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2013

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Full-Text Articles in Near and Middle Eastern Studies

Appendix 7: Open Source Information On The Fate(S) Of Perpetrators/Conspirators, Lee Crowther, Brian Champion Dec 2013

Appendix 7: Open Source Information On The Fate(S) Of Perpetrators/Conspirators, Lee Crowther, Brian Champion

All Faculty Publications

Between 1979 and 2010, a number of Iranian expatriates were assassinated by putative agents of the Iranian or by persons believed to be associated with the regime. This table collects information from open sources that describes judicial or fugitive outcomes for some of the alleged perpetrators.


I Am Bedu: The Changing Bedouin In A Changing World, Nancy Allison Browning Dec 2013

I Am Bedu: The Changing Bedouin In A Changing World, Nancy Allison Browning

Theses and Dissertations

Change occurs throughout the world on a daily basis, and as a result, its inhabitants are encouraged to change as well. The population learns to adapt in various ways in order to survive, often times causing traditional practices to be forced aside in order to make way for more modern methods. Today, the Bedouin lifestyle is no longer limited to the classification of a pastoral nomad, located in the desert living in goat-hair tents, and herding camels. While there are several factors that could be taken into consideration in order to unpack what it means to be a Bedouin in ...


"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi Nov 2013

"Turkish Rambo": Geopolitical Dramas As Narrative Counter-Hegemony, Marwan M. Kraidy, Omar Al-Ghazzi

Departmental Papers (ASC)

Arabs and Turks share a historically complicated relationship. After 400 years of Ottoman imperialism over Arab lands that lasted until after World War 1, Turkish leader Mustafa kemal Atatürk's secularized Turkey and cut linguistic ties with Arab culture. Secularism, nationalism and NATO membership during the second half of the 20th century further distanced Turkey from Arab countries. This changed in 2001 with the rise of the Justice and Development Party (known by its Turkis acronym AKP). Incorporating electoral politics in a pro-business platform reflecting the AKP's pious and entrepreneurial constituency in Anatolian cities, the AKP has consolidated power ...


Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson Nov 2013

Citation Filtered: Iran’S Censorship Of Wikipedia, Nima Nazeri, Collin Anderson

Iran Media Program

Using proxy servers in Iran, researchers Collin Anderson and Nima Nazeri identified every blocked Persian language Wikipedia article and divided blocked pages into ten categories to determine the type of content state censors are most adverse. In total, 963 blocked articles were found, covering a range of socio-political and sexual content including politics, journalism, the arts, religion, sex, sexuality, and human rights. Censors repeatedly targeted Wikipedia pages about government rivals, minority religious beliefs, and criticisms of the state, officials, and the police. Just under half of the blocked Wiki-pages are biographies, including pages about individuals the authorities have allegedly detained ...


Book Review: The Arab Spring, Democracy And Security: Domestic And International Ramifications, Efraim Inbar (Ed), Zenonas Tziarras Oct 2013

Book Review: The Arab Spring, Democracy And Security: Domestic And International Ramifications, Efraim Inbar (Ed), Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

To oer analysis on an on going political event is always a challenging task. Yet, the “Arab Spring” has given rise to many questions about the past, the present and the future of the Arab world and the Middle East more generally. The Arab Spring, Democracy and Security:Domesc and International Ramifications addresses some of these questions. The chapters of this edited volume have been written by selected Israeli scholars focusing on “issues such as democratization, the role of economic factors in political change and explanations for variations in regime stability in the Middle East.” The relationship between ...


Turkey-Egypt: Turkish Model, Political Culture And Regional Power Struggle, Zenonas Tziarras Oct 2013

Turkey-Egypt: Turkish Model, Political Culture And Regional Power Struggle, Zenonas Tziarras

Zenonas Tziarras

This paper argues that although, during the governance of the Muslim Brotherhood, the promotion of the Turkish model through political and economic support was welcomed in Egypt, it is not compatible with the country and cannot be emulated, while there are also different perceptions about the matter on the elite and mass political culture levels. Moreover, based on the political culture(s) of the county, it is very likely that future governments in Egypt would want to assume a greater regional role. Ultimately this means that the Turkish model would have failed as a means of soft power and hegemony ...


Wide Open Spaces: The Pkk Shows Violent Non-State Actors Need More Than Weak Governance To Thrive, Katherine Holmes Oct 2013

Wide Open Spaces: The Pkk Shows Violent Non-State Actors Need More Than Weak Governance To Thrive, Katherine Holmes

Ex-Patt Magazine

The PKK in Turkey shows transnational, violent non-state actors operate in weak states for a number of reasons. The most prevalent of these is the host state’s inability to sustain the basic requirement of statehood.


Containment And The Shah: How Eisenhower And The Cia Brought Down Democracy And Encouraged Corrupt Leadership In Iran, Ellie Holliday Oct 2013

Containment And The Shah: How Eisenhower And The Cia Brought Down Democracy And Encouraged Corrupt Leadership In Iran, Ellie Holliday

Ex-Patt Magazine

U.S. relations with Iran are beginning to thaw. Why were they frozen to begin with?


The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick Oct 2013

The Egyptian Islamic Group’S Critique Of Al-Qaeda’S Interpretation Of Jihad, Paul Kamolnick

ETSU Faculty Works

A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad) regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif). In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya) use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.


Gauging The Gender Divide In The Middle East’S Educational System: Causes, Concerns, And The Impetus For Change, Nadia B. Ahmad Sep 2013

Gauging The Gender Divide In The Middle East’S Educational System: Causes, Concerns, And The Impetus For Change, Nadia B. Ahmad

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey Sep 2013

An Unpredictable Gospel: American Evangelicals And World Christianity, 1812–1920, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

No abstract provided.


Appendix 4: Selected Putative Iranian-Perpetrated Extraterritorial Killings And Attempted Killings Of Non-Iranians, 1980-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Aug 2013

Appendix 4: Selected Putative Iranian-Perpetrated Extraterritorial Killings And Attempted Killings Of Non-Iranians, 1980-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

Appendix 4 documents selected attempts (successful or otherwise) made on the lives of non-Iranians outside of Iran for which some allegation was made that Iran itself, at an official or quasi-official level, was responsible. The appendix documents twenty incidents taking place between June 1980 and February 2012 targeting twenty-six individuals.


Imagining Kurdish Identity In Mandatory Syria: Finding A Nation In Exile, Ahmet Serdar Akturk Aug 2013

Imagining Kurdish Identity In Mandatory Syria: Finding A Nation In Exile, Ahmet Serdar Akturk

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation looks at the activities of the Kurdish nationalists from Turkey who were exiled in Syria and Lebanon during the period of the French mandate, and especially Jaladet and Kamuran Bedirkhan. Scions of a princely Kurdish family from the Botan region in Eastern Anatolia, the Bedirkhan brothers initiated a Kurdish cultural movement in exile following the failure of two armed rebellions against the new Turkish Republic in 1925 and 1930. Central to this cultural movement was the publication of journals in Damascus and Beirut, namely Hawar (1932-1943) Ronahi (1942-1945), Roja Nu/Le Jour Nouveau (1943-1946), and Ster (1943-1945).

This ...


Teachers' Perceptions Toward Implementing English As A Foreign Language At Kindergarten: What Can We Learn From The Case Of Kuwaiti Kindergarten Teachers?, Kawthar M. Habeeb Aug 2013

Teachers' Perceptions Toward Implementing English As A Foreign Language At Kindergarten: What Can We Learn From The Case Of Kuwaiti Kindergarten Teachers?, Kawthar M. Habeeb

Theses and Dissertations

The teaching of English as a foreign language has a promising outlook in the nation of Kuwait. Recent policy reflects language development theories that see early childhood as an especially good period for the learning of a foreign language. Thus, English is now taught at 30 public kindergartens in Kuwait. However, the program apparently was implemented quickly, with little consideration for how teachers and other stakeholders would respond to it. This paper explores that program in the context of the perceptions and views of teachers affected by it.

A review of the existing curriculum points towards deficiencies, and investigation of ...


The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri Jul 2013

The Transformation Of The Pkk (Kurdistan Workers' Party): Exploring Domestic, Regional, And Global Dynamics, Akin Guneri

Graduate Program in International Studies Theses & Dissertations

The main purpose of this study is to explore the underlying factors behind the political and ideological transformation of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) since its foundation. Through the detailed analysis of the role of Turkey's internal versus external factors on the evolution of the PKK over time, this work finds that changing political developments in the Middle East were more influential than Turkey's shifting domestic political environment. Hypothesis testing revealed that the 1991 Gulf War, 2003 Iraq War, changing political dynamics of the Middle East following Syria's Arab Spring, and policy changes worldwide implemented after the ...


The Endurance Of Arab Authoritarian Regimes: A Study Of Jordan And Algeria, Stacey Berger Jun 2013

The Endurance Of Arab Authoritarian Regimes: A Study Of Jordan And Algeria, Stacey Berger

Honors Theses

The endurance of Arab authoritarian regimes has been quite daunting, especially with the rise of the Arab Spring. Some Arab regimes have ruled with domination and repression since the nineteenth century. These regimes stand out globally with respect to the number of democratic countries. Even with the recent rebellions, the rise of the Arab Spring, starting in 2011, a number of Arab regimes still continue to thrive and remain intact under authoritarian rule. This includes quite a number of Arab states that have faced uprisings during the Arab Spring, but have not implemented a new democratic system or elected a ...


Moving Forward From The Arab Spring: Predicting The Level Of Democracy In A Nation Post-Revolution, Faraz Khan Jun 2013

Moving Forward From The Arab Spring: Predicting The Level Of Democracy In A Nation Post-Revolution, Faraz Khan

Honors Theses

The Arab Spring consisted of a series of revolutions throughout the Arab world that attempted to remove dictatorial powers and institute democratic reform. However, the events after the Arab Spring beg the question of whether these nations will achieve their intended ends. Various factors have been identified to affect the level of democracy in nation including income levels, colonization history, and income inequality, among others. However, recent literature focuses on the role that cultural values play in affecting the development of political institutions. Cultural values play an interesting role during political disequilibrium. Revolutions represent the breakdown of formal institutions. During ...


It Can And Must Be Done, Foreword, Donna M. Hughes Dr. May 2013

It Can And Must Be Done, Foreword, Donna M. Hughes Dr.

Donna M. Hughes

No abstract provided.


The History Of Nusayris ('Alawis) In Ottoman Syria, 1831-1876, Ali Capar May 2013

The History Of Nusayris ('Alawis) In Ottoman Syria, 1831-1876, Ali Capar

Theses and Dissertations

The Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire experienced significant events, such as the Egyptian invasion, the Tanzimat Reforms and the increasing activities of Protestant missionaries between 1831 and 1876. In this thesis, I tried to analyze the course of the Ottoman-Nusayri relationship between 1831 and 1876, the treatment of the Ottoman government toward the Nusayris, outcomes of the Egyptians and the Ottoman reforms in the region and among the Nusayris, the reaction of the Nusayris to these reform policies, and the activities of the Protestant missionaries among the Nusayri community.


Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith May 2013

Woes Of The Arkansas Internationalist: J. William Fulbright, The Middle East, And The Death Of American Liberalism, Mitchell Smith

Theses and Dissertations

Contemporary scholarship has shown that J. William Fulbright's defeat in 1974 was due to a plethora of reasons including his opposition to America's involvement in Vietnam, lackadaisical attitude towards the monolithic threat of Communism, connection to the Washington establishment amidst the Watergate scandal, and old age. Scholars, however, have not paid enough attention to the role Fulbright's Middle Eastern stances played in his final election campaign. I seek to place the voice of Arkansans in the national and international political discussions and show that, despite their relatively unfocused interest in Middle Eastern affairs (and perhaps because of ...


The Consciousness Of Water: Narrative Flows, Environmental Change, And The Voice Of Yemen, Tricia Nellessen May 2013

The Consciousness Of Water: Narrative Flows, Environmental Change, And The Voice Of Yemen, Tricia Nellessen

Theses and Dissertations

Icebergs are melting in the Arctic. The Gulf of Mexico is warming and producing hurricanes such as Katrina. The delta of the southern United States is drying. And, Yemen will be the first country in modern history to experience a lack of accessible ground water, as soon as 2017 possibly. Yemen's situation has been tracked by scholars and governments since the 1960s. Despite this fact, cities have expanded in Yemen and the population has increased its use of water while little has been invested in desalination or infrastructure to offset growth. Climate change has affected humans for thousands of ...


Considering Kranzhügeln: An Exploration Into The Structural Variation And Environmental/Spatial Distribution Of The Third Millennium "Kranzhügel" Sites, Elise Jakoby May 2013

Considering Kranzhügeln: An Exploration Into The Structural Variation And Environmental/Spatial Distribution Of The Third Millennium "Kranzhügel" Sites, Elise Jakoby

Theses and Dissertations

First named by von Oppenheim over a century ago, the distinctive third millennium BC kranzhügeln, or "wreath-mound," sites of the Syrian Desert remain a poorly understood phenomenon. While archaeological investigations have been undertaken at a handful of kranzhügel-like sites including Tell Chuera, Tell al-Rawda, and Tell Beydar, the overall number, geographic distribution, and morphological variation of so-called "kranzhügel" sites remains largely unexplored.

1960s-era CORONA satellite imagery available through the CORONA Atlas Project (http://corona.cast.uark.edu/) now enables more systematic documentation of the kranzhügel sites and the production site-scale visual and quantitative analysis. Analysis of kranzhügel distribution and ...


U.S. State Department International Law Internship And Employment Presentation And Discussion, Andrew A. Passen Famu Diplomat-In Residence Apr 2013

U.S. State Department International Law Internship And Employment Presentation And Discussion, Andrew A. Passen Famu Diplomat-In Residence

Environmental and Animal Law

The Center for International Law & Justice presents a discussion and presentation by Andrew A. Passen, a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, who is currently serving as Diplomat-in-Residence covering the southeast U.S. and is based at Florida A & M University in Tallahassee.


Global Futures And Government Towns: Phosphates And The Production Of Western Sahara As A Space Of Contention, Mark Drury Apr 2013

Global Futures And Government Towns: Phosphates And The Production Of Western Sahara As A Space Of Contention, Mark Drury

Publications and Research

The study of natural resources lends itself to theorizing the politics of nature and the politics of time. The space of Western Sahara, where both remain highly contested, provides an opportunity to consider the ramifications of resources in political conflict at different historical moments. Drawing from environmental histories of North Africa and the Sahara, as well as the anthropology of time, the author focuses on two historical moments. The first, from 1945 to 1972, concerns the discovery of phosphate deposits during the Spanish colonial period and the implications of this discovery for political authority in the Sahara more broadly. The ...


Appendix 1: Selected, Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Attempts To Kill Iranian Expatriates, 1979-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Mar 2013

Appendix 1: Selected, Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Attempts To Kill Iranian Expatriates, 1979-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

In “Appendix 1,” we document attempted killings that meet the following criteria: (1) The attempt was made against one or more Iranians. (2) The attempt took place outside of Iran. (3) Some allegation was made that the state of Iran was at least partially responsible for the attempt.

We are far from the first to document allegedly Iran-sponsored attempts to kill Iranian expatriates. However, we attempt to fill a gap in the literature by combining breadth, detail, and a thorough citation of sources consulted.

Our survey begins with the 1979 assassination of Shahriar Shafigh in Paris and continues up to ...


Appendix 3: An Interlinear Comparison Of Six Chronologies Documenting Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Extraterritorial Attempted Killings, 1979-1996, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Mar 2013

Appendix 3: An Interlinear Comparison Of Six Chronologies Documenting Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Extraterritorial Attempted Killings, 1979-1996, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

In "Appendix 3," we compare six of the sources cited in "Appendix 1." While many of our sources focus on a single event, each of the six we investigate here alleges Iranian state responsibility for a pattern of attempted killings outside Iran. Due to the larger scope of the six sources, we here refer to them as chronologies.


Appendix 5: Selected Worldwide Expatriate Killings And Attempted Killings, 1978-2011, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Mar 2013

Appendix 5: Selected Worldwide Expatriate Killings And Attempted Killings, 1978-2011, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

Appendix 5 documents thirty-eight attempts (successful or otherwise) on fifty expatriates for which some allegation was made that the target's own state, at an official or quasi-official level, was responsible.


Appendix 6: Selected Cases Of Targeted Killings And Attempted Killings Around The World, 1979-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Mar 2013

Appendix 6: Selected Cases Of Targeted Killings And Attempted Killings Around The World, 1979-2012, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

Appendix 6 documents selected instances for which some allegation exists that a state, at an official or quasi-official level, was responsible for an extraterritorial attempt (successful or otherwise) on the lives of citizens of other states.


Islamophobia Only A Short Chapter In The Muslim-West Story, Muqtedar Khan Feb 2013

Islamophobia Only A Short Chapter In The Muslim-West Story, Muqtedar Khan

Muqtedar Khan

The short essay argues that there many positive elements that should not be marginalized while examining the rise of islamophobia in the West.


Appendix 2: Selected, Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Attempts To Kill Iranian Expatriates, 1979-2010, By Locale, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther Jan 2013

Appendix 2: Selected, Allegedly Iran-Sponsored Attempts To Kill Iranian Expatriates, 1979-2010, By Locale, Brian Champion, Lee Crowther

All Faculty Publications

In "Appendix 2," we compile geographic data from "Appendix 1." In "Appendix 1," we documented attempted killings which met the following criteria: (1) The attempt was made against one or more Iranians. (2) The attempt took place outside of Iran. (3) Some allegation was made that the state of Iran was at least partially responsible for the attempt. In "Appendix 2," we document locales, local in table 2.1 and by state in table 2.2, in which the 77 events documented in "Appendix 1" took place.