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2019

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Articles 1 - 25 of 25

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein Jun 2019

The Origins Of Saudi Arabia’S Nuclear Ambitions, Zachary Klein

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Forced Migration: A Syrian Exodus To Germany, Taylor Witt May 2019

Forced Migration: A Syrian Exodus To Germany, Taylor Witt

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Syrian Civil War has killed over 500,000 people and displaced over 12 million since it began in 2011. The conflict has resulted in forced migration on a massive scale. Syrian people have been displaced within Syria, to the surrounding Arab states and to Europe. This has led to an immigration crisis in some parts of the European Union. Germany has become a primary destination for these refugees, but nationalist, xenophobic forces have started pushing back against what is perceived to be an invasion of foreigners into their land and their borders. This project examines the sentiments of German ...


Analyzing The United States’ Limited Response To The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Carolina Romero May 2019

Analyzing The United States’ Limited Response To The Syrian Refugee Crisis, Carolina Romero

Political Analysis

The Syrian refugee crisis can be described as one of the biggest, if not largest, humanitarian crisis of the 21st century. The crisis is a result of an ongoing civil war between rebel groups and the government forces of the Assad regime. Since the beginning of the war in 2011, over 400,000 have been killed and a combined 11 million have been displaced either internally or externally from their homes (Human Rights Watch, World Report 2018). The United Nations and the international community have openly expressed discontent with the dealings of the Assad regime, and as a result, have ...


Regime Change, Deferred: Regarding United States’ Foreign Policy In Syria, Rosa Mazza–Hilway May 2019

Regime Change, Deferred: Regarding United States’ Foreign Policy In Syria, Rosa Mazza–Hilway

Political Analysis

In 2011, President Obama proclaimed, “the time has come for President Assad to step aside” (“President Obama”). The question then becomes: why has the United States failed to act upon this declaration and been unsuccessful in achieving regime change in Syria? While there is evidence to suggest regime change is the ultimate goal in Syria, there has been a lack of action taken to facilitate the deposition of Assad. In this paper, there will be an emphasis on the policies and rhetoric that indicate the desire to catalyze a shift in governmental power through the disposal of the Assad regime ...


Radicalization Through The Internet: How Isis Became So Successful And Why The United States Needs To Catch Up, Ana Sofia Florez May 2019

Radicalization Through The Internet: How Isis Became So Successful And Why The United States Needs To Catch Up, Ana Sofia Florez

Senior Theses

It is no secret the Islamic State of Syria, otherwise known as ISIS, has become one of the most dangerous and brutal terrorist organizations in recent history. In recent years the Islamic State has been gaining strength and followers from around the world. Individuals from other countries will leave their homes and families after contact through social media to travel to Syria and fight alongside the organization. This thesis provides insight on the dangerous implications ISIS’s perfection on online recruitment and their successful radicalization tactics has. It will also provide an explanation as to why nations, specifically the United ...


The Political Leadership Of International Security In The Middle East, Kelly Jacqkeem Worthington May 2019

The Political Leadership Of International Security In The Middle East, Kelly Jacqkeem Worthington

Senior Theses

International relations since the end of the Second World War has been dominated by the United States who promised free trade. This led to liberalism becoming the dominate theory in international relations, being the major guiding principle in decisions of international relations made by American Presidents. To ensure free trade amongst nations however, this required a secure world, leading the United States to act as the world’s police to ensure international security for global trade. After the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Centers, dynamics of international relations changed. How Post 9/11 Presidents: Bush, Obama and Trump ...


Prospects For Justice And Accountability In Syria, Alexis Straubus May 2019

Prospects For Justice And Accountability In Syria, Alexis Straubus

Augsburg Honors Review

In recent years, the international community has closely monitored the actions of Syrian president, Bashar-al Assad. Since the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War in 2011, President Assad has continued to incite widespread violence throughout Syria by committing mass atrocities that violate international laws. There is evidence to provide proof of President Assad’s connection to his crimes and that his crimes have killed and displaced millions of Syrians. However, the legalities of indicting a head of state and the special interests between the members of the United Nations Security Council create obstacles that make prosecuting President Assad near impossible ...


Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy May 2019

Conceptions Of Modern Egyptian Childhood During The Period Of The “Liberal Experiment” In Egypt, 1922–1952: A Comparative Study Of Taha Hussein’S, “An Egyptian Childhood,” And Sayyid Qutb’S, “A Child From The Village”, Nora Elgabalawy

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Counter to French social historian Philippe Aries’ argument, the concept of an Egyptian childhood has its own traceable history, separate from the modern Western European concept of childhood. As shown, with the presence of language on childhood, in a number of pre-modern Arabic/Islamic literature, notions of childhood had a rich history outside of modern Western Europe. But, depictions of an Egyptian childhood in modern Egyptian literature, specifically two childhood autobiographies/memoirs, Taha Hussein’s An Egyptian Childhood and Sayyid Qutb’s A Child from the Village, do not emerge seamlessly from these early pre-modern depictions of childhood. Both Hussein ...


Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam May 2019

Death Of The Caliphate: Reconfiguring Ali Abd Al-Raziq’S Ideas And Legacy, Arooj Alam

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The demise of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924 generated vigorous debates throughout the Muslim world regarding the political future of the Ummah. While several prominent Muslim thinkers contributed to this “Caliphate debate,” none left as contested a legacy as the Egyptian intellectual, ‘Ali ‘Abd al-Raziq(1888-1966). In his scholarly publication, Islam and Foundations of Governance,Abd al-Raziq argued against the revival and resurrection of the Caliphate by redefining it as coercive, monarchal, and as the antithesis of the community first established by Prophet Muhammad. While Abd al-Raziq’s book attracted tremendous criticisms in 1925, numerous scholars today have commended and ...


The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner May 2019

The Art Of Repression: Digital Dissent And Power Consolidation In El-Sisi’S Egypt, Wesley Garner

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Imprecise measurement tools impede the study of protest mobilization. Mobilization proxies, such as counting protesters and protest events, result in significant outliers and variance while ignoring sociocultural, cybernetic, economic, legal, and other features that relevant academic literature considers essential to understanding mobilization dynamics. Without accurate empirical models, researchers’ and policymakers’ investigations of autocratic repression have little explanatory power. This thesis proposes a methodological addition to the mobilization literature: Two three-level scales distinguish an event’s potential to attract an audience from the protest’s actual output relative to similar episodes. I employ the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED ...


Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day May 2019

Syrian Crisis Representation In The Media: The Cnn Effect, Framing, And Tone, Savannah S. Day

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

Over the past seven years of the Syrian Civil War, Syrian refugees have been painted in a negative light by news media outlets around the world. History of media coverage regarding global humanitarian crises shows that with various tools and processes, media can shape public opinion and policy in whichever direction it desires, and oftentimes policymakers and the public are quick, as well as emotional, to react. In this paper, my objectives are to analyze specific examples of this CNN Effect phenomena within news coverage of the Syrian refugee crisis, as well as generally explain the negatively correlating relationship between ...


Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley A. Gerard May 2019

Watering The Desert: Azraq, Public Opinion, And Environmental Post-Materialism, Wesley A. Gerard

The University of Mississippi Undergraduate Research Journal

This article focuses on physical, socioeconomic, and political changes in the community of Azraq, Jordan. Azraq, a small town in northeastern Jordan, sits atop a large aquifer that has been heavily pumped by the government for several decades in response to an increasing nationwide demand for water. This has led to large-scale transformations in not only the physical landscape surrounding the aquifer, but also in the daily lives, economic statuses, and political opinions of the people living there. My research thus fits the case of Azraq into larger academic discourse on groundwater governance, resource access, and environmentalism. I use a ...


Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson May 2019

Maternal Criticism: Reading Two Middle Eastern Women Writers As Nonviolent Peace Activism, Charlyn Marie Ingwerson

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation advocates for reading the literatures of two Middle Eastern women writers through a Maternal Critical lens that recognizes the demands of universal vulnerability in characters who resist violence, and responds in Maternal communities of Readers that connect readers to characters, readers to writers, and readers to other readers, carrying the struggle for equity forward. My unfolding argument, centered on Maternal Critical activity in the novels of Palestinian writer Sahar Khalifeh and Israeli writer Ronit Matalon, demonstrates how literature by these Middle Eastern women is part of a narrative context of women’s peacemaking and resistance to violence, a ...


Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers Apr 2019

Once Upon A Time...When A Revolution Evolved To A Civil War In Syria, Crystal M. Myers

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

This paper gives an overview of how the conflict in Syria has evolved from a revolution into a sectarian civil war. Power is maintained by the ruling Assad family through promotion of the Alawite minority within the government and military. Methods of persecution on the Sunni majority by the Assad government are discussed as well as a policy of strategic expulsion of the Sunni enclave to Idlib, a city on the outskirts of Syria (bordering Turkey).


Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb Apr 2019

Shifting Sands And Shifting Powers: The Effect Of The Dissolving Of The Iranian Nuclear Deal On The Power Dynamics Of The Middle East, Mccabe Webb

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This presentation argues that the United States Government’s dissolving of the Iranian Nuclear Deal (JCPOA) will lead to a shift in the balance of powers in the Middle East, in particular a rise in the power and influence of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, The United Arab E and Israel. The research predominantly comes from the Iranian Nuclear Deal and an evaluation of information regarding the possible consequences that will be seen in the post-JCPOA Middle East. Conclusions will be drawn from comparing and contrasting the power dynamics that were present before and during the implementation of the deal ...


Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings Mar 2019

Syrian Refugee Camps In Jordan: An Assessment, Athena-Rose Jennings

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Syrian Refugee Camps in Jordan: An Assessment explores how and why the Government of Jordan created camps to house its 670,000 Syrian refugees. Examining Jordan’s four Syrian refugee camps, Jennings considers to what extent their different operating models are effective and why. Metrics of camp effectiveness include degree and type of support from non-Government of Jordan humanitarian actors, the availability of education and medical care in the camps, and the degree to which camp residents themselves engage in the camp communities. She posits that using the camp model affords Jordan greater internal security, and influence over refugee matters ...


Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um Mar 2019

Foreign Doctors At The Imam’S Court: Medical Diplomacy In Yemen’S Coffee Era, Nancy Um

Nancy Um

This article brings together trade records left by Dutch and English East India Company merchants, chronicles in Arabic, and a published French travel narrative to shed light on an overlooked phenomenon, that of early modern medical diplomacy to Qasimi Yemen during the early eighteenth century. In this era, foreign merchants flocked to the southern Arabian Peninsula, many with the interest of procuring coffee, a commodity that was then still difficult to purchase elsewhere. Along with them came doctors and ships’ surgeons, who were called upon to treat Yemen’s imam al-Mahdi Muhammad (d. 1718), who suffered from many ailments in ...


Palestinian Liberation, Jennifer Thomson Feb 2019

Palestinian Liberation, Jennifer Thomson

Bucknell: Occupied

Jennifer Thomson, assistant professor of History at Bucknell University, interviews Miko Peled, Israeli-American activist and author. Peled contextualizes the Israeli occupation of Palestine, describes discriminatory treatment of Palestinians, and discusses his own experience as a Jewish peace activist in support of Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) against Israel. Michael Drexler, professor of English at Bucknell University, discusses contemporary conversation on university campuses and interrogates the uncritical support of Zionism.


The Difficulties Of Filming Syrian Refugee Populations Living In Jordan: Obstacles To Objectivity And Accuracy In Reporting, Thaddeus E. Decaprio Feb 2019

The Difficulties Of Filming Syrian Refugee Populations Living In Jordan: Obstacles To Objectivity And Accuracy In Reporting, Thaddeus E. Decaprio

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This project seeks to explain and address the challenges inherent in filming and documenting Syrian refugee populations in Jordan. This project will take the form of a narrative research paper in conjunction with a video component comprised of the first-hand accounts of several refugees who consented to sharing their stories on camera. I went, along with my brother Louis (a filmmaker), to Jordan to document firsthand the stories of Syrian refugees in their own words. We were invited to film for the Women ASPIRE project of an organization called ASPIRE (Advancing Solutions in Policy, Implementation, Research, and Engagement for Refugees ...


The Post-9/11 Lgbtq Human Rights Struggle In Egypt, Donna K. Huaman Feb 2019

The Post-9/11 Lgbtq Human Rights Struggle In Egypt, Donna K. Huaman

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the struggle for LGBTQ human rights has become a leading standard that depicts whether or not a state can be considered modern and progressive. Yet, while this new criterion seems to be supported by Global North states, other nations in other regions, like Egypt from the Middle East, North Africa (MENA) has criticized the international pressure to implement this standard as neo-imperialist and inauthentic to its Muslim-Arab culture. Egypt claims to be the universal Arab-Muslim voice for the MENA region and has become one of the greatest challengers to the international campaign for ...


Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty Jan 2019

Picturing A Landscape For The Faithful: Topographical Views In The "Dalail Al-Khayrat," A 15th-Century Muslim Prayer Book, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

No abstract provided.


Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak Jan 2019

Nationalism And Multi-Dimensional Identities: Ba'ath Propaganda During The Iran-Iraq War, Jennie Matuschak

Honors Theses

In this thesis, I examine the content of and mechanisms of disseminating propaganda originating from Saddam Hussein’s regime during the Iran-Iraq War. This research specifically looks at how and why the regime targeted Iraqi Shi’as during the war, and how that contributed to the ways in which the regime engaged with rhetoric. Moreover, this thesis attempts to make sense of the diverse, and sometimes seemingly opposing, amalgam of the rhetoric’s subject matter and methods of circulation. More broadly, it speaks to the difficulty of fostering an environment that can produce patriotism and lead to the construction of ...


La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner Jan 2019

La Modernité Tunisienne Dévoilée : Une Étude Autour De La Femme Célibataire, Madison Wagner

Scripps Senior Theses

This thesis explains recent accounts of discrimination and cutbacks in reproductive health spaces in Tunisia. Complicating dominant analyses, which attribute these events to the post-revolution political atmosphere which has allowed the proliferation of islamic extremism, I interpret these instances as a manifestation of a deeply rooted stigma against sexually active single women. I trace this stigma’s inception to the contradictory way that Habib Bourguiba conceptualized modernity after independence, and the responsibility he assigned to Tunisian women to embody that modernity. This responsibility remains salient today, and is putting Tunisian women in an increasingly untenable and vulnerable position.

After independence ...


Refugees From Syria Caught Between War And Borders: A Journey Towards Protection, Maissaa Almustafa Jan 2019

Refugees From Syria Caught Between War And Borders: A Journey Towards Protection, Maissaa Almustafa

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation examines the global crisis of protection through the lens of the Syrian refugee crisis and the particular experiences of refugees’ journeys to Sweden.

In doing so, the dissertation challenges the dominant narratives that represent refugees either as victims who deserve aid in their regions, or as threats when they exert their agency and journey towards the global north. In the same vein, the dissertation problematizes the dominant narrative of the “European crisis of migration” and proposes that the “unauthorized” arrivals of refugees in Europe are reflections of a global crisis of protection, a crisis that develops as a ...


Evaluating The Relationship Between Conditionality And Foreign Aid Reliance, Rory Ann O'Neil Jan 2019

Evaluating The Relationship Between Conditionality And Foreign Aid Reliance, Rory Ann O'Neil

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.