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Terrorism

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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

The Path To Terrorism: The Islamic State And Its Recruitment Strategies, Laura Turner May 2018

The Path To Terrorism: The Islamic State And Its Recruitment Strategies, Laura Turner

Honors Scholar Theses

The Islamic State, commonly known as ISIS, a terrorist organization that commits acts of such brutality that even Al Qaeda has denounced it, has recruited approximately 21,000 foreign fighters from countries all over the world. Why is this group so appealing? What has made it so effective at recruitment? What methods does it employ to recruit so many individuals? This paper seeks to answer these questions by examining the recruitment strategies of ISIS. Case studies of individual foreign fighters are analyzed to assess the strength of three explanations of ISIS’ recruitment methods that dominate the current literature: strategic targeting ...


State Sovereignty And Human Security: The Migration-Securitization Nexus In The Global South, Eugene R. Sensenig Nov 2017

State Sovereignty And Human Security: The Migration-Securitization Nexus In The Global South, Eugene R. Sensenig

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This paper deals with the issues of state sovereignty and refugee policy in insecure and marginalized regions of the Global South. Using the displaced Syrian populations (UN-recognized and undocumented) in Lebanon as a case in point, the attempt will be made to portray and discuss the responses of underdeveloped host communities to overwhelming increases in the size of their non-national population. Lebanon has faced various waves of refugees since its independence in 1943, making up between 2.5% (Iraqis) and 25% (Syrians) of the entire citizen population, currently estimated to be slightly over 4 million. Almost 500,000 Palestinian refugees ...


The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick Aug 2017

The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick

Paul Kamolnick

The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current ...


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick Feb 2017

The Al-Qaeda Organization And The Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus, Operandi, And U.S Policy To Degrade And Defeat Terrorism Conducted In The Name Of Sunni Islam, Paul Kamolnick

ETSU Authors Bookshelf

The al-Qaeda Organization (AQO) and the Islamic State Organization (ISO) are transnational adversaries that conduct terrorism in the name of Sunni Islam. It is declared U.S. Government (USG) policy to degrade, defeat, and destroy them. The present book has been written to assist policymakers, military planners, strategists, and professional military educators whose mission demands a deep understanding of strategically-relevant differences between these two transnational terrorist entities. In it, one shall find a careful comparative analysis across three key strategically relevant dimensions: essential doctrine, beliefs, and worldview; strategic concept, including terrorist modus operandi; and specific implications and recommendations for current ...


The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law Jul 2016

The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The attacks of September 11, 2001 by Al-Qaeda-sponsored militants represented a high- water mark for the terrorist organization in its self-styled journey to become the inspirational Islamic vanguard for disenchanted Muslims across the globe. In the years that followed these attacks, the Al-Qaeda enterprise underwent a constant rate of evolution and mutation, resulting in a phenomenon of parallel and like-minded Islamist groups pledging allegiance to Usama bin Laden and his ideological vision of a global jihad. Instead of strengthening the overall organization, this expansion diluted the command and control of Al-Qaeda senior leaders in their ability to shape the overall ...


Terrorism Turnover: An Assessment Of Radicalized Extremism From Al Qaeda To The Islamic State, Zachary R. Schwermann May 2016

Terrorism Turnover: An Assessment Of Radicalized Extremism From Al Qaeda To The Islamic State, Zachary R. Schwermann

Arts and Sciences Dean's Office Undergraduate Honors Theses

Terrorism has become a hot button topic since the rise of the radicalized Islamist organization Al Qaeda, in the late 1990’s. However, the infamous attacks on September 11th, 2001 are what truly brought this organization and its ideals to the forefront of the world’s attention. This paper provides a comprehensive and in depth analysis of the creation of Al Qaeda and traces the path of its connections to the Islamic State, which is currently the dominant radicalized Islamist organization. The Islamic State grew out of the Al Qaeda branch in Iraq and in addition to covering how ...


Private Military Contractors, Security Forces, And Mercenaries, Naomi Pearson Nov 2015

Private Military Contractors, Security Forces, And Mercenaries, Naomi Pearson

Laurier Undergraduate Journal of the Arts

No abstract provided.


Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Jul 2015

Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The initial optimism that a democratic regional order would emerge as a consequence to the sweeping Arab Spring in Middle East and Africa has gradually faded away. The revolutionary, but generally peaceful and smooth, changeover from long autocracy of Mubarak was again quickly reversed by the Egyptian military and lately been been endorsed by the US and EU. The reaction from the Brotherhood, which had been a mainstream political party, was mixed. As the violence and terrorism take over the Egyptian political landscape, there is little hope that Egypt would return to normal. Military takeover in Egypt marks marks the ...


Afghan Narcoterrorism: The Problem, Its Origins, And Why International Law Enforcement Should Fight It, Steven Fantigrossi May 2015

Afghan Narcoterrorism: The Problem, Its Origins, And Why International Law Enforcement Should Fight It, Steven Fantigrossi

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

This paper provides insight into the issue of opium trafficking in Afghanistan. In 2014, despite U.S., Afghan, and international efforts since 2001, poppy-opium cultivation in Afghanistan reached an all-time high. The Afghan opium trafficking industry provides funding to terrorist groups and transnational crime organizations and is responsible for the continued corruption of government officials, police officers, and intelligence agents in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, and other nations. Aside from increased corruption and funding of terrorists and criminals, the opium trade creates opium and heroin addicts out of men, women, and children across the globe. The history of how the opium ...


Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden Apr 2015

Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper argues that the growth and legalization of Political Islamism in Tunisia will naturally hinder the contemporary influence of violent extremism, leading to partnership and inclusion within a Democratic government. The basis for this claim rests on the idea that the condemnation and repression of Political Islamism in Tunisia historically backfired and led to the further underground radicalization of Tunisians, along with scores of human rights abuses by authorities. Specifically, this essay will focus on the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, the Salafist party Ansar al-Sharia, and their complex relationship to each other as well as to domestic and regional ...


Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Apr 2015

Rise Of Non-State Actors In Middle East: Regional Dimensions, Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The situation in the Middle East has become extremely precarious due to issues which can be traced back to the colonial era. Imprudently drawn state borders, unsettled disputes like Palestine and ethno-religious schisms accentuate the inter-state and intra-state rivalries which have spun out of control due to foreign interventions. Extremist radical Islam acquired new dimensions after 9/11 which consequently painted the 2003 Iraq war in ideological colours. A new trend of radicalization is visible across the region from Lebanon to Pakistan, which has resulted in the emergence of non-state actors. The raging conflict in and across the Middle East ...


Religious Extremism And Sectarian Violence: The Rise Of Isis, Jordan Haven Apr 2015

Religious Extremism And Sectarian Violence: The Rise Of Isis, Jordan Haven

Ex-Patt Magazine

How has the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also known as IS, ISIS, or ISIL) managed to take over such a large swath of territory in the Middle East?


Kittens And Nutella: Why Women Join Isis, Samantha K. Smith Apr 2015

Kittens And Nutella: Why Women Join Isis, Samantha K. Smith

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

On February 18, 2015 CNN published a reported stating that Western women were leaving their homes to join ISIS because of a social media campaign featuring pictures of kittens and Nutella. This reported propagated the notion that women who join jihadist organizations are brainwashed or feeble minded. The reality is not so simple. This paper explores the motives women may have for joining ISIS through comparison to the motivations that drove women to partake in other violent jihadist organizations' activities.


Defeating Isis: The Need For A Cooperative Effort, Sabrina Chikhi Feb 2015

Defeating Isis: The Need For A Cooperative Effort, Sabrina Chikhi

Journal of Interdisciplinary Conflict Science

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of a collective approach in the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria also known as ISIS. The approach of the international community had been doomed to failure because it excluded key players in the region. In order to annihilate this terrorist group and the threat it poses to international security, this article proposes a revision of the approach to the resolution of this problem through the inclusion of all the parties susceptible to secure an efficient contribution to that endeavor before the situation becomes irremediable. In order ...


Twelve Years Later: Afghan Humanitarian Aid Workers On War On Terror, Emmanuel C. Ogwude Jan 2015

Twelve Years Later: Afghan Humanitarian Aid Workers On War On Terror, Emmanuel C. Ogwude

Department of Conflict Resolution Studies Theses and Dissertations

Using narrative research study founded in social constructionism, I explored the lived experiences of thirty Afghan humanitarian aid workers in Kabul, Afghanistan, to discover how they experienced the war on terror. Ten participants were individually interviewed and their stories, personal experiences, perceptions, and voices have been presented in this study. I also facilitated a focus group of twenty Afghan NGO directors, and their views are echoed in the study. The participants represented a diversity of different humanitarian service specialties that cater to Afghan individuals, communities, and government agencies in areas such as education, human rights and good governance, food and ...


The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud Jan 2015

The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Though originally ascertaining that both blowback and interest sharing were the primary causal factors giving rise to Salafist terrorism from 1991-2010, the project found evidence supporting the idea that the two concepts are related instead. Blowback, specifically from “direct interventions,” increases interest sharing by providing Salafist terrorist groups with the means to expand their objectives to make their fight seem like that of ordinary citizens thereby swelling their numbers. It can also lead to the unification of various groups who previously may have had no common goals. In turn these intertwining phenomenon lead to more attacks and damage done by ...


German Foreign Fighters In Syria And Iraq, Daniel H. Heinke, Jan Raudszus Dec 2014

German Foreign Fighters In Syria And Iraq, Daniel H. Heinke, Jan Raudszus

Dr. Daniel H. Heinke

Description of socio-demographic data on German Islamist fighters for the "Islamic State"/ISIL in Syria and Iraq; discussion of governmental countermeasures.


The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri Jul 2013

The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to explore the underlying factors behind the political and ideological transformation of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) since its foundation. Through the detailed analysis of the role of Turkey's internal versus external factors on the evolution of the PKK over time, this work finds that changing political developments in the Middle East were more influential than Turkey's shifting domestic political environment. Hypothesis testing revealed that the 1991 Gulf War, 2003 Iraq War, changing political dynamics of the Middle East following Syria's Arab Spring, and policy changes worldwide implemented after the ...


Intelligence And Weapons Of Mass Destruction, Editor Apr 2004

Intelligence And Weapons Of Mass Destruction, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

The author discusses the ramifications of the lack of epistemological underpinnings from which the rightness or wrongness regarding WMD in Iraq can be constructed and adjudicated.


Shootings In Iraq: A South Korean Response, Editor Dec 2003

Shootings In Iraq: A South Korean Response, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This author examines statements of South Korean president, Roh Moo Hyun, in the wake of the news of the November 30, 2003 killings of two South Korean civilian electrical workers in Iraq. The nature of terrorism as well as potential interpretations of the president’s statements are stressed.


Saudi Arabia’S Counterterrorist Rationale, Editor Sep 2003

Saudi Arabia’S Counterterrorist Rationale, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article analyzes United States public discourse on the authenticity of the Saudi Arabian government’s counterterrorism efforts.


Trends. The United States, Israel, And Parallelism In Counterterrorist Response, Editor Sep 2003

Trends. The United States, Israel, And Parallelism In Counterterrorist Response, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses and evaluates United States reactions to terrorist attacks, and US support for Israel in a political psychological context.


Trends. Car Bomb Explosion And An Explosion Of Truths, Editor Sep 2003

Trends. Car Bomb Explosion And An Explosion Of Truths, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses multiple political psychological aspects of the August 29, 2003 car bomb explosion adjacent to the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq


Trends. Commentary On “The Influence Component Of Counterterrorism: A Systems Approach, Editor Sep 2003

Trends. Commentary On “The Influence Component Of Counterterrorism: A Systems Approach, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses the guiding principles for and challenges to a conceptual framework for deterring terrorism against the United States and its interests as presented by Paul Davis and Brian Jenkins in the Spring 2003 issue of Rand Review.


Trends. Why Humanitarian Workers Should Be Killed: A Perspective From Nietzschean Slave Morality, Editor Aug 2003

Trends. Why Humanitarian Workers Should Be Killed: A Perspective From Nietzschean Slave Morality, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses different views of the murders of United Nations humanitarian workers in Iraq – first, from a modern Western perspective, and, second, from the perspective of Friedrich Nietzsche as he considered the transvaluation of what is Good on the part of the powerless.


A Grenade Attack And The Fog Of War, Editor Mar 2003

A Grenade Attack And The Fog Of War, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes the social psychological and political psychological contexts within which attributions of causality may have been constructed concerning a grenade attack within Camp Pennsylvania, Kuwait, on the very early Sunday morning of March 23, 2003.


Trends. Iraq And The Implosion Of The Terrorism Construct, Editor Mar 2003

Trends. Iraq And The Implosion Of The Terrorism Construct, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This Trends article discusses assorted definitions of terrorism to determine which definitions could practically be applied to military action as a way of reducing violence against United States military personnel in Iraq.


Finding The Feathers In “Birds Of A Feather”: An Antiterrorist And Counterterrorist Dilemma In Profiling, Editor Feb 2003

Finding The Feathers In “Birds Of A Feather”: An Antiterrorist And Counterterrorist Dilemma In Profiling, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article describes a significant challenge for intelligence analysts attempting to identify individuals, groups, and organizations that have joined, are joining, or will join forces in terrorist enterprises.


Iraqi Intelligence And Antiterrorism/Counterterrorism: A News Conference By Tahir Jalil Habbush Concerning Abu Nidal, Editor Sep 2002

Iraqi Intelligence And Antiterrorism/Counterterrorism: A News Conference By Tahir Jalil Habbush Concerning Abu Nidal, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article explores difficulties in preventing and resolving terrorist operations that are planned by one’s adversaries for implementation against one’s political entity.