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Articles 1 - 30 of 54

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

“The People Of Aram Shall Go Into Exile”: Practical And Theological Dilemmas Of Middle Eastern Churches Since The Beginning Of The Syrian War, Wilbert Van Saane Aug 2019

“The People Of Aram Shall Go Into Exile”: Practical And Theological Dilemmas Of Middle Eastern Churches Since The Beginning Of The Syrian War, Wilbert Van Saane

The Journal of Social Encounters

This paper discusses the way in which Christian churches in the Middle East have responded to the Syrian War. It signals some practical and theological dilemmas that these churches have faced since the conflict in Syria broke out. The description of these dilemmas is primarily based on interviews with a representative sample of church leaders. Analysis of these dilemmas sheds light on the way the churches of the Middle East have contributed to peaceful resolutions of the Syrian conflict, or failed to do so. Before going into the practical and theological dilemmas of the churches, the article provides a short ...


The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein Jun 2019

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson May 2019

Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation advocates for reading the literatures of two Middle Eastern women writers through a Maternal Critical lens that recognizes the demands of universal vulnerability in characters who resist violence, and responds in Maternal communities of Readers that connect readers to characters, readers to writers, and readers to other readers, carrying the struggle for equity forward. My unfolding argument, centered on Maternal Critical activity in the novels of Palestinian writer Sahar Khalifeh and Israeli writer Ronit Matalon, demonstrates how literature by these Middle Eastern women is part of a narrative context of women’s peacemaking and resistance to violence, a ...


The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp Jan 2019

The Muslim Brotherhood: Exploring Divergent Views In Saudi Arabia And Qatar, Andrew Lipp

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis upset the traditional alliances of the Middle East. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Egypt severed ties with Qatar, accusing Qatar of sponsoring terrorist organizations and compromising the Gulf Cooperation Council by strengthening relations with Iran. This article highlights the role of the Muslim Brotherhood within both Saudi Arabia and Qatar to demonstrate why the Islamist organization was an important piece in the initiation of the ongoing diplomatic crisis. Using two historical case studies, this paper reveals two divergent views of the MB in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The Saudi royal family views ...


The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico Oct 2018

The Role Of Institutions, Islamism, And Militaries In The Outcomes Of The Arab Spring: The Cases Of Tunisia, Egypt, And Syria, Olivia Delmonico

Sacred Heart University Scholar

During the Arab Spring in 2011, much of the Middle Eastern world faced a series of uprisings demanding democracy and equality. Most of these attempts at revolution desperately failed, with some nations faring far worse than before. Some, however, remain more stable than others, with Tunisia being the sole full success. This article delves into the varying causes of the uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Syria. These countries respectively represent the good, the bad, and the ugly outcomes of the Arab Spring.

Through a thorough analysis of other literature on the subject, I conclude that the success of modern Arab ...


Middle Eastern Themes In Contemporary American Fantasy: The Political And Socio-Religious Implications, Sait Ibisi May 2018

Middle Eastern Themes In Contemporary American Fantasy: The Political And Socio-Religious Implications, Sait Ibisi

Theses and Dissertations

What follows is a Master’s Thesis in which an insight is given into four Middle East-inspired contemporary American fantasy novels: The Desert of Souls (2011) by Howard Andrew Jones, Throne of the Crescent Moon (2012) by Saladin Ahmed, The City of Brass (2017) by S. A. Chakraborty, and Alif the Unseen (2012) by G. Willow Wilson. In the first part of the thesis I disclose the political implications which the mentioned novels carry. These are inspired by the past and contemporary political developments in the Middle East, and are meant to both criticize the said, but more importantly, to ...


Perceptions As A Barrier To Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Elizabeth Shan Wang Apr 2018

Perceptions As A Barrier To Emergency Medical Services Utilization Among Syrian Refugees In Jordan, Elizabeth Shan Wang

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The purpose of this study is to evaluate perceptions of emergency medical services (EMS) among Syrian refugees living in urban host communities in Jordan. The research questions are as follows: To what extent do public perceptions of emergency medical services affect the utilization of ambulances? How does awareness about available emergency medical services shape refugees’ attitudes towards it? Because this topic is qualitative and exploratory in the case of Jordan, there was no clear hypothesis. The assumption, however, is that positive perceptions and awareness about EMS can encourage refugees to call an ambulance for transportation to the hospital during a ...


Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico Dec 2017

Perspective: Arabia Infelix: The War Devouring Yemen, Sheila Carapico

Political Science Faculty Publications

For many centuries, European cartographers labeled the southwest corner of the otherwise mostly desert Arabian Peninsula as Arabia Felix, or “Happy Arabia.” It was a place where towering mountains trapped clouds blown in from the Indian Ocean so that twice-annual monsoon rains blessed terraced slopes and lowland wadis with plentiful crops. Sadly, since fighting engulfed the country in late March 2015, Yemen has never been less felix.


Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas May 2017

Too Much Democracy?: Trends In American Public Opinion Of Israel, Alexander Thomas

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

This paper analyzes the factors that influence the American electorate’s support of Israel using data gleaned from the 2016 American National Election Study. Americans have formally recognized the state of Israel since 1948, starting 11 minutes after it declared its independence. Since then, American foreign policy has consistently endeavored to create and maintain a strong Israeli state in the Middle East. However, there is general agreement among foreign policy experts that such one-sided support for Israel has been both economically as well as strategically costly. According to experts, such support has at times contradicted the broader foreign policy goals ...


Filthy, Ryan Courtney Apr 2017

Filthy, Ryan Courtney

English 100 & 200 Conference

No abstract provided.


U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon Jan 2017

U.S. Democracy Promotion In The Middle East: More And Less Than Meets The Eye, Julia Lang Gordon

Senior Projects Spring 2017

Senior Project submitted to The Division of Social Studies of Bard College.


Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael Jan 2017

Political Islam And Democracy, Mikellon S. Browne-Michael

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The Middle East is a predominately Islamic region. Islam is not only a religion, it is the Muslim way of life and law. The western world follows a more modern system of government, in the form of democracy. Democracy is not modern, as in new, since it was started by the ancient Greeks, but it is modern, because it is the main system being adopted in contemporary times.

Muslims follow the ideals found in the Holy Quran, the book dictated by the prophet Muhammad. The Middle East has had a strong Islamic influence since the mid-seventh century. Islam originated in ...


"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat Dec 2016

"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat

Master's Theses

The Palestinian people have lived under numerous imperial rulers; first, the Ottoman Empire, then later the British. Today they live under the military occupation of the state of Israel as second class citizen millions more living abroad as refugees. Young Palestinian men have become the leaders and the physical manifestation of the struggle against Israel, a political Goliath that has used tactics to repress the Palestinians such as, detentions, beatings, and land confiscation, which many outside of the Israeli state deem as illegal. Scholar Rashid Khalidi states that “the quintessential Palestinian experience, which illustrates some of the most basic issues ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler Dec 2016

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


National Security Implications Of Water Insecurity, Miranda Elizabeth Morton May 2016

National Security Implications Of Water Insecurity, Miranda Elizabeth Morton

Senior Theses

Prior to the Syrian uprising that began in March 2011, the country experienced an acute, multiyear drought, likely induced by climate change, which wrecked havoc on the agricultural sector, destroying the livelihoods of nearly a quarter of the population. Challenges associated with water use and availability played a direct role in exacerbating drought-like conditions and in deteriorating Syrian economic conditions. Urbanization from internally displaced farmers, coupled with rising food prices and a depressed economy, ripened conditions for social unrest and mobilization. The historical economic and agriculture policies in effect since Hafez al-Assad’s reign, current President Bashar al-Assad’s father ...


Gender Roots: Conceptualizing "Honor" Killing And Interpretations Of Women's Gender In Muslim Society, Brittany N. Barry Apr 2016

Gender Roots: Conceptualizing "Honor" Killing And Interpretations Of Women's Gender In Muslim Society, Brittany N. Barry

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

The phenomenon of “honor” killing is one that has formed out of deeply rooted concepts of sexuality and gender roles in Muslim societies. These conceptions have been implemented into everyday life and social infrastructure and have created, in some places, a generally accepted power dynamic that subjugates women and generates conceptualizations about women’s sexuality and their assumed obedience. In recent decades the gender constructions of, predominantly, the Middle East and of other Muslim populations have captured the attention of Western thinkers, especially with regards to feminist thought. The Western gaze has produced a number of responses, some of which ...


The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia Nov 2015

The Genealogy, Ideology, And Future Of Isil And Its Derivatives, Ahmed E. Souaiaia

Ahmed E SOUAIAIA

The organization known today simply as the “Islamic State,” or by its Arabic acronym, Daesh (English, ISIL), has historical and ideological roots that go beyond the territories it now controls. These deep roots give Daesh confidence that it will succeed in dominating the world, but give others reasons to believe that it will fail in controlling even a single nation. Mixing puritan religious and political discourses, ISIL managed to dominate all other armed opposition groups in conflict zones (Syria, Iraq, Yemen, and Libya) and has inspired individuals in many other countries (Egypt, Pakistan, France, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia) to ...


The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly Nov 2015

The Role Of Iran Policy The Saudi-American Rift, Christopher Parmly

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis explores what effect Saudi and American policy differences towards Iran have had on their bilateral relations. It is based on the recent thaw in Iran-U.S. relations, and the critical reaction of the Saudi government towards this policy. The question has two components – first, how severe the current Saudi-American rift is, and second, to what extent it can be traced to their differences over Iran. The topic will be addressed through process-tracing methods.

The thesis concludes that there is indeed a rift in Saudi-U.S. relations marked by an increasingly assertive and independent Saudi foreign policy, though its ...


Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr. Jul 2015

Egypt’S Coup & Future Of Democracy In Post Arab Spring Middle East (2015), Shams Uz Zaman Mr.

Mr. Shams uz Zaman

The initial optimism that a democratic regional order would emerge as a consequence to the sweeping Arab Spring in Middle East and Africa has gradually faded away. The revolutionary, but generally peaceful and smooth, changeover from long autocracy of Mubarak was again quickly reversed by the Egyptian military and lately been been endorsed by the US and EU. The reaction from the Brotherhood, which had been a mainstream political party, was mixed. As the violence and terrorism take over the Egyptian political landscape, there is little hope that Egypt would return to normal. Military takeover in Egypt marks marks the ...


Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras Jun 2015

Turkey And Saudis In Syria: Aligned Interests, Clashing Revisionisms, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

In early May, 2015 it became known that Saudi Arabia and Turkey are supporting extremist Islamist groups in Syria against the regime of Bashar al-Assad. That Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, among others, have – mostly indirectly – been supporting Islamist groups is not news as similar reports have been emerging from time to time since 2011, if not earlier. But this policy with regard to the Syrian conflict became increasingly overt amidst growing instability and lack of Western commitment to Assad’s overthrow. According to The Independent and other media, Turkish and Saudi support focuses on the overarching jihadist group Jaish ...


Organizations Of Women: Towards An Equal Future In Palestine, Beatrice S. Longshore-Cook Jun 2015

Organizations Of Women: Towards An Equal Future In Palestine, Beatrice S. Longshore-Cook

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The development and struggle for nationalism in Palestine, as seen through an historical lens of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, demonstrates the complexity of gendered spaces and narratives inherent in any conflict. Women’s roles have often been confined to specific, gendered spaces within their society. However, through the utilization of these roles, women are circumnavigating the gendered spaces of their society in order to effectively alter the political and social systems of Palestine. Through a discussion of two specific women’s organizations – the Jerusalem Center for Women (JCW) and the Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling (WCLAC) – this work ...


A Path To Peace: Reconciling The Sunni-Shi’A Conflict In Iraq, Kelsey L. Modica May 2015

A Path To Peace: Reconciling The Sunni-Shi’A Conflict In Iraq, Kelsey L. Modica

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

The Iraqi state has a long history of division between Sunnis and Shiites. This conflict has often been violent and continues even today. Ultimately, this division dates back to the seventh century after the death of Muhammad. In order to better understand why there is a conflict between Sunnis and Shiites in Iraq and not other countries, it is essential to understand the similarities and differences between their ideologies but also how they have been rooted against each other throughout history. Therefore, I begin with a description of the similarities and differences between Sunnis and Shiites to show the common ...


A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink May 2015

A Comparative Study Of Middle Eastern Foreign Policy: How Middle Eastern Intelligence Agencies Shape Current Events, Megan A. Fink

Honors Theses

This study monitored the intelligence and foreign policy actions of Israel, Iran, and Saudi Arabia from August 2013 to August 2014. Data was collected from coverage by Associated Press, The Wall Street Journal, and Al-Jazeera, three reliable and respected news sources that cover global events. The actions taken by foreign policymakers in these countries were recorded throughout the study period.

These actions were organized into a taxonomy based on whether they were intelligence-based or non-intelligence based. Within those broad categories, more distinguishing characteristics were analyzed to show patterns of behavior within national intelligence services of the nations studied. These patterns ...


Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden Apr 2015

Political Islamism In Tunisia: A History Of Repression And A Complex Forum For Potential Change, Sarah R. Louden

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This paper argues that the growth and legalization of Political Islamism in Tunisia will naturally hinder the contemporary influence of violent extremism, leading to partnership and inclusion within a Democratic government. The basis for this claim rests on the idea that the condemnation and repression of Political Islamism in Tunisia historically backfired and led to the further underground radicalization of Tunisians, along with scores of human rights abuses by authorities. Specifically, this essay will focus on the moderate Islamist party Ennahda, the Salafist party Ansar al-Sharia, and their complex relationship to each other as well as to domestic and regional ...


Ethical Concerns & Misconceptions In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Makenzie Logan Jan 2015

Ethical Concerns & Misconceptions In The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Makenzie Logan

Augustana Center for the Study of Ethics Essay Contest

The roots of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict go deep in its long and complicated history with many different arguments and opinions on each side. While one could write an entire essay on the history of the conflict alone, this essay aims to highlight the current situation concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Overall, this paper aims to address both sides of the conflict, to bring to light criticisms on each side, to examine the ethics and intentions of both sides, and to draw implications for the future of the Middle East.


Characteristics Of Salafi Jihadist Activists, Emily N. Mayfield Jan 2015

Characteristics Of Salafi Jihadist Activists, Emily N. Mayfield

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper will compare and contrast the personal characteristics among individuals who were born in Middle Eastern countries and have committed violent acts of terror in the name of Salafi Jihadism against Western countries. First, a review of the current literature on the pre-conditions for Salafi-jihadist radicalization and activism in general will be conducted. Next, the study will focus on those issues most salient to the Middle East. This research will serve as a precursor for further study on ways to build a characteristic based profile on at risk individuals for Salafi jihadist radicalization, recruitment, and activism.


The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud Jan 2015

The Roots Of Salafist Terror: An Analysis Of The Growth Of Violence In The Middle East From 1991-2010, Tyler D. Abboud

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Though originally ascertaining that both blowback and interest sharing were the primary causal factors giving rise to Salafist terrorism from 1991-2010, the project found evidence supporting the idea that the two concepts are related instead. Blowback, specifically from “direct interventions,” increases interest sharing by providing Salafist terrorist groups with the means to expand their objectives to make their fight seem like that of ordinary citizens thereby swelling their numbers. It can also lead to the unification of various groups who previously may have had no common goals. In turn these intertwining phenomenon lead to more attacks and damage done by ...


The Role Of Civil Society In The Tunisian Democratic Transition, Veronica Baker Jan 2015

The Role Of Civil Society In The Tunisian Democratic Transition, Veronica Baker

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper explores the effects of civil society’s involvement in the Tunisian democratic transition through a case study on its contributions to the constitution drafting process. Tunisia gained widespread international attention following its popular uprising against authoritarian leader Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali and successful transition to democracy. Many, however, have dismissed Tunisia’s triumph as a lucky break aided by the country’s small size, religious and ethnic homogeneity, pre-existing liberal social values, and “relatively moderate” Islamist party. Those focused on such “Tunisian exceptionalism” conclude that the country’s transition has little to teach other countries in political flux ...


Economic Development And Female Labor Force Participation In The Middle East And North Africa: A Test Of The U-Shape Hypothesis, Kelsey A. Chapman Jan 2015

Economic Development And Female Labor Force Participation In The Middle East And North Africa: A Test Of The U-Shape Hypothesis, Kelsey A. Chapman

Gettysburg Economic Review

This paper investigates the relationship between economic development and female labor force participation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Using a panel data set of 20 countries in the region for the period of 1990-2012, I develop an econometric model that tests the U-shape hypothesis. This study builds upon previous literature examining the U-shape hypothesis in time series studies for developing countries, and cross-country studies. The results of this paper suggest that there is a U-shaped relationship between economic growth and female labor force participation rates. The MENA region’s low female labor force participation rates can be ...


American Overreach: Strategic Interests And Millennial Ambitions In The Middle East, Asli Bâli, Aziz Rana Dec 2014

American Overreach: Strategic Interests And Millennial Ambitions In The Middle East, Asli Bâli, Aziz Rana

Aziz Rana

This article argues that American actions in the Middle East designed to advance democracy and/or ‘moderation’ tend to yield perverse outcomes that frustrate the aspirations of local actors while undermining the values purportedly being promoted by the US. In order to explain these contradictions, we emphasise the linkage between policies of democracy promotion and long-standing American commitments both to millennialism and geographical omnipresence. As a result of these policies and geopolitical vision, we argue that ‘democracy promotion’ often devolves into a simple defence of American interest – by producing electoral outcomes intended to strengthen local agents seen as compliant with ...