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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 123

Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Historical Trauma And Refugee Reception: Armenians And Syrian-Armenian Co-Ethnics, Nicole M. Campos Dec 2016

Historical Trauma And Refugee Reception: Armenians And Syrian-Armenian Co-Ethnics, Nicole M. Campos

Master's Theses

This thesis considers the ways in which Armenian history has influenced integration of Syrian-Armenian refugees into Armenia due to the ongoing Syrian War. Ethnic Armenian outlooks were analyzed relative to the influx of Syrian refugees, particularly co-ethnic Syrian-Armenians. Field work in Armenia found a sustained cultural impression of Armenians’ Soviet membership and genocide. Findings suggest that recognizing the importance of history as it may or may not affect migration reception policies and attitudes is important to developing sustainable resettlement environments, at least until repatriation or third-country resettlement becomes an option to migrants. Ultimately, this thesis argues that more attention must ...


On East Jerusalem Streets, Palestinians Say Settlements Trump Social Media As Source Of Violence, Jad Sleiman Dec 2016

On East Jerusalem Streets, Palestinians Say Settlements Trump Social Media As Source Of Violence, Jad Sleiman

Capstones

This project uses interviews with Palestinian residents of violent East Jerusalem neighborhoods to get at the root causes of a year-long wave of lone wolf Arab attacks against Jews in Israel and the West Bank.

Link to capstone project: https://medium.com/@jadalisleiman/c4187cc3660b#.oibq7chq6


"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat Dec 2016

"Who Am I?": The Development Of A Male Palestinian Political Identity, Tala J. Dayyat

Master's Theses

The Palestinian people have lived under numerous imperial rulers; first, the Ottoman Empire, then later the British. Today they live under the military occupation of the state of Israel as second class citizen millions more living abroad as refugees. Young Palestinian men have become the leaders and the physical manifestation of the struggle against Israel, a political Goliath that has used tactics to repress the Palestinians such as, detentions, beatings, and land confiscation, which many outside of the Israeli state deem as illegal. Scholar Rashid Khalidi states that “the quintessential Palestinian experience, which illustrates some of the most basic issues ...


The Influence Of Social Media In Egypt During The Arab Spring, Nicole Reed Dec 2016

The Influence Of Social Media In Egypt During The Arab Spring, Nicole Reed

Capstone Collection

In the past 10 years social media has become a way of communicating, following the news, posting pictures, and marketing for brands. The platforms including Facebook and Twitter continue to grow, making them an ideal way of communication all across the world. It has been argued that what happened in the Arab Spring in 2010 was shaped and influenced by more people having access to the internet, and therefore having signed up for social media sights. The act of one man sent a region swirling into turmoil, political overthrow, and in some cases, such as Egypt, creating a revolution.

In ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler Dec 2016

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


The Educational Aspirations Of Saudi Arabian Youth: Implications For Creating A New Framework To Explain Saudi Arabian Society, Woohyang Sim Dec 2016

The Educational Aspirations Of Saudi Arabian Youth: Implications For Creating A New Framework To Explain Saudi Arabian Society, Woohyang Sim

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

Higher education in Saudi Arabia has garnered immense praise for its rapid expansion and developments in both quantity and quality. In response to this, the tertiary school enrollment in Saudi Arabia is rapidly rising. These achievements can be explained by changes in educational policies. However, studies regarding youth’s awareness are scarce. Thus, this study clarifies the educational aspiration of Saudi Arabia's young generations through an awareness survey. Data collected from 316 respondents was analyzed by using SPSS. The findings of this study indicate strong educational aspirations of young Saudis who are motivated by their meritocratic way of thinking ...


Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner Dec 2016

Review Of Muslims And Jews In France. History Of A Conflict By Maud S. Mandel, Bryan Turner

Publications and Research

The mood of European scholarship with respect to the recognition and integration of Islam is typically pessimistic. The rise of anti-immigrant and anti-Islam political parties – Golden Dawn in Greece, the Northern League in Italy, Marine Le Penn and the National Front in France, and the English defense league in Britain – have exposed a hitherto hidden or ignored under-current of resentment against foreigners. In the context of these developments, Maud Mandel’s study of Muslims and Jews in France is a welcome corrective to the dominant focus on anti-Islam in the academic literature and in the popular media. The historical picture ...


Language Evaluation: Classical Arabic Approaches, Abdulkareem Said Ramadan Dec 2016

Language Evaluation: Classical Arabic Approaches, Abdulkareem Said Ramadan

Interdisciplinary Studies Faculty Publications

This article explores the criteria and standards of literary evaluation as used by linguists in the Arabic literary tradition. Linguists did not apply such standards for instructional purposes only, but they also used them to assess poetic aesthetics. Because poetry was the primary context in which language was assessed, this linguistic evaluation appeared in various forms throughout poetry criticism. For example, giving preference to one poet over another meant the poet had reached a more superior linguistic level according to the standards that linguists followed in their judgments. These standards, which linguists in the Arabic literary tradition used, were not ...


Mesa 2016: Salisbury & Arabic In New Haven & Beyond, Roberta L. Dougherty Nov 2016

Mesa 2016: Salisbury & Arabic In New Haven & Beyond, Roberta L. Dougherty

Roberta L. Dougherty

In 1841, Yale College appointed Edward Elbridge Salisbury (1814-1901) as “Professor of Arabic & Sanscrit.” This was, at the time, the only position of its kind in North America, although Arabic had previously been taught at Yale and elsewhere. Salisbury’s appointment had much to do with American missionary and mercantile interest in the region now called the Middle East. This paper will argue that his appointment was critical to the rise of American Orientalism and the further development of U.S. interest in the academic study of the region—indeed, in the formation of the very basis of academic study ...


The Conflict In Syria: Should The United States Get More Involved?, Jacob Peoples Nov 2016

The Conflict In Syria: Should The United States Get More Involved?, Jacob Peoples

Posters-at-the-Capitol

The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between Syria, Russia, and the United States in the Syrian civil war. The relationship has been in turmoil because of the complexities of the situation. Syria has been a designated state sponsor of terrorism since December 29, 1979, five years before the next designated state of Iran. Syria is a very important and strategic country and now more than ever has a large risk of being completely overrun by the newest terrorist group ISIS. The turmoil is possibly stemming initially from the result of a failed 1957 Central Intelligence Agency ...


The Western Sahara And The Search For The Roots Of Sahrawi National Identity, David Suarez Oct 2016

The Western Sahara And The Search For The Roots Of Sahrawi National Identity, David Suarez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work is a socio-historical study of the roots of Sahrawi national identity. The Sahrawi are a community of people who live in the Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony. Most of its territory has been occupied since 1975 by Morocco, which denies the existence of a distinctive population inhabiting the Western Sahara. In contrast, the POLISARIO Front, vanguard of the Sahrawi nationalist movement, argues that the Western Sahara belongs to the Sahrawi and seeks its full independence. It bases its claims on the notion of a distinctive history, language, and culture for the Sahrawi, separate from that of Moroccans ...


Review Of Eqbal Ahmad: Critical Outsider In A Turbulent Age, Nubar Hovsepian Oct 2016

Review Of Eqbal Ahmad: Critical Outsider In A Turbulent Age, Nubar Hovsepian

Political Science Faculty Articles and Research

A review of Eqbal Ahmad: Critical Outsider in a Turbulent Age by Stuart Schaar.


Continuous Care In Complex Contexts: Access To Health Services For Noncommunicable Diseases Among Syrian Refugee Women In Jordanian Host Communities, Jennifer Ostrowski Oct 2016

Continuous Care In Complex Contexts: Access To Health Services For Noncommunicable Diseases Among Syrian Refugee Women In Jordanian Host Communities, Jennifer Ostrowski

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study examines how, when and where Syrian refugee women living in a host community in central Jordan access health services related to noncommunicable diseases. Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but can be effectively managed through timely treatment. Examining access to care for these diseases in the context of humanitarian emergencies, such as war and displacement, is particularly important because they require continuous care, which may be interrupted during emergencies, and because they can cause acute complications, which may be exacerbated by emergencies (WHO, 2016).

Previous studies indicate a high burden of NCDs among ...


Syrian Refugee Women In Jordan: Family Planning Preferences And Barriers In A Host Community, Hilary Smith Oct 2016

Syrian Refugee Women In Jordan: Family Planning Preferences And Barriers In A Host Community, Hilary Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The aims of this pilot study were to research and analyze the availability of birth control and family planning resources among Syrian refugee women at a reproductive age. This study took place in the host community of Karak, Jordan. Syrian women are a vulnerable population based solely on their gender. But being refugee women makes them more vulnerable and sometimes, their needs do not get met. This study is important because it will look into reproductive health aspects for this vulnerable population to ensure that there is satisfaction among women about their own health. This cross-sectional study sought to answer ...


Human Creativity As A Vehicle For Societal Change: Can Social Action Through Art And Music Drive Positive Societal Change In Jordan?, Marina Qutab Oct 2016

Human Creativity As A Vehicle For Societal Change: Can Social Action Through Art And Music Drive Positive Societal Change In Jordan?, Marina Qutab

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This case study addresses a gap in the research on society and culture as it examines the relationship between social action through human creativity and positive societal change in Jordan. This relationship was studied through the following methods: six formal interviews with three Musicians, one Artist, one Organizational Behavior and Work Psychologist, and one Cognition and Didactics Researcher; one informal interview with a Jordanian taxi driver; and 30 oral surveys provided to students at The University of Jordan. The researcher’s main goal was to investigate how human creativity expressed through music and the arts can address current pressing environmental ...


Is Faith Truly The Reason For Our Security? A Study On The Extent To Which Islam Influences Jordanian National Security, Shynelle Kissi Oct 2016

Is Faith Truly The Reason For Our Security? A Study On The Extent To Which Islam Influences Jordanian National Security, Shynelle Kissi

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

After witnessing years of coups, war, and overall civil unrest in the Middle East, it comes as no surprise that there are many competing explanations for why this is. Much to the disbelief of the researcher, the average American’s theory for this was that the heavy influence of Islamic teachings in lawmaking prevented the successful implementation of democratic processes and overall peace in the region. However, Jordan appears to have evaded all forms of chaos, and remain peaceful despite also being a Muslim country. Why? Has Jordan escaped turmoil because unlike its neighbors it does not use Islam in ...


The Historical And Political Roots Of Isis: A Failure Of American Leadership, Benjamin R. Pontz Oct 2016

The Historical And Political Roots Of Isis: A Failure Of American Leadership, Benjamin R. Pontz

Student Publications

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has captivated the world’s attention with its brutal tactics of beheadings and burnings and its alternative Quranic teachings. Despite fixation on these tactics by the global community and repudiation of their methodology by global Islamic leaders, limited inquiry into the historical and ideological underpinnings of the group has occurred at an intergovernmental level, which has hamstrung the global response. In addition to analyzing the limited primary sources that constitute ISIS’s propaganda, this paper discusses the failure of state building after the United States’ initial invasion of Iraq, which directly fomented ...


Performing El Rap El ʿArabi 2005-2015: Feeling Politics Amid Neoliberal Incursions In Ramallah, Amman, And Beirut, Rayya S. El Zein Sep 2016

Performing El Rap El ʿArabi 2005-2015: Feeling Politics Amid Neoliberal Incursions In Ramallah, Amman, And Beirut, Rayya S. El Zein

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study is about politics in Arabic rap. Specifically, it is about affective dynamics and material negotiations during rap concerts in three cities in the Levant. I analyze Arab hip hop culture in the context of three different but related histories of cosmopolitan, middle class growth, and gentrification. Using an ethnomusicological framework rooted in participant observation and performance theory, I compare concert conditions, audience behavior, and accessibility of music production in Ramallah, Amman, and Beirut.

In Chapter One, I elaborate the discursive and theoretical frameworks that have pinned the political valences of Arab youth, Arab artists, and Arab rappers in ...


The Tying Of The Ceremonial Wedding Thread: A Feminist Analysis Of “Ritual” And “Tradition” Among Syro-Malabar Catholics In India, Sonja Thomas Sep 2016

The Tying Of The Ceremonial Wedding Thread: A Feminist Analysis Of “Ritual” And “Tradition” Among Syro-Malabar Catholics In India, Sonja Thomas

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article presents a feminist analysis of patriarchy persisting in Catholicism of the Syro-Malabar rite in Kerala. The article specifically considers the impact of charismatic Catholicism on women of the Syro-Malabar rite and argues that it is important to interrogate this new face of religiosity in order to fully understand how certain rituals are allowed to change and be fluid, while others, especially concerning female sexuality, are enshrined as “tradition” which often restricts the parameters for women’s empowerment and may reinforce caste and patriarchal hegemonies preventing feminist solidarity across different religious- and caste-based groups.


A Targeted Approach? A Study Of Ngo Roles And Practices In Promoting Economic Development, Emma Shoaf Sep 2016

A Targeted Approach? A Study Of Ngo Roles And Practices In Promoting Economic Development, Emma Shoaf

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

In recent years, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have become key actors promoting economic development. Despite their rapid rise, there are still significant gaps in the development sphere regarding what NGOs do in specific contexts. This research evaluates how NGOs promote economic development among Palestinian refugees in Lebanon to give context to general trends within development literature. Through an in-depth case study of the NGO Cives Mundi and their recent development project Tatreez–focused on promoting economic empowerment among Palestinian refugee women through the formation of a weaving co-op–this study seeks to evaluate key advantages and disadvantages to NGO work in ...


Baha’I Sacred Architecture And The Devolution Of Astronomical Significance: Case Studies From Israel And The Us, Michael Steven Meizler Aug 2016

Baha’I Sacred Architecture And The Devolution Of Astronomical Significance: Case Studies From Israel And The Us, Michael Steven Meizler

Theses and Dissertations

Sacred architecture is a complex conglomerate of different ideals of a faith. Within modern terms, the Baha’i faith is an excellent example of modern sacred architecture. Within ancient times the architecture of temples and shrines oftentimes had celestial alignments meant to connect the adherent to the gods. With this in mind, the Baha’i faith is evaluated with the use of cartography, celestial measurements, orthophotography, and archival research to evaluate the significance of the Baha’i sacred architecture and the symbolism embedded within it. The Baha’i faith came out of Persia during the 19th century and relocated to ...


Negotiating The Politics Of Representation In Iranian Women’S Cinema Before And After The Islamic Revolution, Alshaatha Sultan Al Sharji Aug 2016

Negotiating The Politics Of Representation In Iranian Women’S Cinema Before And After The Islamic Revolution, Alshaatha Sultan Al Sharji

Theses and Dissertations

From Mahvash, the Iranian entertainer who sang and danced coquettishly in numerous Iranian films that were produced before the Islamic revolution of 1979, to the skateboarding vampire girl who makes a feast out of abusive men in Ana Lily Amirpour’s A Girl Walks Home Alone at Night, the representation of Iranian women on screen has changed drastically. This comparative study focuses on the politics of representation of Iranian women in the cinema before and after the Islamic revolution, with the aim of deconstructing the readily-available notions of women’s oppression in Iran. It analyzes the works of female Iranian ...


Youth…Power…Egypt: The Development Of Youth As A Sociopolitical Concept And Force In Egypt, 1805-1923, Matthew Blair Parnell Aug 2016

Youth…Power…Egypt: The Development Of Youth As A Sociopolitical Concept And Force In Egypt, 1805-1923, Matthew Blair Parnell

Theses and Dissertations

This study focuses on youth as a symbol, metaphor, and subject involved in processes related to Egypt’s modernization, colonization, and liberation from the beginning of the nineteenth century through the 1919 Egyptian Revolution. It demonstrates that youth was not simply an unchanging stage of development between childhood and adulthood, but a construct reflecting the political, Social, and cultural interests of specific eras and perspectives. I critically analyze the local and global discourses on Egypt’s modernization, colonialism, and nationalist movement to understand how changing power relations within and outside the country affected conceptions of youth and youthfulness. Additionally, I ...


#Warcrimes #Postconflictjustice #Balkans: Youth, Performance Activism And The Politics Of Memory, Arnaud Kurze Jul 2016

#Warcrimes #Postconflictjustice #Balkans: Youth, Performance Activism And The Politics Of Memory, Arnaud Kurze

Department of Justice Studies Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

While literature in transitional justice has addressed conventional retributive and restorative justice mechanisms, scholarship focusing on the rise in youth activism to confront war crimes is underdeveloped. This article draws on over two-dozen in-depth interviews with youth activist leaders across the former Yugoslavia, focusing on their performance-based campaigns. I explain why the emergence of transitional justice youth activism in the Balkans falls short of the significant institutional reforms of earlier youth movement mobilizations in the region. I also throw light on why their performance activism is distinct from practices of older, established human rights organizations in the region. Notwithstanding, I ...


Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick Jul 2016

Abu Muhammad Al-Adnani’S May 21, 2016 Speech: More Evidence For Extreme Marginalization, Implosion, And The Islamic State Organization’S Certain Future As A Hunted Underground Ultra-Takfiri Terrorist Criminal Entity, Paul Kamolnick

ETSU Faculty Works

Excerpt: On May 21, 2016 a 31-minute audio file by Islamic State Organization (ISO) chief spokesman Abu Muhammad al-Adnani (real name: Taha Sobhi Falaha) was uploaded by the ISO’s Al Furqan Media outlet onto the internet.


What All Americans Should Know About Women In The Muslim World: An Introduction, Amy Y. Evrard Jul 2016

What All Americans Should Know About Women In The Muslim World: An Introduction, Amy Y. Evrard

What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World

This brief introduction to the “What All Americans Should Know About Women in the Muslim World” series provides information about women in the Muslim world, why they are important for Americans to understand, some challenges that arise in the study of Muslim women, and what these particular papers bring to bear on the topic.


"With My People": Tunisia’S Lgbt Ngos And Activists, Meagan Burt Jul 2016

"With My People": Tunisia’S Lgbt Ngos And Activists, Meagan Burt

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Tunisian Revolution brought a sharp increase in the number of NGOs in the country, as well as a plethora of new rights which were unprecedented during the reign of former leader Ben Ali. Among these new organizations were those which specialized in progressing LGBT rights. The current laws in Tunisia, established during the French protectorate era, criminalize homosexuality and vaguely worded disgraces to public dignity. The revolution has allowed these organizations to exist and politically oppose these laws, yet LGBT Tunisians still experience a harassment, arrests, and intrusive anal examinations.

This study compares three LGBT NGOs – Damj, Mawjoudin, and ...


Self Sufficiency In Refugees, Sarah Zayed Jul 2016

Self Sufficiency In Refugees, Sarah Zayed

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Syrian refugee crisis has taken the world by storm as it is not only a Jordanian issue or a Middle Eastern issue but rather it is a humanitarian crisis. The intent of this research is to study Syrian refugees living in Jordan whom are living outside of refugee camps and their level of self-sufficiency. A few ideas the researcher has kept in mind throughout this study are: Are refugees working in the same fields as they did in Syria? Does Jordan really invest in these workers? What is the Syrian point of view? What is the Jordanian government point ...


The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law Jul 2016

The Franchising Effect On The Al-Qaeda Enterprise And Related Transnational Terror Groups: Patterns Of Evolution Of Al-Qaeda Affiliates In The 21st Century, Nicholas Benjamin Law

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The attacks of September 11, 2001 by Al-Qaeda-sponsored militants represented a high- water mark for the terrorist organization in its self-styled journey to become the inspirational Islamic vanguard for disenchanted Muslims across the globe. In the years that followed these attacks, the Al-Qaeda enterprise underwent a constant rate of evolution and mutation, resulting in a phenomenon of parallel and like-minded Islamist groups pledging allegiance to Usama bin Laden and his ideological vision of a global jihad. Instead of strengthening the overall organization, this expansion diluted the command and control of Al-Qaeda senior leaders in their ability to shape the overall ...


Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel Jul 2016

Assessing The Role Of The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ Extraterritorial Activities In Attaining Iran’S Foreign Policy Goals, Hamza Demirel

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation aims at analyzing the role of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps’ (IRGC) extraterritorial activities in attaining Iran’s foreign policy goals. Based on observations and assessments from internal and external determinants, Iran’s foreign policy goals are defined as follows: regime survival, which is an indispensable goal of Iranian foreign policy, is above everything; state security and survival; projecting power and becoming the dominant power in the region.

The regime has deliberately supported several armed non-state actors to achieve the aforementioned goals, and as seen in the case studies, the IRGC has served as a node in providing ...