationalism in the Republic of Turkey and the State of Israel are well understood in light of Emmanuel Levinas’ concept of totality. Furthermore, as discovered through ethnographic research collected concerning the lived experiences of ethnic and religious minorities in these nations, it posits that the best response to these all-encompassing, exclusive worldviews is found in the reality of the human face, as conceptualized by Levinas in connection with his notion of infinity.

The foundation and primary source of this project is ethnographic research collected in the ...


Individual Criminal Accountability After Civil Wars: Enforced Disappearances In Algeria And Turkey, Jessica Mecellem Jan 2016

Individual Criminal Accountability After Civil Wars: Enforced Disappearances In Algeria And Turkey, Jessica Mecellem

Dissertations

Increasingly, around the world, individuals are being held criminally accountable for human rights violations (Olsen, Payne and Reiter 2010; Sikkink 2011; Kim & Sikkink 2010, 2012; Kim 2010, 2012; Sriram 2005; Lutz & Reiger 2009). Katherine Sikkink

(2011) characterized this change as a normative shift toward individual criminal accountability, which has resulted in a “justice cascade”, or a “revolution in accountability” (Sriram 2005). Much of the justice cascade literature has focused on the role of trials in democratizing countries. In contrast, this dissertation examines the impact of the norm of individual criminal accountability in two non-democratizing post-conflict contexts: Algeria and Turkey.

The dissertation examines two ...


The Decline Of Women’S Rights In Turkey: Is It Political Islam...Or Tayyip?, Magdalen M. Wagner Jan 2016

The Decline Of Women’S Rights In Turkey: Is It Political Islam...Or Tayyip?, Magdalen M. Wagner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the 1920s, Kemal Mustafa Ataturk established the secular Republic of Turkey. Under this establishment, religion was separated from public life, and especially from politics. This setup included the protection of women’s rights, including the banning of polygamy and the provision of equal rights in divorce and the right to vote. This protection of women’s rights was reinforced on a global scale in the 1990s when women’s rights came to the forefront of the worldwide agenda, beginning the push for women’s rights to be considered along with human rights. Countries around the world jumped on the ...


Language Policy In Turkey And Its Effect On The Kurdish Language, Sevda Arslan Aug 2015

Language Policy In Turkey And Its Effect On The Kurdish Language, Sevda Arslan

Master's Theses

For many decades the Kurdish language was ignored and banned from public use and Turkish became the lingua franca for all citizens to speak. This way, the Turkish state sought to create a nation-state based on one language and attempted to eliminate the use of other languages, particularly Kurdish, through severe regulations and prohibitions.

Firstly, this thesis traces the language planning policies in the 20th century which resulted in the invisibilization and denial of Kurdish through an attempted linguicide. Through decade long oppressions which resulted in mass killings, arrests, re-location of Kurds, monopolization of education in Turkish and eventually the ...


Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

In early May, 2015 it became known that Saudi Arabia and Turkey are supporting extremist Islamist groups in Syria against the regime of Bashar al-Assad. That Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, among others, have – mostly indirectly – been supporting Islamist groups is not news as similar reports have been emerging from time to time since 2011, if not earlier. But this policy with regard to the Syrian conflict became increasingly overt amidst growing instability and lack of Western commitment to Assad’s overthrow. According to The Independent and other media, Turkish and Saudi support focuses on the overarching jihadist group Jaish ...


Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Assessing Isis One Year Later, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

A year ago the world witnessed the swift advances of the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) in Iraq and Syria. Though the emergence of the group was somewhat expected for those who have been following the regional developments of the past years it caught most of the world by surprise. At the same time, its brutal tactics, military victories, resilience, evolution and extreme ideology have led many to characterize it as the greatest regional and international security threat at the moment or the most dangerous Islamist threat contemporary history has seen.


Peace Be Dammed? Water Power And Water Politics In The Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Camille E. Wasinger May 2015

Peace Be Dammed? Water Power And Water Politics In The Tigris-Euphrates Basin, Camille E. Wasinger

Honors Projects

No abstract provided.


Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Apr 2015

Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The situation in the Middle East has become extremely precarious due to issues which can be traced back to the colonial era. Imprudently drawn state borders, unsettled disputes like Palestine and ethno-religious schisms accentuate the inter-state and intra-state rivalries which have spun out of control due to foreign interventions. Extremist radical Islam acquired new dimensions after 9/11 which consequently painted the 2003 Iraq war in ideological colours. A new trend of radicalization is visible across the region from Lebanon to Pakistan, which has resulted in the emergence of non-state actors. The raging conflict in and across the Middle East ...


Toward An Islamic Modernity: Ataturk, Erdogan, & Gulen, Kevin Jackson Jan 2015

Toward An Islamic Modernity: Ataturk, Erdogan, & Gulen, Kevin Jackson

Honors Theses

The Gülenist movement, also known as Hizmet, is an Islamic reform movement that has arisen recently in Turkey. Centered on the teachings of Fethullah Gülen, an Islamic scholar and teacher, the movement has been the focus of both praise and controversy. Accused of being a dangerous “state within a state” by the Turkish government, it has nevertheless attracted a wide following in Turkey and seeks a global audience. In Hizmet, Fethullah Gülen has developed a movement that offers to reconcile the tensions between Islam and Western modernity, encouraging its followers to keep the Islamic faith while embracing the challenges and ...


Specters Of Kurdish Nationalism: Governmentality And Counterinsurgent Translation In Turkey, Nicholas S. Glastonbury Jan 2015

Specters Of Kurdish Nationalism: Governmentality And Counterinsurgent Translation In Turkey, Nicholas S. Glastonbury

Publications and Research

This essay examines translations of the Kurdish epic poem Mem û Zîn into Turkish, tracing the logics behind these state-sponsored translations and examining how acts of translation are also efforts to regulate, translate, and erase Kurdish subjectivities. I argue that the state instrumentalizes Mem û Zîn’s potent nationalist currency in order to disarm present and future claims of Kurdish national autonomy. Using translation as a counterinsurgent governmental tool, the state attempts to domesticate Kurdish nationalist discourses even as it reproduces them, thereby transforming Kurdish nationalism into a specter of itself. Attending to this specter, however, allows us to see ...


Turkey-Egypt: Turkish Model, Political Culture And Regional Power Struggle, Zenonas Tziarras Oct 2013

Turkey-Egypt: Turkish Model, Political Culture And Regional Power Struggle, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

This paper argues that although, during the governance of the Muslim Brotherhood, the promotion of the Turkish model through political and economic support was welcomed in Egypt, it is not compatible with the country and cannot be emulated, while there are also different perceptions about the matter on the elite and mass political culture levels. Moreover, based on the political culture(s) of the county, it is very likely that future governments in Egypt would want to assume a greater regional role. Ultimately this means that the Turkish model would have failed as a means of soft power and hegemony ...


Wide Open Spaces: The Pkk Shows Violent Non-State Actors Need More Than Weak Governance To Thrive, Katherine Holmes Oct 2013

Wide Open Spaces: The Pkk Shows Violent Non-State Actors Need More Than Weak Governance To Thrive, Katherine Holmes

Ex-Patt Magazine

The PKK in Turkey shows transnational, violent non-state actors operate in weak states for a number of reasons. The most prevalent of these is the host state’s inability to sustain the basic requirement of statehood.


Gauging The Gender Divide In The Middle East’S Educational System: Causes, Concerns, And The Impetus For Change, Nadia B. Ahmad Sep 2013

Gauging The Gender Divide In The Middle East’S Educational System: Causes, Concerns, And The Impetus For Change, Nadia B. Ahmad

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri Jul 2013

The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to explore the underlying factors behind the political and ideological transformation of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) since its foundation. Through the detailed analysis of the role of Turkey's internal versus external factors on the evolution of the PKK over time, this work finds that changing political developments in the Middle East were more influential than Turkey's shifting domestic political environment. Hypothesis testing revealed that the 1991 Gulf War, 2003 Iraq War, changing political dynamics of the Middle East following Syria's Arab Spring, and policy changes worldwide implemented after the ...


From Ankara To Jerusalem: An Analysis Of The Decline In Turkish-Israeli Relations, Kama Sacajiu Jun 2011

From Ankara To Jerusalem: An Analysis Of The Decline In Turkish-Israeli Relations, Kama Sacajiu

Honors Theses

Turkey and Israel had been strong allies in the Middle East, however in recent years, these relations have turned sour. Turkey was the first predominantly Muslim country to recognize the state of Israel upon its creation in 1948. However, Present day Turkey has gone as far as to pull its ambassador from Tel Aviv. The importance and implication of the decline in relations between Turkey and Israel will be explained in the following chapters. The examination of Turkish foreign policy, and specifically a history of its relations with Israel, gives a basis to explain the changes that occurred with their ...


Is Turkey Turning Away From The West?, Saghar Hamidzade Jun 2011

Is Turkey Turning Away From The West?, Saghar Hamidzade

Honors Theses

The purpose of this thesis is to answer the question of whether Turkey is turning away from its traditional western allies and reorienting itself towards the Middle East. The first chapter examines Turkey’s past, particularly the legacy of the Ottoman era, the Kemalist period, and the Cold War era, in order to its historical foundations. The second chapter analyzes the changes on the Turkish domestic scene from 1950 up to today. The focus of this chapter is on the Kemalists’ repression of democracy and the social and political shift among much of the population in reaction to their suppressive ...


Ibpp Research Associates: Macedonia, Anonymous, Editor Mar 2001

Ibpp Research Associates: Macedonia, Anonymous, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article discusses what the anonymous author considers militant Albanian extremism.


Turks, Armenians, And Genocide: Is Genocide Foreign To Foreign Policy?, Editor Oct 2000

Turks, Armenians, And Genocide: Is Genocide Foreign To Foreign Policy?, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes difficulties in forging foreign policy consensus on preventing, attenuating, or intervening to stop genocide.